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Penelope - Cliffs Notes

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Penelope - Cliffs Notes

Biblical Passage Outline Essay Sample. The biblical passage is derived from Psalms 23:1-6 and was written by David. David wrote it when he was under difficult situations. The whole chapter has the penelope odyssey, words of faith, which David had in God. It also gives details on how God was merciful as he strengthens David to overcome the difficulties which he was going through. David was tempted to worry about his life, hence he resorted to seek refuge to God he had believed in. In the chapter he wrote how God is his shepherded and how he will take care of him despite of 1 corinthians what he is going through and he had faith in him that he shall overcome the penelope odyssey, temptations he was going through. Introduction of the book (Psalms) The book has songs and poems written by different authors. It is the only book in the bible which has most songs and Worldview, poems which are if a wide range of authors. The poems address issues of praising and worshiping the Lord while others are individual experiences like David (Montgomery 2005 60).

The poems and prayers in psalms are over several centuries with approximate a third of them being anonymous. They are rich in content for penelope odyssey quotes, teachings, especially for life experiences like the one being discussed in this exegesis. Movement. David in verse 1 wrote The LORD is quotes my Shepherd; I shall not be in want. David started by emphasizing about the LORD, this emphases shows that David had a lot of faith in him and here he singled out prolife, that it is one God whom he was referring to who is also his shepherded. The use of penelope quotes is in his statement shows that the scientific movement, lord was his shepherded at the present situation he is in and not in the future. He was very possessive when he stated that the lord is his Shepherd shows that it was personal to him. It shows he had a personal relationship with the Lord whom he was convinced is penelope odyssey his Lord (Allen 1969 103). Shepherd to David meant a provider, in Hebrews 13:20 it described Lord as a great shepherd meaning that he provides and protect his folks.

David specifies that personally now and in the future he will never be in a need which will not be met. Scientific. The lord shall provide all his needs because he is a caring shepherd. David wrote He makes me lie down in green pastures, he leads me besides quiet waters. Penelope Odyssey Quotes. This verse concentrates more on David having peace and to Geometry, comfort despite of the problems he was going through. It makes one visualize cool quiet green pasture full of peace and a sense of comfort by lounging there. This demonstrates that God shall bring comfort to David and those who believe in him.

David wrote that he is penelope quotes being lead besides quite waters. Quite waters means refreshing and a cool place which shows comfort. In the New Testament John wrote in John 4:37-38 that those who believe in him (the Lord) they shall have rivers of 13:8-10 living water flowing from penelope odyssey, their berries. Krishna/Hinduism Essay. The water here meant comfort, meaning they shall experience comfort and what comes from them will be beneficial to the rest and it will give life to them despite the quotes, difficulties one would be experiencing. It also shows how the Shepherds take care of their flocks; he is the one who is leading David besides the quite waters to demonstrate how he cares. These means, that he will put David and Euclid's to Geometry, those who believe in him at his place which is described as a green pasture. David wrote He restores my soul.

He guides me in paths of righteousness for penelope, his names sake. This verse starts with a message of comfort that he restores. David made it personal here that he is restoring his soul after it had been troubled. Restoration is Worldview done after destructions meaning once difficulties have ruined you down to a level of desperation and despair or being low in your faith the Lord shall restore you to the original status. Penelope Odyssey. It also explains further on the guidance of the shepherd how he guides through paths of righteousness for his glorification. This is the ones from a comforting message that David was not told to go through paths of righteousness alone but he was lead. Meaning that those who shall believe in the Lord shall be lead, they dont have to worry on how they shall be righteous because the lord shall do it for his glorification. This also proves that righteousness belongs to the Lord and he gives it to those who shall believe in him. Quotes. Mathew wrote in Mathew 6:33 that first we seek the kingdom of God then seek his righteousness and all the other things shall be added to us. David wrote Even though I walk through the valley of the shadow of death, I will fear no evil, for you are with me; your rod and to Geometry, your staff, they comfort me. The verse relates well with the shepherd, the flocks mostly pass through valleys where there could be predators. This is penelope odyssey signified by the way David lived and how people live at times when one goes through difficulties which would be termed as darkness and Krishna/Hinduism Essay, fear which resembles death.

Despite the fact that David went through difficulties which some one else would as well go through he feared no evil. This portrays the penelope quotes, courage and faith he had with the Lord, he knew his Lord is Krishna/Hinduism Worldview Essay with him and being a good shepherd he will protect him of penelope quotes all evil. Example Of Social. The bible had mentioned fear not severally for example in Luke 2:10 the angles met the shepherd while they were looking after their flocks at penelope quotes, night when they delivered the message to Krishna/Hinduism them that Jesus Christ had been born in the city of David. The angles told them Fear not: for, behold, I bring you good tidings of great joy. Quotes. This was an assurance that they should not fear because God shall be with them. The verse ends with two things which comforted David, the rod and the staff. Shepherds usually have a rod which they use to keeps away predators and the Lords staffs are used by the Lord to Krishna/Hinduism direct the flocks (Barker and Kohlenberger 1994 96). The rod of the odyssey quotes, shepherd would also be used to discipline the flocks which go astray. Prolife Prochoice. Meaning that the Lord shall also discipline those who will wrong him.

David wrote You prepare a table before me in the presence of my enemies. You anoint my head with oil; my cup overflows. The verse starts by confirming the quotes, 1 st verse that he believes in prolife prochoice, the Lord who provides and he will not fail to get what he needs. In this verse he states that he will not only provide but also prepare a table before those who despise him. This show that even at times of difficulties he will still dine and be happy this is an assurance that God is with us even at times of difficulties. Odyssey Quotes. Use of the oil by the Lord to anoint David is a sense of refreshment which would be physical and spiritual after undergoing difficulties (Gray 1999 89). The verse ends with stating that God will provide indefinitely, the supply shall never end this is depicted by Davids cup overflowing no matter how much he takes. This teaches us that the Lord shall provide endlessly to those who believe in him. David wrote Surely goodness and love will follow me all the days of my life, and I will dwell in the house of the 1 corinthians 13:8-10, LORD forever. This verse starts with a revelation on odyssey quotes the future days of 1 corinthians 13:8-10 Davids life that his future life shall be characterized by goodness and love.

Goodness is penelope a sense of free of evil or wrong doing, this mean that those who shall believe in movement, the Lord shall have a life free of evil or wrong doing. Love is the greatest commandment which Jesus gave which ties all the rest and penelope odyssey quotes, ensure that they are fulfilled (The King James Version, John 13:34). This is the love which Davids predicts that it shall as well be filled up in the lives of Lords believer. The verse ends with David personating that he shall dwell in Lords house forever. Contributions To Geometry. Here David finish by odyssey quotes depicting that the Lord who have been a good shepherd shall as well be with him for ever after his life here on earth is Krishna/Hinduism Worldview Essay over, he shall dwell in his house infinitely. Penelope Odyssey. This teaches us that once we believe in the Lord he will not only Krishna/Hinduism Essay, take good care of us when on earth but we shall have a chance to dwell with him in penelope quotes, his house in 13:8-10, eternity. Allen, C. The Broadman Bible commentary. Quotes. Nashville: Broadman Press, 1969.

Barker, K and Kohlenberger, J. Zondervan NIV Bible commentary. Mich: Zondervan, 1994. Gray, J. Christian workers#8217; commentary on that example of social is the Old New Testaments ; Mass: Hendrickson, 1999. Montgomery, J. Volume 1: Psalms 1-41. Peabody:Baker, 2005. The King James Version. Robert Couric, gen. Ed. New York: Doubleday, 1985. Is this the perfect essay for you?

Save time and order Biblical Passage Outline. essay editing for only $13.9 per page. Top grades and quality guaranteed! Relevant essay suggestions for Biblical Passage Outline. Quotes. Introduction Genesis 1-11 answers some of lifes biggest questions. 13:8-10. Questions like How were we created? What is our identity? How does sin affect our relationships with one another? Has what#8230; Biblical Worldview Essay. Quotes. In the Krishna/Hinduism Worldview, Book of Romans Paul wrote many letters answering questions about the human world, mankinds relations with God, the natural world and most importantly the plan of salvation. Paul#8230; So God created man in his own image, in the image of God created he him; male and female created he them. Genesis 1:27 A worldview is odyssey quotes your system of#8230; Explain biblical beliefs about the attributes of God. A) Explain biblical beliefs about the attributes of 13:8-10 God (25) Throughout the bible, many of the attributes of quotes God are shown.

Both Jews and Christians have views from the bible#8230; Biblical Worldview Essay. Introduction In Pauls letter to the Romans, he addresses some important aspects of Christian life. 1 Corinthians 13:8-10. How we should view the natural world, human identity, human relationships, and culture. Penelope. Paul touches#8230; Since becoming a Christian Genesis 1-11 has greatly impacted my worldview.

My worldview of the natural world is that God created everything out of nothing. My human identity worldview is#8230;

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How to Write a Cover Letter 40+ Free Templates. Writing a smart cover letter can get your foot in the door, even if you have a weak resume. This guide will help you to odyssey, write the best letter possible. Cover Letter Examples. Professionally-written cover letter samples. Cover Letter Designs. Beautifully arranged cover letter designs. Cover Letter Builder. Create your cover letter in 15 minutes.

How to Write a Resume. Learn how to write a resume in 3 Steps. Are you looking for a follow up email or letter instead? Check out prolife, our comprehensive Follow Up Guide. This is a very simply written guide follow it, and you will land interviews faster. Dont forget to double check! Be sure to use our checklist to quotes, easily find out what you may be missing on your letter. Movement! It is free to penelope, download. Click Here to Download. Our Cover Letter Checklist.

Cover letters are one page documents that you send with your resume when applying for a job. It is meant to: Introduce yourself to the hiring manager. Argue why youd be a good fit for the job Fill in places your resume cannot describe Further explain other aspects of your resume. By hitting those 4 aspects, your letter can be a convincing and powerful companion to a well-written resume. If you want to see how a cover letter in your field should be written, then browse through our cover letter example library. To begin, include both the employers and your contact information.

See the example below: While the prolife example above demonstrates the information you need to include in penelope odyssey quotes the section, there are various ways to format it. Check out the cover letter designs below to get more ideas on how you can structure this section. No spelling or grammar errors! This one really goes without saying. 1 Corinthians 13:8-10! Spelling mistakes make an awful first impression.

Put yourself in the hiring managers shoes for penelope quotes a second. Would you like to Krishna/Hinduism Essay, be addressed as Dear Sir or Madame? or To whom it may concern? Dear Sir or Madame makes you sound like youre from the odyssey year 1865, and to whom it may concern is very irritating to hiring managers. You can easily avoid this problem by doing your research. Look through the companys website, LinkedIn, or even give the company a call to ask for the hiring managers name. Even if you get it wrong, it still looks like youve made an effort.

In the first paragraph, begin by telling the employer the position you are applying for and how you learned about the prochoice opportunity. The rest of this paragraph should briefly present basic info about penelope yourself, including: degree, area of a nation that is an example of social democracy, study/expertise, and quotes your career goals in terms of how they align with the goals of the company. The second paragraph should respond directly to the job description written by is an of social democracy the hiring manager. Odyssey! Describe how your previous job experiences, skills, and Krishna/Hinduism Essay abilities will allow you to meet the companys needs. To make that easier, you can (and should) literally include words and phrases from the penelope odyssey job description in your cover letters. No bombast! The rule of a nation that is an democracy is, thumb is that youre allowed to quotes, be as boastful as you want so long as you have the evidence to movement, back it up ! To go the extra mile, do some research about the company, and try to find out what they are doing and why given the current state of their industry. In a third paragraph, explain how you can fit into that schema, and help push the company forward and achieve any goals you suspect they may have. The final paragraph is called the call to odyssey, action. Inform them that youd love to get interviewed.

Tell them that youll be in who walk away omelas full contact with them in a week if you dont hear back. Thank them for spending the time to read your letter. Aside from the penelope quotes content on the ones who walk omelas text the page, the actual look and odyssey feel of the document is also an important aspect of the a nation that is your letter. Elements such as margins, font size and style, and alignment all factor in to the hiring managers overall impression of you. Here are a few quick tips when styling your own: 1 1.5 margins are always a safe bet. If you are having trouble fitting everything on penelope odyssey one page, there is movement some wiggle room, but be careful not to make the content look crammed together.

Dont go below a 12-point font unless absolutely necessary. Anything below 12 can strain the eyes. Font style is really a matter of preference. Try to choose one that looks professional or that matches what the employer uses on penelope odyssey quotes their website. Keep in mind that different styles will change the size of the font. Krishna/Hinduism! Maintain a uniform alignment throughout. We suggest keeping all paragraphs left-aligned. Formatting For Applicant Tracking Systems.

If you dont know what an ATS is, you absolutely must read up on it before sending in penelope your next job application. Applicant tracking systems are mostly designed to read through resumes, sifting through keywords and key-phrases to statistically determine whether to prochoice, let you through to the next stage. 70% of odyssey, jobs are filled via an applicant tracking system. Some ATS software is designed to read through letters as well, while others are not. You might as well be completely prepared. The good news is that simply by Euclid's following the instructions weve written above, your letter should already be in good shape.

If youve responded directly to the hiring managers job description, and included language from it in your own your letter, you already have a high likelihood of hitting statistically important keywords and phrases. Yes, someone will read it. Will they read it carefully? It depends on the hiring manager. Some use the letters to penelope odyssey quotes, weed out candidates out of a huge stack, while others believe that the candidates interview skills are more important. Either way, youre going to need to 13:8-10, write a strong letter, in odyssey order to give yourself a higher chance of getting a job. Winning Cover Letter Templates for 1 corinthians All Copy, Paste, Fill in the Blank. Simply click the section that best reflects your current life situation and work experience, then choose the penelope odyssey quotes tone of cover letter that best suits your personality.

Before you start 5 tips for filling in these template letters: In our templates, youll be filling in the blanks that look like [this]. Heres some help for filling in these trickier ones: [insert positive trait] heres a list of movement, positive traits you can use to describe yourself [insert 1-3 soft skills] heres a list of quotes, soft skills you can use to describe your abilities [insert 1-3 hard professional skills] our cover letter samples or resume by industry pages should help you brainstorm [insert GPA] only insert if your GPA is above a 3.5 [insert your degree] style it this way, including the parentheses (BS Engineering) My name is [your name]. I am thrilled to be applying for the [position] role in your company. After reviewing your job description, its clear that youre looking for prolife an enthusiastic applicant that can be relied upon to fully engage with the role and develop professionally in a self-motivated manner. Given these requirements, I believe I am the perfect candidate for the job. I am a [insert positive trait] high school student [insert GPA] who has been consistently praised as [insert positive trait] by my teachers and peers. While working on academic and extracurricular projects, I have developed proven [insert 1-3 soft skills] skills, which I hope to leverage into the [name of open position] role at your company. After reviewing my resume, I hope you will agree that I am the type of positive and driven candidate that you are looking for.

I am excited to elaborate on how my specific skills and penelope quotes abilities will benefit your organization. Please contact me at [PHONE] or via email at 1 corinthians 13:8-10, [EMAIL] to arrange for a convenient meeting time. Thank you for your consideration, and I look forward to penelope, hearing from you soon. Confident (Authoritative) Tone. My name is [your name]. Thank you for the opportunity to apply for the [position] role at your company. Scientific Movement! After reviewing your job description, its clear that youre looking for a candidate that is extremely familiar with the penelope odyssey responsibilities associated with the role, and can perform them confidently. Given these requirements, I am certain that I have the necessary skills to successfully do the job adeptly and perform above expectations. I am a [insert positive trait] high school student [insert GPA] who has been consistently praised as [insert positive trait] by my teachers and peers.

While working on 13:8-10 academic and extracurricular projects, I have developed proven [insert 1-3 soft skills] skills, which I can leverage into the [position] role at your company. After reviewing my resume, I hope you will agree that I am the penelope odyssey type of competent and competitive candidate you are looking for. I look forward to elaborating on how my specific skills and abilities will benefit your organization. Please contact me at prolife prochoice, [PHONE] or via email at [EMAIL] to arrange for penelope odyssey a convenient meeting time. Thank you for your consideration, and I look forward to hearing from you soon. My name is [your name].

Im grateful for the opportunity to apply for the open [position] role at your company. After reviewing your job description, its clear that youre looking for a versatile candidate to handle the numerous and varied responsibilities associated with this role. Given these requirements, I am certain that I can meet and exceed all expectations. I am a [insert positive trait] high school student [insert GPA] who has been consistently praised as [insert positive trait] by my teachers and peers. While working on academic and 13:8-10 extracurricular projects, I have developed proven [insert 1-3 soft skills] skills, which I can leverage into odyssey quotes, the [position] role at your company. After reviewing my resume, I hope you will agree that I am the type of skilled and prolife resourceful candidate you are looking for. I look forward to elaborating on how my varied skillsets and abilities will benefit your organization. Please contact me at penelope quotes, [PHONE] or via email at [EMAIL] to arrange for a convenient meeting time. Thank you for that example of social democracy your consideration, and I look forward to hearing from you soon.

My name is [your name]. Please accept my application for the open [position] role at your company. Odyssey Quotes! After reviewing your job description, I believe that I have the necessary skills and a nation is an example democracy abilities to fill the role. I am a [insert positive trait] high school student [insert GPA] who has been consistently praised as [insert positive trait] by my teachers and peers. Odyssey! While working on academic and extracurricular projects, I have developed proven [insert 1-3 soft skills] skills, which I can leverage into the [position] role at your company. After reviewing my resume, I hope you will agree that I am the type of competent and reliable candidate that you are looking for. I look forward to elaborating on how I can help benefit your organization, and assist your business achieve its goals.

Please contact me at Euclid's Contributions, [PHONE] or via email at [EMAIL] to arrange for a convenient meeting time. Thank you for your consideration, and penelope odyssey quotes I look forward to hearing from you soon. My name is Krishna/Hinduism Essay [your name]. Penelope Odyssey! I am thrilled to Krishna/Hinduism Essay, be applying for the [position] role in your company. After reviewing your job description, its clear that youre looking for an enthusiastic applicant that can be relied upon to odyssey quotes, fully engage with the role and develop professionally in a self-motivated manner.

Given these requirements, I believe I am the perfect candidate for the job. I am a [insert positive trait] high school student ([insert GPA]) who has consistently been praised as [insert positive trait] by my teachers and Krishna/Hinduism Worldview Essay managers. During the course of my academic career, I also managed to accrue nearly [# of months/years of experience] of penelope quotes, work experience. I had the privilege of working for [your current companys name] in a [your current job title] role in prochoice my free time, where I learned valuable professional skills such as [insert 1-3 hard professional skills]. Whether working on penelope odyssey academic, extracurricular, or professional projects, I apply proven [insert 1-3 soft skills] skills, which I hope to leverage into the [position] role at your company. After reviewing my resume, I hope you will agree that I am the type of prolife prochoice, positive and quotes driven candidate that you are looking for. I am excited to 1 corinthians 13:8-10, elaborate on how my specific skills and quotes abilities will benefit your organization.

Please contact me at the ones away from omelas, [PHONE] or via email at [EMAIL] to arrange for a convenient meeting time. Thank you for your consideration, and odyssey I look forward to hearing from Krishna/Hinduism Worldview, you soon. My name is [your name]. Thank you for the opportunity to apply for the [position] role at your company. Penelope Quotes! After reviewing your job description, its clear that youre looking for a nation that example of social democracy a candidate that is extremely familiar with the quotes responsibilities associated with the role, and can perform them confidently.

Given these requirements, I am certain that I have the necessary skills to successfully do the job adeptly and Essay perform above expectations. I am a [insert positive trait] high school student ([insert GPA]) who has consistently been praised as [insert positive trait] by my teachers and managers. During the course of my academic career, I also managed to accrue nearly [# of months/years of penelope quotes, experience] of work experience. I had the privilege of working for [your current companys name] in a [your current job title] role in my free time, where I learned valuable professional skills such as [insert 1-3 hard professional skills]. Whether working on academic, extracurricular, or professional projects, I apply proven [insert 1-3 soft skills] skills, which I hope to leverage into the [position] role at your company. After reviewing my resume, I hope you will agree that I am the example of social type of competent and competitive candidate you are looking for. I look forward to elaborating on how my specific skills and quotes abilities will benefit your organization. Please contact me at [PHONE] or via email at [EMAIL] to arrange for a convenient meeting time. Thank you for your consideration, and I look forward to hearing from you soon. My name is 13:8-10 [your name]. Penelope Quotes! Im grateful for the opportunity to apply for the open [position] role at movement, your company.

After reviewing your job description, its clear that youre looking for a versatile candidate to handle the numerous and varied responsibilities associated with this role. Quotes! Given these requirements, I am certain that I can meet and Worldview exceed all expectations. I am a [insert positive trait] high school student ([insert GPA]) who has consistently been praised as [insert positive trait] by my teachers and penelope odyssey quotes managers. During the course of my academic career, I also managed to prochoice, accrue nearly [# of months/years of experience] of work experience. I had the penelope odyssey privilege of 13:8-10, working for [your current companys name] in a [your current job title] role in my free time, where I learned valuable professional skills such as [insert 1-3 hard professional skills]. Whether working on academic, extracurricular, or professional projects, I apply proven [insert 1-3 soft skills] skills, which I hope to leverage into the [position] role at your company. After reviewing my resume, I hope you will agree that I am the type of skilled and odyssey resourceful candidate you are looking for.

I look forward to elaborating on how my varied skillsets and abilities will benefit your organization. Please contact me at [PHONE] or via email at [EMAIL] to arrange for from omelas text a convenient meeting time. Thank you for your consideration, and penelope I look forward to hearing from you soon. My name is [your name]. Please accept my application for the open [position] role at Contributions to Geometry, your company. After reviewing your job description, I believe that I have the necessary skills and abilities to fill the role. I am a [insert positive trait] high school student ([insert GPA]) who has consistently been praised as [insert positive trait] by my teachers and managers.

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I am thrilled to be applying for the [position] role in your company. After reviewing your job description, its clear that youre looking for an enthusiastic applicant that can be relied upon to fully engage with the role and develop professionally in a self-motivated manner. Given these requirements, I believe I am the penelope quotes perfect candidate for the job. I am a [insert positive trait] recent high school graduate ([insert GPA]) who has been consistently praised as [insert positive trait] by 1 corinthians my teachers and peers. Penelope Quotes! While working on academic and extracurricular projects, I have developed proven [insert 1-3 soft skills] skills, which I hope to scientific movement, leverage into penelope odyssey, the [position] role at your company. After reviewing my resume, I hope you will agree that I am the type of positive and driven candidate that you are looking for. Euclid's Contributions! I am excited to elaborate on how my specific skills and abilities will benefit your organization. Please contact me at [PHONE] or via email at [EMAIL] to arrange for a convenient meeting time. Thank you for your consideration, and I look forward to hearing from quotes, you soon. My name is [your name].

Thank you for the opportunity to apply for the [position] role at your company. After reviewing your job description, its clear that youre looking for a candidate that is extremely familiar with the responsibilities associated with the prolife role, and can perform them confidently. Given these requirements, I am certain that I have the necessary skills to successfully do the job adeptly and perform above expectations. I am a [insert positive trait] recent high school graduate ([insert GPA]) who has been consistently praised as [insert positive trait] by my teachers and peers. While working on academic and extracurricular projects, I have developed proven [insert 1-3 soft skills] skills, which I can leverage into the [position] role at your company. After reviewing my resume, I hope you will agree that I am the penelope type of competent and competitive candidate you are looking for. I look forward to elaborating on how my specific skills and abilities will benefit your organization.

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After reviewing my resume, I hope you will agree that I am the type of competent and reliable candidate that you are looking for. I look forward to elaborating on how I can help benefit your organization, and assist your business achieve its goals. Please contact me at [PHONE] or via email at [EMAIL] to arrange for prolife prochoice a convenient meeting time. Thank you for your consideration, and I look forward to hearing from you soon. My name is [your name]. Odyssey! I am thrilled to Contributions, be applying for penelope the [position] role in to Geometry your company. After reviewing your job description, its clear that youre looking for an enthusiastic applicant that can be relied upon to penelope, fully engage with the role and prochoice develop professionally in a self-motivated manner.

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Overall, I have consistently demonstrated [insert 1-3 soft skills] abilities in every aspect of my [your current job title] role at [your current companys name], and I invite you to review my detailed achievements in penelope quotes the attached resume. After reviewing my resume, I hope you will agree that I am the type of skilled and resourceful candidate you are looking for. That Is An Example Of Social Democracy Is! I look forward to elaborating on how my varied skillsets and abilities will benefit your organization. Please contact me at [PHONE] or via email at [EMAIL] to arrange for a convenient meeting time. Thank you for your consideration, and I look forward to hearing from you soon. My name is penelope odyssey quotes [your name]. Please accept my application for 13:8-10 the open [position] role at your company. Penelope Quotes! After reviewing your job description, I believe that I have the necessary skills and abilities to 13:8-10, fill the role.

I am a [insert positive trait] professional [(insert your degree] who has been consistently praised as [insert positive trait] by my co-workers and management. Over the course of my [# of months/years of experience] career, Ive developed a skill set directly relevant to the [position] role you are hiring for, including [insert 1-3 hard professional skills]. Overall, I have consistently demonstrated [insert 1-3 soft skills] abilities in every aspect of my [your current job title] role at penelope quotes, [your current companys name], and I invite you to a nation that democracy, review my detailed achievements in the attached resume. After reviewing my resume, I hope you will agree that I am the penelope odyssey quotes type of competent and 1 corinthians 13:8-10 reliable candidate that you are looking for. I look forward to elaborating on how I can help benefit your organization, and assist your business achieve its goals. Please contact me at [PHONE] or via email at [EMAIL] to arrange for a convenient meeting time. Thank you for your consideration, and odyssey I look forward to hearing from you soon. Download HR-Approved Cover Letter Template Designs.

We provide 8 free downloadable cover letter designs. Just click the any template below to download the one that best suits you. I have Red Flags in my work or personal history should I address them in my Cover Letter? Red flags are a critical consideration to make when writing your cover letter. A red flag is something in your professional or personal history that could negatively impact the is an of social is way a hiring manager views your job application. While many red flags should be directly addressed in a cover letter, some others are best left for penelope odyssey quotes the job interview stage. The following list is of 8 of the biggest cover letter red flags. If any apply to prolife prochoice, you, click to penelope quotes, learn more about Euclid's how to effectively handle it so it doesnt become a roadblock in your efforts to secure your next job.

i need cover letter for my resume. You can either write your own cover letter with the guide above or use our software to build one instead. If you want to use our software just go to our homepage at https://resumegenius.com/ What about penelope quotes references? Can they go on the Resume or do I need a separate sheet for those? References should NOT be included on your resume nor should you write References Available Upon Request on your resume. The hiring manager will request that information from you at a later date if they are interested in doing so. (Note: If the employer ASKS you to include references with your application, obviously you should do that.) Thanks for your question! This has given me a better understanding in the resume field!

Glad we could help! Good luck on the job hunt! thanks. you have explained clearly what i need to do. We are glad that the article could help! I just applied for a $14/hr job on Indeed. After 6 years of working for the same company for $10/hr. 1 Corinthians! Im praying this cover letter is enough to land me the job. I converted the penelope odyssey quotes Sales Cover Letter into a Warehouse Manager cover letter. Of course I tweaked it to my specifications and Essays needs but it turned out to be one professional piece of work when I was finished.

I cant thank you all enough for this posting. Odyssey Quotes! Ill be back to from text, update if I land the job. We are happy to hear that as well! Hope to hear back from quotes, you soon. Euclid's Contributions! Keep us updated throughout the process and let us know if you have any interview questions. Best luck on your job hunt! This was definitely helpful. Recently I came across a job opening and they had asked for penelope odyssey a cover letter. I had no damn idea what a cover letter was. Googled it.. A Nation That Is An Democracy Is! nd came here.. im thankfull to you.. #128578;

We are glad that we were able to penelope, help you with your cover letter. Prolife! We hope you get the interview! I have a significant gap in full-time employment. I need to odyssey, create a cover letter that can briefly explain that gap. The template of a mother returning to work wont cut it, IMO. Do you have a template that matches my needs? Thanks in advance #128578; We regret that you werent able to find what you were looking for.

The stay at home mom resume is one of our most popular and has received a lot of positive feedback. We suggest that you check out our resume formats page: https://resumegenius.com/resume/resume-formats. You may want to consider using functional format to help cover up your work gaps. If you still need help, you may also want to consider signing for a subscription with us. We offer the Ask The Expert service, which gives you access to a professional resume writer.

Good luck on a nation example of social democracy is the job hunt! Hello I am applying for flight attendant position, but I have never worked in this position before. What title I need to put in the header of the resume? Our flight attendant sample has all the information you need to odyssey quotes, write your own resume. (https://resumegenius.com/resume/flight-attendant-resume-sample). Good luck on a nation that is an of social democracy the job hunt! I only have volunteer work how do I put that in a resume ? thanks you. Check out our How to Write a Resume writing guide. (https://resumegenius.com/how-to-write-a-resume) It should be helpful in answering your question.

Very true and informative. Just googled it and no doubt remains now. Penelope! Cover letter will be easy for me now. Glad you found our cover letter guide useful. Let us know if you have any additional questions. Good luck on the job hunt!

This was helpful. is it same for Student / Entry Level Cover Letter and Internship cover letter? We are glad you found our cover letter page useful. As far as your question goes, the scientific student cover letter above could be reworked for an internship application. Please let us know if you have any other questions. This helped me so much, Ive never written a cover letter before. Thank you so much RG! We are glad that the information is helpful!

Please feel free to read other related articles and let us know if you have any questions. Hey please i want to apply for a post of an penelope odyssey, armorer in the ministry of defense in 13:8-10 our country advertised in the dailies. Quotes! It wants people with high school education and i basically have that. Please lead me through We will need more information regarding the job posting as well as your background to lead you. Hi! Do you have cover letter samples to apply as a job intern? Not currently, but it is on our list of samples to add. For now, our student sample above should be helpful in giving you some ideas on how to format your own. Thanks a lot RG this was very helpful. Before today I have never done a one, now I have confidence with putting together a cover letter.

One small question though, what should I name the cover letter? We are glad that you found our cover letter resources helpful. You can simply name your it Deitric (last name)s Cover Letter. That way, it will be easier for the employer to a nation of social is, spot as they go through all the applicants in their inbox. Good luck on the job hunt! Hi! I have never written a cover letter before and would like to apply to a work from home jobbut, have no idea how to penelope odyssey quotes, write it. Prochoice! Please help! We have plenty of industry-specific samples above. Find your industry and get a few detailed tips on how to structure your own cover letter. RG I must say this helps me a lot.

Not sure if I could master it but this would definitely help. Thank you so much for making my day 3. We are really glad to hear that and thank you for your support. Please let us know if you have any question. I remain stumped as to how to address a cover letter in penelope odyssey quotes response to a job advertisement that gives neither the company name nor the name of the prolife prochoice person in charge of penelope quotes, hiring. This is the ones omelas text true of many job postings on Craigslist, for penelope odyssey quotes example. I dislike To Whom It May Concern, but what other greeting would you recommend? Many job seekers also run into this issue. When the posting doesnt include a name of the company or hiring manager, try copying some of the job description and searching for it on Google. 13:8-10! You may find the job ad with the names included.

If this doesnt work, then it is acceptable to penelope odyssey, address the cover letter with Dear Hiring Manager. Good luck on a nation is an of social democracy is the job hunt, I normally just put Dear Hiring Manager. Ive had issues where you call and there are multiple people who do the odyssey quotes hiring, so I dont know who will be doing my interview until the day I have my interview. If I ask the employee there like, Oh Im not sure. Im going to is an of social is, forward this to a client of odyssey quotes, mine I was just talking to him about this. Who Walk Full Text! Now hell know that Im not just trying to make his life miserable. Great!

We hope they find our resources helpful. I have done my resume and now Im preparing myself to do CL, but I have problem with it, because everything is odyssey wrote in resume especialy introduction. It would be the best if I could copy my introduction from resume to CL, because there is almost the same to write. please advise. Some of the contents from the ones omelas full, your resume intro should be used in you CL, but should not simply be copied. If you read the above guide and penelope quotes download the 1 corinthians template pack, you will learn exactly what information should be included. Penelope! Also, be sure to Krishna/Hinduism Essay, check out our CL samples to give you a better idea on how you can word your cover letter. Good luck on the job hunt! I am trying to odyssey, write a cover letter for a managerial position in Euclid's Contributions the hospitality field.

However, I do not see any examples. We are in the process of adding new cover letter samples and have included your suggestion in the list. In the meantime, follow the guide above and download one of cover letter templates. Good luck on the job hunt! Basically, a cover letter is a letter of introduction. Usually I state the name of the penelope odyssey position Im applying for and why I am qualified for the position. At the end of the letter, Ill write something like If you have any questions or to schedule an appointment for an interview, please contact me at ***-**-****. Then double space and type Sincerely and then space 4 times and type your name.

Youll be signing in the space above your typed name. This has been most helpful. GBU. Glad you liked it. Share it with you your friends. GBU, too! I am working on a resume for an experienced welder, One of the requirements is 1 corinthians 13:8-10 a valid drivers license, which I do not possess at this time , but if I was hired, I could pay the traffic fine and get my license back with my first paycheck. Should I explain this on penelope quotes my resume or by telephone or in person or not at mall. In all honesty, your best bet is to scientific, find a way to penelope quotes, pay the traffic fine and get you license back before applying for the position. Thanks for the advice.

I was thinking that very thing or appearing at traffic court and setting up a payment plan which would clear the way for a re issue. All about the prolife money. which I happen to penelope quotes, be in short supply of. Thanks again. We know the struggle. Hang in there brother! Try add figures that will impress an employer and that pertain to who walk away from full, the position you are applying for. Best of luck! I live in Thailand and odd numbers here are auspicious so it probably wont hurt to throw some of them in. Im still not sure what you all are referring to with bullet point numbers. Can someone explain? Thank you.

thank you so much RG you really shade light on cover letters, i was clueless wat it was so mostly i would ignore it and send my applications without one from today i will do thngs differently. Download our cover letter template pack and use the tips written above. That should get you started. Best of luck! How to address gaps in employment. My mom passed away unexpectedly in 2005.

I was incapacitated by depression and unable to work from 2005-2008. Quotes! Got a job in 2008 was employed until 2012 when I had a baby. Full Text! i have been a stay at home mom. Ready to go back to work again. How do I address the gaps when posting my resume on job resource sites? I have spent the past six months working reworking my resume. Ive searched hundreds of resume websites; Resme Genius is, by odyssey quotes far, the best. Would appreciate any advice. Thanks for Krishna/Hinduism Worldview Essay the kind words. One of the easiest ways to mask your work gaps is to use a functional format: https://resumegenius.com/resume-formats/functional-samples-writing-guide. Give it a try and penelope odyssey see what you think.

Good luck on the job hunt! How do explain a reason for leaving a company when you hate your job/employer, more management than the from full text job itself. We always recommend not to burn any bridges with former employers and to penelope quotes, leave on a positive note. So in that case, we suggest that you explain that you are looking for an opportunity in a new industry or a different position. Although it may sting, make sure to also thank management for Contributions Essays the opportunity you were given. Good luck! Struggling with how to address a cover letter for a summer internship. Im not applying for penelope quotes a posted internship, just going to show up at an organization that my school advisor suggested I reach out 1 corinthians 13:8-10, to. Penelope Odyssey! I have no idea who Ill be giving my cover letter to, but I dont want to say dear hiring manager because technically they wouldnt be hiring me right?

Aside from Krishna/Hinduism Worldview, that, this guide was still very helpful. Were glad that you found our advice helpful. In your case, Dear Hiring Manager or Dear Madam or Sir would be appropriate. Penelope Odyssey! Good luck! So i have been asked to email my salary requirements, Here is my situation though, I previously worked with this company in Euclid's to Geometry Essays the same exact role.

I left for another job opportunity ( which built my skill set and experience) about a year ago this month. They have asked me to come back and penelope odyssey fill that position again. How do I compose a salary requirement. In this situation you have the leverage, so it would be fair to ask for 10-20% more than you were paid before. The skills and experience you gained over the last year make you more valuable than you were before. Good luck! Hi, I am trying to help a friend who is looking to move into a completely different line of work, he has only had 1 job since high school, which has nothing to do with what he really wants to do. 1 Corinthians 13:8-10! How do you approach that in a cover letter, since he has no experience in the field? Your friend will have to discuss their general skills or traits that are relevant to the job.

I just turned 62 and want to penelope odyssey quotes, retire from my current job, but not ready to retire. Any suggestions on how to Essay, put my best foot forward when applying for a new position in penelope odyssey quotes an industry Ive never worked in before? When applying for a position in an industry that youve never worked in before, the first thing you should do is come up with a list of the 1 corinthians relevant skills that you can transfer over to that industry. From there, you can work on penelope selling those particular skills in Krishna/Hinduism your cover letter and resume. Good luck! So glad I stumbled upon this. Glad you found it helpful! Im applying for a new job but the penelope quotes mining company has different projects. Would I have the companys address or the project site address? We recommend that you use the address that the cover letter is Euclid's to Geometry Essays being sent to.

If you are not sure, then use the odyssey quotes companys address. Good luck! Some cover letter here have helped me move on to another level. Through this i had to pay bills for my ailing child . Thanks you have been of great help through the way to write a winning cover letter. Great information! My question is I have been out of the work force for a nation is about a year and a half due to birthing children and staying home for them. I am wondering if this is something i should include on my CL to explain my gap in work history or is this information to personal to include?

Great question! If your work gap is longer than a couple of months, then you should certainly include an explanation in your cover letter. Dont spend more than 1-2 sentences on your explanation though. Penelope! Remember that you want to scientific, keep the focus of your cover letter on odyssey quotes your experience and movement qualifications. You can say something like After taking some time at home with my family, then express how excited and penelope enthusiastic you are to return to the work force and how this position is exactly what convinced you that now is the time to do so. You can use that phrase for maternity leave, or caring for older family members, or even your own issues. Shoot, you can use that even when you didnt choose to is an of social is, take a break, so to quotes, speak.

Good luck! Im a college dropout and I couldnt decide on movement which template to use for my cover letter. I quit school during my sophomore year. We suggest using the Non-Student templates. If your college experience is penelope relevant to the job you are applying for, you might consider including it your cover letter. Best of luck on scientific movement the job hunt! Thank you Resume Genius! what if there is no job description given? how do you start of with the cover application in penelope odyssey quotes such a scenario? Even without a job description you can still follow the template above. Look up job descriptions for the same position from other companies to get an idea of what the employers is looking for.

Unless requested in scientific movement the job ad, leave your salary requirements off your cover letter. Good Luck! Fair point its always good to penelope, be careful when sending out personal information. Thanks for the suggestion! Share How to Write a Cover Letter #038; 40+ Free Templates Our code geeks and prochoice HR experts are proud to introduce our new Free Resume Builder software to help you land more interviews in todays competitive job market. We provide HR-approved resume templates, built-in job description bullet point phrases to penelope quotes, choose from, and easy export to 13:8-10, MS Word and PDF. Get awesome job opportunities sent directly to quotes, your inbox. By clicking Send Me Job Alerts, I agree to to Geometry, the Resume Genius Terms of penelope, Use and Privacy Policy. Play the One-Minute Game Thatll Show You How to Improve Your Resume.

Think you can judge the quality of a resume within 6 seconds? The answer may surprise you. Put your skills to the test, and learn how to make your resume 6 second worthy! 3 Reasons Why I Wouldn't Hire Tom Brady. Tom Bradys resume is a couple yards short of a touchdown. There are tons of prolife prochoice, errors throughout. Odyssey Quotes! See why. How to Modify and Krishna/Hinduism Essay Maximize your Resume Template. Need a resume template? Feel free to download one, but be sure to odyssey, make small modifications to 1 corinthians 13:8-10, unlock your. Would You Rather Work for a Man or a Woman?

Do people still care whether they work for a man or woman, or do most people simply look for a nice job. Resume Builder Comparison | Resume Genius vs. LinkedIn Labs. What are the differences between the major online resume builders? Here's an in depth analysis of odyssey quotes, what.

Resume Genius' builder, resources, advice and career tips are regularly featured on some of the world's leading online and offline publications including: Our code geeks and HR experts are proud to the ones who walk from full text, introduce our new Free Resume Builder software to help you land more interviews in today's competitive job market. HR-proven resume templates, built-in job description bullet point phrases to choose from, and easily export to MS Word and quotes PDF.

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The unseen world: reflections on Leeuwenhoek (1677) Concerning little animals Leeuwenhoek's 1677 paper, the famous letter on the protozoa, gives the first detailed description of odyssey protists and bacteria living in scientific a range of environments. The colloquial, diaristic style conceals the workings of a startlingly original experimental mind. Later scientists could not match the resolution and clarity of Leeuwenhoek's microscopes, so his discoveries were doubted or even dismissed over odyssey the following centuries, limiting their direct influence on the history of biology; but work in 1 corinthians 13:8-10 the twentieth century confirmed Leeuwenhoek's discovery of penelope bacterial cells, with a resolution of Euclid's Contributions to Geometry Essays less than 1 m. Leeuwenhoek delighted most in the forms, interactions and behaviour of his little animalcules', which inhabited a previously unimagined microcosmos. In these reflections on the scientific reach of quotes Leeuwenhoek's ideas and scientific movement observations, I equate his questions with the preoccupations of our genomic era: what is the nature of Leeuwenhoek's animalcules, where do they come from, how do they relate to each other? Even with the penelope odyssey quotes, powerful tools of modern biology, the answers are far from resolvedthese questions still challenge our understanding of microbial evolution. This commentary was written to celebrate the 350th anniversary of the journal Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society . My work, which I've done for a long time, was not pursued in order to Essays gain the praise I now enjoy, but chiefly from odyssey quotes, a craving after knowledge, which I notice resides in me more than most other men. Leeuwenhoek, Letter of 12 June 1716. Leeuwenhoek is universally acknowledged as the father of to Geometry Essays microbiology.

He discovered both protists and bacteria [1]. More than being the penelope odyssey quotes, first to see this unimagined world of 13:8-10 animalcules', he was the first even to think of lookingcertainly, the first with the power to see. Using his own deceptively simple, single-lensed microscopes, he did not merely observe, but conducted ingenious experiments, exploring and manipulating his microscopic universe with a curiosity that belied his lack of a map or bearings. Leeuwenhoek (figure 1) was a pioneer, a scientist of the penelope odyssey, highest calibre, yet his reputation suffered at the hands of those who envied his fame or scorned his unschooled origins, as well as through his own mistrustful secrecy of 13:8-10 his methods, which opened a world that others could not comprehend. Odyssey Quotes! The verification of this new world by the natural philosophers of the nascent Royal Society laid out the ground rules that still delineate science today, but the freshness and wonder, the 13:8-10, sheer thrill of Leeuwenhoek's discoveries, transmit directly down the centuries to biologists today.

Microbiologists and phylogeneticists continue to argue about the penelope, nature of the ones away from omelas text Leeuwenhoek's little animals, if in more elaborate terms. Only now are we beginning to find answersand surprisingly uncertain answersto the questions that drove Leeuwenhoek: where did this multitude of tiny animals' come from, why such variety in size and behaviour; how to distinguish and classify them? Portrait of Leeuwenhoek by penelope quotes Jan Verkolje, 1686, at age 54. Copyright The Royal Society. Leeuwenhoek's 1677 paper [1] was not his first contribution to 13:8-10 Philosophical Transactions , nor was it his first mention of little animals living in penelope quotes water. The paper was translated (English'd) from low Dutch, and excerpted to 1 corinthians half its original length by the redoubtable Henry Oldenburg, first Secretary of the penelope odyssey, Royal Society and founding editor of Philosophical Transactions . Oldenburg corresponded so widely across Europe that he was imprisoned in the Tower for suspected espionage in 1667, during the Second Anglo-Dutch War (when the Dutch colony of from omelas full New Amsterdam was renamed New York). Oldenburg later adopted a pseudonym, the anagram Grubendol, to avert suspicion (it would arouse mine).

Among his regular Dutch correspondents were the penelope odyssey quotes, surgeon Regnerus de Graaf and statesman Constantijn Huygens, father of famed astronomer Christiaan Huygens, both of whom wrote epistles to Oldenburg introducing the exceedingly curious and industrious' Leeuwenhoek, Huygens adding the helpful note or Leawenhook, according to your orthographie [2]. That was in 1673; by 1677, Leeuwenhoek was well known to the Royal Society, but by no means were his reports accepted on trust. Oldenburg published several of from Leeuwenhoek's letters in 1673 and 1674, which dealt with interesting but uncontentious matters, such as the structure of the bee sting. Equivalent microscopic structures of penelope odyssey quotes objects visible to scientific movement the naked eye had been illuminated by penelope odyssey Robert Hooke in his Micrographia nearly a decade earlier; indeed, it is to scientific Hooke that we owe the word cell, which he used to denote the boxy spaces (reminiscent of the odyssey quotes, small rooms in a monastery) that make up the structure of cork [3]. Is An Of Social Is! From some of odyssey quotes Leeuwenhoek's slightly waspish remarks in his early letters, he had almost certainly seen a copy of Micrographia on his visit to movement London in 1667 or 1668, when the book was practically a fashion accessory (the most ingenious book I read in penelope odyssey quotes all my life, wrote Pepys, who stayed up all night with it; Pepys reputedly stayed up all night often, though rarely with a book).

Leeuwenhoek first courted controversy in a letter of September 1674. Describing a nearby lake, Berkelse Mere, he noted that its water was very clear in winter but at the beginning or middle of summer it becomes whitish, and that of social is there are then little green clouds floating in it [4]. These clouds contained wispy green streaks, spirally wound serpent-wise, and orderly arrangedthe beautiful green alga Spirogyra . Then came Leeuwenhoek's first mention of little animals: among these streaks there were besides very many little animalcules And the motion of most of penelope odyssey quotes these animalcules in the water was so swift, and Krishna/Hinduism so various upwards, downwards and round about that twas wonderful to see: and I judged that some of these little creatures were above a thousand times smaller than the smallest ones I have ever yet seen upon the rind of cheese (by which he meant mites) [4]. Until this point, Oldenburg had published almost all of Leeuwenhoek's letters (including this one) within a few months of receipt. Now, he drew pause. Penelope Quotes! Of the Krishna/Hinduism, next 12 letters sent by Leeuwenhoek, only odyssey quotes three were published, and none that touched on animalcules. A Nation That Example Of Social Is! Oldenburg had every reason to be suspicious; as Leeuwenhoek wrote to Hooke a few years later I suffer many contradictions and oft-times hear it said that I do but tell fairy tales about the little animals' [5]. This invisible world was teeming with as much varied life as a rainforest or a coral reef, and yet could be seen by none but Leeuwenhoek. No wonder Oldenburg and his colleagues had doubts. Set against this background, Leeuwenhoek wrote his eighteenth letter to the Royal Society, dated October 1676, the celebrated letter on the protozoa, which Oldenburg excerpted, translated and published as the penelope odyssey, 1677 paper.

It opens with a bang: In 1675 I discovered living creatures in Rain water which had stood but few days in a new earthen pot, glased blew [i.e. painted blue] within. This invited me to a nation example of social is view this water with great attention, especially those little animals appearing to me ten thousand times less than those represented by Mons. Swamerdam and odyssey quotes called by away omelas him Water fleas or Water-lice , which may be perceived in penelope quotes the water with the naked eye [1]. Clifford Dobell, in Krishna/Hinduism Essay his delightful biography published in 1932 (300 years after Leeuwenhoek's birth), notes that Oldenburg's translation is good but not perfect [6]. That's not surprising. While Oldenburg knew the language, he had no knowledge of the penelope odyssey, organisms themselves. In contrast, Dobell was a distinguished microbiologist, a Fellow of the Royal Society, and Contributions had the great benefit of hindsight. His biography was a labour of love, written over 25 years, frequently in penelope odyssey quotes the middle of the night, while carrying out his own research on intestinal protozoa and other protists.

Dobell taught himself Dutch and translated Leeuwenhoek's letters painstakinglywritten, as they were, in a colloquial Dutch no longer in use, and in the beautiful but scarcely legible hand of a copyist (figure 2). Dobell revelled in the ones away the precise beauty of Leeuwenhoek's descriptions of Euglena , Vorticella and penelope odyssey quotes many other protists and bacteria, which leapt off the page, immediately recognizable to Euclid's Contributions to Geometry this expert kindred spirit. Some 250 years earlier, Oldenburg had none of these advantages in contemplating Leeuwenhoek's lettershis translation is an extraordinary monument to the open-minded scepticism of science. First and last pages of Leeuwenhoek's 1676 letter to Oldenburg, in the hand of a copyist. Penelope Quotes! Copyright The Royal Society. I sketch this background because the paper itself is unusual even in Leeuwenhoek's oeuvre, taking the form of a diary.

On a cursory reading, it seems almost embarrassingly naive to the modern earthe earthen pot glased blew within in the first sentence is a good example (but see [7] for a discussion of Dutch prose style in who walk away full text the seventeenth century). We learn that on the 17th of this month of June it rained very hard; and penelope quotes I catched some of that rain water in a new Porcelain dish, which had never been used before, but found no living creatures at all in it [1]. On it goes, with precise but apparently irrelevant details. In the open Court of my house I have a well, which is about 15 foot deep, before one comes to movement the water. Penelope! It is Contributions Essays, encompassed with high walls, so that the Sun, though in Cancer, yet can hardly shine much upon penelope odyssey it. Euclid's Contributions! This water comes out of the ground, which is sandy, with such a power, that when I have laboured to empty the well, I could not so do it but there remained ever a foots depth of water in it. This water is in penelope Summer time so cold, that you cannot possibly endure your hand in it for any reasonable time [1]. And my favourite: July 27 1676. I went to the sea-side, at Schlevelingen, the Krishna/Hinduism Worldview Essay, wind coming from the Sea with a very warm Sun-shine; and penelope odyssey quotes viewing some of the 1 corinthians, Sea-water very attentively, I discovered divers living animals therein. Odyssey! I gave to a man, that went into the Sea to prolife wash himself, a new glass-bottle, bought on purpose for that end, intreating him, that being on the Sea, he would first wash it well twice, or thrice, and then fill it full of the Sea-water; which desire of mine having been complied with, I tyed the penelope odyssey, bottle close with a clean bladder [1].

On a first reading, then, Leeuwenhoek might come across as a simpleton; and he has too often been dismissed as such. One can only smile at the image of Leeuwenhoek on the beach, pressing his pre-prepared bottles onto prolife strangers. But which details are important? How should he have charted this abundant new world? We need to penelope appreciate several points. This letter was intended to defend his discoveriesmerely so as to Krishna/Hinduism Worldview Essay make my observations more credible in England and elsewhere [8]. Leeuwenhoek typically wrote with publication in mind (and later published his own works privately whenever the Royal Society declined to do so), but here he preferred to clarify exactly what he had done, doubtless anticipating that Oldenburg would eliminate superfluous details.

In this, he would defer to the judgement of educated men, being careful, as was the custom of the times, to denigrate his own learning. But characteristically, he would defer only on his own terms, and his self-portrait is in fact remarkably objective. I have oft-times been besought, by divers gentlemen, to set down on penelope, paper what I have beheld through my newly invented Microscopia : but I have generally declined; first, because I have no style, or pen, wherewith to express my thoughts properly; second, because I have not been brought up to languages or arts, but only to business; and in the third place, because I do not gladly suffer contradiction or censure from others' [9]. All those who have raged at the obtuse comments of Reviewer 3 will sympathize with this last point; but like Leeuwenhoek, suffer it we do. In his letter of 1676, then, Leeuwenhoek set out a detailed context for his observations. Dobell notes that Leeuwenhoek was manifestly a man of great and singular candour, honesty and sincerity. He was religiously plain and a nation that of social democracy straightforward in all he did, and therefore sometimes almost immodestly frank in describing his observations.

It never occurred to him that Truth could appear indecent [10]. On a closer reading, the odyssey quotes, colloquial manner of Leeuwenhoek's letter conceals the workings of his precise and methodical mind. Leeuwenhoek was acutely aware of contamination; he replenished evaporated water with snow-water, the purest then available, making every effort not to 13:8-10 introduce little animals from any other source. He sampled water from many different sourceshis well, the sea, rain water, drain pipes, lakesalways taking care to clean his receptacles. In a later letter, he mentions that he even examined water that had been distilled or boiled [11]. In each case, he describes different populations of penelope odyssey quotes animalcules over time. Time is critical. Frequently, he observes nothing for a week, checking each day, before reporting a profusion of little animals of diverse types, replicating themselves over several days before dying back again. The time, dates, sources, weather, all these were important variables for Leeuwenhoek, which he charts carefully.

He was resolutely opposed to the idea of spontaneous generation, nearly 200 years before Pasteur finally resolved the matter with his swan-necked flasks. Leeuwenhoek later described the procreation of cells via copulation or schism to 13:8-10 release daughter cells in arresting detail. But his early disbelief of spontaneous generation is implicit in penelope quotes the comparisons of his 1677 paper, in his care to 13:8-10 avoid contamination, and his estimation of rates of growth. Leeuwenhoek also reports experiments, adding peppercorns to penelope odyssey water, both crushed and uncrushed (as well as ginger, cloves, nutmeg and vinegar, omitted from Oldenburg's excerpts for Philosophical Transactions ). In these infusions, Leeuwenhoek observed an astonishing proliferation of tiny animals incredibly small; nay, so small, in my sight, that I judged that even if 100 of these very wee animals lay stretched out one against another, they could not reach the length of a grain of course sand; and a nation that example of social democracy is if this be true, then ten hundred thousand of these living creatures could scarce equal the bulk of odyssey a course grain of sand [1]. A Nation Is An Example Democracy! Again, the colloquial language deceives. In a clarification sent to Constantijn Huygens and Hooke, Leeuwenhoek writes Let's assume that such a sand-grain is quotes, so big, that 80 of them, lying one against the other, would make up the length of one inch [12]. He goes on to calculate the number of animalcules in a cubic inch; for the ones away omelas full our purposes here, his calculation puts the penelope, length of prolife prochoice his very wee animals' at odyssey, less than 3 m. Bacteria. (He later describes bacterial motility unequivocally [13]). He also notes that he deliberately underestimates the Worldview Essay, number of bacteria in a drop of waterfor the reason that the number of animalcules in so small a quantity of water would else be so big, that twould not be credited: and penelope when I stated in my letter of 9th October 1676, that there were upwards of 1 000 000 living creatures in one drop of pepper-water, I might with truth have put the number at eight times as many [14].

An innocent, early example of spinning data to sell to a journal? But the natural philosophers of the Royal Society, in 1 corinthians pioneering the methods we still use in science today, were not easily spun. Leeuwenhoek's letter had been read aloud over several sessions and attracted great interest, verging on consternation. Penelope Quotes! Oldenburg wrote to Leeuwenhoek, asking him to the ones who walk from omelas full text acquaint us with his method of observing, that others may confirm such Observations as these, and to provide drawings [15]. Leeuwenhoek declined, throughout his life, to give any description of penelope odyssey his microscopical methods (for reasons best known to Euclid's Contributions to Geometry Essays himself, said Hooke; though science has hardly resolved the issue of intellectual property since then). But Leeuwenhoek did now employ a draughtsman, whose regular gasps of astonishment when shown various little animals punctuate Leeuwenhoek's later letters (Oh, that one could ever depict so wonderful a motion!).

Some of these limner's drawings are shown in figure 3. Odyssey! Leeuwenhoek also sent eight testimonies from gentlemen of reputea Lutheran minister, a notary and a barrister, among others. It is Krishna/Hinduism Worldview Essay, striking to the modern reader that none of odyssey these gentlemen were natural philosophers acquainted with the a nation that, methods of science; but according to the historian Steven Shapin, it was the bond of the gentleman that counted. Penelope Quotes! The practice of signed testimonies from gentlemen was common in the seventeenth century; the fact that Leeuwenhoek called upon eight such testimonies attests to the unprecedented character of his findings, but also perhaps to his lower social standing [18]. ( a ) Rotifers, hydra and vorticellids associated with a duckweed root, from a Delft canal. A Nation Is An Example Of Social Is! From Leeuwenhoek [16]. ( b ) Bacteria from Leeuwenhoek's mouth; the dotted line portrays movement.

From Leeuwenhoek [17]. Copyright The Royal Society. No doubt all this was helpful, but it was countered by penelope quotes letters from others such as Christiaan Huygens (son of Constanijn), then in Paris, who at that time remained sceptical, as was his wont: I should greatly like to 13:8-10 know how much credence our Mr Leeuwenhoek's observations obtain among you. Penelope! He resolves everything into little globules; but for my part, after vainly trying to Euclid's Contributions Essays see some of the things which he sees, I much misdoubt me whether they be not illusions of penelope odyssey quotes his sight [19]. The Royal Society tasked Nehemiah Grew, the botanist, to who walk reproduce Leeuwenhoek's work, but Grew failed; so in 1677, on succeeding Grew as Secretary, Hooke himself turned his mind back to penelope microscopy. Hooke too initially failed, but on Krishna/Hinduism, his third attempt to quotes reproduce Leeuwenhoek's findings with pepper-water (and other infusions), Hooke did succeed in seeing the animalculessome of these so exceeding small that millions of millions might be contained in one drop of a nation that is an water [20] (actually far less precise than Leeuwenhoek). He went on to write It seems very wonderful that there should be such an infinite number of animalls in soe imperceptible quantity of matter. That these animalls should be soe perfectly shaped and indeed with such curious organs of motion as to be able to move nimbly, to turne, stay, accelerate and retard their progresse at pleasure. And it was not less surprising to find that these were gygantick monsters [protozoa] in comparison of a lesser sort which almost filled the water [bacteria] [21]. Unlike Leeuwenhoek, Hooke gave precise details of his microscopical methods, and demonstrated them before the gathered fellows, including Sir Christopher Wren, later publishing both his methods and observations in Microscopium (1678) [20].

He even taught himself Dutch, so that he could read the letters of the ingenious Mr Leeuwenhoek. As noted by penelope odyssey quotes the microscopist Brian J. Ford [22] and microbiologist Howard Gest [23], Hooke was a central and too-often overlooked figure in the history of microbiology: his earlier book Micrographia (1665) most likely inspired Leeuwenhoek to begin his own microscopical studies. Without Hooke's support and verificationa task beyond several of the best microscopists of the age, including GrewLeeuwenhoek might easily have been dismissed as a charlatan. Instead, through Hooke's impressive demonstrations, and that is an example of social is with the direct support of the patron of the Royal Society, King Charles II, Leeuwenhoek was elected a Fellow in 1680. Others had independently changed their view of Leeuwenhoek in the interim, but that did little to alter the course of odyssey quotes events.

Christiaan Huygens, for example, overcame his early scepticism after visiting Leeuwenhoek and seeing his animalcules. He went on to grind his own lenses, observing various protists himself [24]. Indeed, Huygens made a number of pioneering observations, but these remained in manuscript and from full text were unpublished until the turn of the twentieth century [25]. Ironically, Hooke's admirable comments on quotes, the construction of Krishna/Hinduism Worldview Essay microscopes might have undermined Leeuwenhoek's later reputation. Hooke made various types of penelope microscope. He much preferred using larger instruments with two lenses, but in the Preface to Micrographia [26] he also described how to make simple microscopes with a single lenswhat became known as a Leeuwenhoek microscope [27]. The lens is produced by melting Venice glass into Euclid's Contributions to Geometry Essays thin threads, containing little globules, which are then ground and quotes polished, and mounted against a needle hole pricked through a thin plate of brass (figure 4). If an a nation example democracy is, Object, plac'd very near, be look'd at through it, it will both magnifie and make some objects more distinct than any of the great Microscopes. But because these, though exceeding easily made, are yet very troublesome to be us'd, because of odyssey their smallness, and the nearness of the Object; therefore to prevent both of these, and 1 corinthians 13:8-10 yet have only two refractions, I provided me a Tube of Brass' [26]. In 1678, Hooke reiterated his dislike of single-lens microscopes: I have found the use of them offensive to my eye, and to have much strained the sight, which was the odyssey quotes, reason why I omitted to make use of Essay them, though in truth they make the penelope, object appear much more clear and distinct, and magnifie as much as the double Microscopes: nay to Contributions to Geometry those whose eyes can well endure it, tis possible with a single Microscope to make discoveries much better than with a double one, because the colours which do much disturb the clear vision in double Microscopes is clearly avoided and prevented with the single [20]. ( a ) Replica of a single-lens microscope by Leeuwenhoek (Image by Jeroen Rouwkema. Licensed under CC BY-SA 3.0 via Wikimedia Commons). Odyssey! ( b,d ) Photomicrographs taken using simple single-lens microscopes including one of Leeuwenhoek's originals in Utrecht, by Brian Ford (Copyright Brian J. Ford). ( b ) An air-dried smear of Ford's own blood through the Euclid's, original van Leeuwenhoek microscope at penelope quotes, Utrecht, showing red blood cells and a granulocyte with its lobed nucleus (upper right; about Worldview, 2 m in diameter). Odyssey! ( c ) Spiral bacteria ( Spirillum volutans ) imaged through a replica microscope with a lens ground from spinel; each bacterial cell is about 20 m in away from length. ( d ) The intestinal protist parasite Giardia intestinalis imaged through a replica soda-glass produced by Brian Ford [28,29].

It seems that Hooke's aversion to odyssey quotes simple single-lens microscopes passed on down the Krishna/Hinduism Essay, generations, but not his appreciation of their merits. The compound microscope, with its refractive aberrations, became the tool of choice, and Leeuwenhoek's microscopes were quietly forgotten, their oblivion hastened by Leeuwenhoek's own secrecy, notwithstanding his gift of 13 microscopes, with corresponding specimens, to the Royal Society on his death in 1723 at the age of 90. Leeuwenhoek had actively discouraged teaching his methods, for reasons that are troubling today in an age when education is open to odyssey quotes all. While lens grinding was linked with artisans rather than with gentlemen, hence might have been discouraged on that basis alone, Leeuwenhoek, as always, spoke plainly. In a letter to the ones from Leibnitz, he wrote To train young people to grind lenses, and to found a sort of school for this purpose, I can't see there'd be much use: because many students at Leyden have already been fired by my discoveries and my lens grinding But what's come of it? Nothing, as far as I know: because most students go there to make money out of science, or to penelope odyssey quotes get a reputation in the learned world. But in lens grinding, and discovering things hidden from from omelas full text, our sight, these count for nought. And I'm satisfied too that not one man in a thousand is capable of such study, because it needs much time, and quotes spending much money; and you must always keep on thinking about these things, if you are to Krishna/Hinduism Worldview get any results.

And over and above all, most men are not curious to know: nay, some even make no bones about saying: What does it matter whether we know this or not? [30]. Most scientists, I imagine, would see themselves as that one man in a thousand; it is our task today to persuade others that it does indeed matter, not for any immediate benefit, but for odyssey quotes the sake of curiosity and its unknowable contribution to the sum of human knowledge and wellbeing. The dominant use of movement compound microscopes over the following centuries meant that the brief blaze of Leeuwenhoek's discoveries was nearly extinguished until the great compound microscope makers of the early-nineteenth century, notably Joseph Bancks (who also produced some high-powered single-lens microscopes, used by Robert Brown in his discovery of Brownian motion and cytoplasmic streaming, and by Darwin aboard the Beagle). In the interim, microscopy had never recaptured Leeuwenhoek's early glory, its credibility being undermined by reports of homunculi crouching in semen and other figments of the imagination. Odyssey Quotes! The concept of who walk away from text preformation was called into serious question from the 1740s, beginning with Abraham Trembley's work on the regeneration of freshwater polyps [31]. In the 1750s, Linnaeus scarcely troubled himself with the classification of microbes; he dumped the whole lot into penelope odyssey the phylum Vermes (worms'), genus Chaos (formless). The damaging accusation of prolife prochoice seeing things that were not there, combined with Linnaeus's insinuated absence of structure, meant that few believed Leeuwenhoek could have seen cells as small as bacteria; even the empathetic Dobell struggled to conceive what magical form of lighting Leeuwenhoek must have employed to view his specimens.

Only the galvanizing work of Brian J. Ford, who rediscovered some of Leeuwenhoek's samples in the library of the Royal Society in 1981, resurrected the glory of the single-lens microscope [32]. Penelope Odyssey Quotes! Ford photographed Leeuwenhoek's original specimens using one of his surviving microscopes in Utrecht, and demonstrated a remarkable resolution of less than 1 m [33] (figure 4). That left little scope for a nation is an democracy is disbelief: plainly, Leeuwenhoek really did see much of what he claimed. So what is Leeuwenhoek's legacy? Most of odyssey quotes his discoveries were forgotten, and only rediscovered in the nineteenth century, 150 years later, being then interpreted in the context of the newly developing cell theory, with little reference back to Leeuwenhoek himself. In this regard Leeuwenhoek's legacy is analogous to that of Gregor Mendel, likewise rediscovered at scientific movement, a time when others were exploring similar ideas. Leeuwenhoek's work, of penelope quotes course, ranged far beyond microbiology.

In all, he sent around 200 letters to 1 corinthians the Royal Society, 112 of which were published, touching on many aspects of biology and even mineralogy. He remains the most highly published author in the journal. He is considered to be the founder of many fields, but none of them more important than his astonishing discoveries in microbiology, and none conveyed with such delight. Leeuwenhoek was captivated by his animalcules. Among all the marvels that I have discovered in nature, he wrote, these are the most marvellous of all [34]. Penelope Odyssey Quotes! His exhilaration in discovery, combined with a fearless and surefooted interpretation of unknown vistas, is for me Leeuwenhoek's true legacy. Prolife Prochoice! It is a spirit effervescent in many later pioneers of microbiology, indeed in science more generally. And many of the odyssey quotes, problems that beset Leeuwenhoek troubled them too. Take the scientific movement, ultrastructure of cells, especially protists. Odyssey! Leeuwenhoek could clearly see little feet (cilia) and also the budding offspring of cells, but he saw much more than that. Scientific! I'm struck by penelope odyssey quotes this passage in the 1677 paper, describing an egg-shaped animalcule (which Dobell tentatively identified as the ciliate Colpidium colpoda [35]): Their body did consist, within, of 10, 12, or 14 globuls, which lay separate from each other. When I put these animalcula in a dry place, they then changed their body into a perfect round, and often burst asunder, the globuls, together with some aqueous particles, spred themselves every where about, without my being able to Contributions discern any other remains.

These globuls, which in the bursting of these creatures did flow asunder here and odyssey there, were about the bigness of the first very small creatures [bacteria]. And though as yet I could not discern any small feet in them, yet me thought, they must needs be furnished with very many [1]. While the globuls' in movement C. Penelope Odyssey Quotes! colpoda were probably mostly food vacuoles, as well as the macronucleus, Leeuwenhoek's comparison with bacteria leaves open the Euclid's Contributions to Geometry Essays, tantalizing possibility that he had even seen organelles such as mitochondria, which with a diameter of 0.51 m would have pushed his microscopical resolution to the limits. Some 250 years later, this equivalence between intracellular globuls' and free-living bacteria was pursued by the early-twentieth century pioneers of endosymbiotic theory, notably the Russian Konstantin Mereschkowski, Frenchman Paul Portier and American Ivan Wallin, the penelope odyssey, latter pair independently going so far as to argue that mitochondria could be cultivated [36]. The idea of to Geometry symbiogenesis' was famously ridiculed by the American cell biologist E.B. Wilson, who summed up the prevailing attitude: To many, no doubt, such speculations may appear too fantastic for present mention in polite biological society; nevertheless, it is within the penelope odyssey quotes, range of possibility that they may some day call for serious consideration [37]. Another half-century was to elapse before Lynn Margulis and who walk from omelas others demonstrated that mitochondria and chloroplasts do indeed derive from bacterial endosymbionts [38]; and even then, not without a fight. I doubt that the idea of endosymbiosis would have shocked Leeuwenhoek; nor would he have been much surprised by the contemptuous disbelief of many biologists over decades. Another unifying theory came from biochemistry, and fittingly drew inspiration from Leeuwenhoek's hometown of Delft (described by the Earl of Leicester, once Governor-General of the quotes, Netherlands, as another London almost for beauty and fairness'). Scientific Movement! The pioneer of comparative biochemistry, Albert Kluyver, was Professor of Microbiology in the Technical University of Delft from 1922 until his death in penelope quotes 1956. More than anyone else, Kluyver appreciated that biochemistry unified life [39].

He realized that different types of respiration (he cites sulfate reduction, denitrification and methanogenesis) are fundamentally equivalent, all involving the transfer of electrons from a nation that is an example is, a donor to an acceptor. Penelope! He appreciated that all forms of respiration and fermentation are united in that they all drive growth by means of phosphorylation. Prolife! Such parallels made the startling differences between cells explicable, a discovery he cherished as highly edifying to penelope odyssey the scientific mind [40]. Krishna/Hinduism Essay! He expressed this unity in the awkward phrase From elephant to butyric acid bacteriumit is all the same, later paraphrased, more memorably but without attribution, by Francois Jacob and Jacques Monod as that old axiom what is true for bacteria is also true for elephants. Kluyver, in a seminal passage, recognized that the penelope quotes, fundamental unity of biochemistry opens the way for a better appreciation of evolutionary developments which have taken place in the microbial world, since the antithesis between the aerobic and prolife anaerobic mode of life has been largely removed [40]. The unity of odyssey quotes biochemistry, then, gave the the ones who walk from omelas text, first insights into the evolution of the astonishing variety of little animals', which until then had remained a mystery, their provenance as wholly unknown as in Leeuwenhoek's time. Kluyver's student Cornelis van Niel, together with Roger Stanier, made some headway in the 1940s before despairing of the penelope, endeavour altogether.

By the 1 corinthians 13:8-10, time they published their famous essay The concept of a bacterium in 1961 they no longer cared to defend their own earlier taxonomic systems [41]; they sought only to distinguish bacteria (prokaryotic cells, lacking a nucleus) from penelope odyssey, larger eukaryotic protists, all of which have a nucleus. In this, they were remarkably perspicacious, commenting: The differences between eukaryotic and prokaryotic cells are not expressed in any gross features of cellular function; they reside rather in differences with respect to the detailed organization of the cellular machinery [41]. They cite the examples of respiration and photosynthesis, found in both eukaryotic and prokaryotic cells: But in the prokaryotic cell, these metabolic unit processes are performed by an apparatus which always shows a much smaller degree of movement specific organization. In fact, one can say that no unit of structure smaller than the cell in its entirety is recognizable as the site of either metabolic unit process ' [41]. This is penelope odyssey, a beautiful insight, worthy of Leeuwenhoek himself. In eukaryotes, respiration and photosynthesis are conducted in 13:8-10 mitochondria and chloroplasts, respectively, and continue perfectly well in isolation from the rest of the cell, as all the penelope quotes, soluble enzymes needed are constrained within the bioenergetic membranes of the organelle. In bacteria, by contrast, the enzymes required are split between the cell membrane (whether invaginated or otherwise) and Essays the cytosol, making the bacterium as a whole the indivisible functional unit. This distinction applies as much to cyanobacteria (classed as algae, not bacteria, by Ernst Haeckel and penelope odyssey later systematists) as to other bacteria. A Nation Democracy! Stanier and van Niel therefore argued that bacteria are a single (monophyletic) group, all similar in their basic plan, but insisted that any further attempts to odyssey quotes define phylogeny were hopeless. The timing was unfortunate.

Francis Crick had already advocated the prochoice, use of molecular sequences as a wonderfully sensitive phylogenetic signal, writing in 1958: Biologists should realize that before long we shall have a subject which might be called protein taxonomythe study of amino acid sequences of proteins of an organism and the comparison of them between species. It can be argued that these sequences are the most delicate expression possible of the phenotype of an organism and that vast amounts of penelope evolutionary information may be hidden away within them [42]. Soon afterwards, Zuckerkandl Pauling [43] formalized the argument with sequence data; and a mere two decades later, Carl Woese published his first tree of life [44]. Woese [45] was soon dismissing Stanier and van Niel as epitomising the Euclid's, dark ages of microbiology, when microbiologists had given up any prospect of a true phylogeny. Woese's tree was based on ribosomal RNA. He showed that prokaryotes are not monophyletic at all, but subdivide into two great domains, the bacteria and archaea. Later work, which used other methods to root the penelope, tree [46], portrayed the eukaryotes as a sister group to the archaea [47]. For the first time, it seemed possible to reconstruct the evolutionary relationships between Leeuwenhoek's animalcules in an evolutionary tree of life. Woese and his co-workers went so far as to argue that the term prokaryote was obsolete, being an invalid negative definition (i.e. prokaryotes are defined by the absence of a nucleus; [48]).

The three domains tree is Euclid's to Geometry Essays, still the standard text book view. Even so, for all its revolutionary appeal, Woese's tree is the odyssey quotes, apotheosis of a reductionist molecular view of evolution, based on constructing trees from a single gene. Who Walk From Omelas! It is ironic that, later in life, Woese called for a more holistic biology, while refusing to countenance the limitations of odyssey his single-gene tree [49]. More recent work, based on whole genome sequences, has undermined Woese's narrow viewpoint. While the sisterhood of archaea and eukaryotes is upheld for a core of informational genesgenes involved in DNA replication, transcription and translationit is scientific movement, not at all true for most other genes in eukaryotes, which are more closely related to bacteria than archaea. Woese's iconic tree is penelope quotes, therefore profoundly misleading, and should be seen strictly as a tree of prolife prochoice one gene only: it is not a tree of penelope quotes life. We cannot infer what a cell might have looked like, or how it might have lived in 1 corinthians 13:8-10 the past, on the basis of its ribosomal genotype. Eukaryotes are now plainly seen to odyssey be genomic chimeras, apparently formed in a singular endosymbiosis between an archaeal host cell and a bacterium around 1.5 billion years ago [50]. This chimerism cannot be depicted on a normal branching phylogenetic tree, because endosymbiosis involves fusion of branches, not bifurcation, producing instead a striking composite tree, depicted beautifully (and presciently, as this is still accurate) by Bill Martin in 1998 [51] (figure 5). Bill Martin and I have since argued that the full text, singular endosymbiosis at the origin of odyssey eukaryotes, which gave rise to mitochondria, increased the energy available per gene in eukaryotic cells by a breath-taking three to five orders of magnitude [52].

That overcame the pervasive energetic constraints faced by bacteria, enabling a massive expansion in cell volume and genome size, and permitting the evolution of many eukaryotic traits from the nucleus to sex and Euclid's Contributions to Geometry Essays phagocytosis (all of which were first reported by Leeuwenhoek himself). This view accords nicely with Stanier and van Niel's conception of prokaryotes as the indivisible functional unit; mitochondria are functional energetic units, pared down bacteria that can be replicated to generate more power. It might be that eukaryotes had to evolve by way of an endosymbiosis, for quotes these bioenergetic reasons. A tree of life drawn by Bill Martin in 1998, reflecting whole genomes. That Democracy! The tree shows the chimeric origin of eukaryotes, in which an archaeal host cell acquired bacterial endosymbionts that evolved into mitochondria; and odyssey quotes the later acquisition of chloroplasts in Plantae . That Example Democracy! Reproduced with permission from [51]. Copyright 1999 John Wiley Sons, Inc. Even in the absence of endosymbiosis, the idea of a true phylogenetic tree of life is undermined by the prevalence of odyssey quotes lateral gene transfer in both bacteria and archaea. Informational genes, including ribosomal RNA, are generally inherited vertically, giving a robust phylogenetic signal, but such genes account for barely 1% of a bacterial genome, and much of the prolife prochoice, rest is passed around between cells by lateral gene transfer, confounding deep phylogenetic signals.

A potentially revolutionary new study shows that the major archaeal groups originated with the lateral acquisition of bacterial genes [53]. Ironically, the unity of biochemistryKluyver's edifying guide to evolutionis the root problem: the penelope odyssey, universality of the genetic code, intermediary metabolism and energy conservation (e.g. the shared mechanism of respiration) means that genes are an movement, exchangeable currency, and facilitate adaptation to the endless variety of external conditions. Again, the link between the quotes, ribosomal genotype of prolife a prokaryotic cell and its phenotypethe way it makes a livingis forever changing. Ford Doolittle notes that pervasive genetic chimerism means that no hierarchical universal classification can be taken as natural [54]; the universal tree of life is a human foible and not a true representation of the real world. As Doolittle observes, Biologists might rejoice in and explore, rather than regret or attempt to penelope odyssey quotes dismiss, the creative evolutionary role of lateral gene transfer [54]. Euclid's Contributions To Geometry Essays! The tree of life promises a hierarchical order, and penelope quotes takes authority from Darwin himself, but in microbes at prolife prochoice, least it is not sustained by the very genetic sequences that made such phylogeny possible. Penelope Quotes! Early evolution without a tree of life [55] might seem an alarming vista to many, but Leeuwenhoek would surely have felt at home. He was happiest without a compass.

Perhaps that, more than anything else, is the lesson we still need to learn from scientific, Leeuwenhoek today. There is a danger of complacency in biology, a feeling that the immense computational power of the modern age will ultimately resolve the questions of biology, and medical research more broadly. Quotes! But pathophysiology stems from a nation that is an is, physiology, and penelope physiology is movement, a product of evolution, largely at the level of cells. The eukaryotic cell seems to penelope have arisen in a singular endosymbiosis between prokaryotes, and eukaryotes share a large number of basic traits, few of that which are known in anything like the same form in bacteria or archaea. We know of no surviving evolutionary intermediates between prokaryotes and eukaryotes. We know almost nothing about quotes, which factors drove the evolution of the ones who walk from text many basal eukaryotic traits, from the nucleus to meiosis and sex, to cell deathtraits first observed by Leeuwenhoek.

Why did meiosis and sex arise from lateral gene transfer in bacteria? Why did the odyssey, nucleus evolve in eukaryotes but not in bacteria or archaea? What prevents bacteria from engulfing other cells by phagocytosis? There is no agreement on the answers to Euclid's Essays these questions, nor more broadly to a question that might easily have been asked by Leeuwenhoek himselfwhy is life the way it is? Some of us have argued that eukaryotic evolution is penelope, explicable in terms of the movement, detailed mechanisms of energy conservation, with an penelope quotes, allied requirement for endosymbiosis leading to conflict and scientific movement coadaptation between endosymbionts and their host cells [56]. But these arguments still lack rigorous proof, as do all alternative hypotheses.

In the meantime, we have at best an unreliable map of the land that enchanted Leeuwenhoek. Quotes! We should rejoice and explore. Nick Lane is a Reader in Evolutionary Biochemistry in the Department of Krishna/Hinduism Worldview Genetics, Evolution and Environment at University College London. His research is on penelope odyssey quotes, the role of bioenergetics in the origin of life and the early evolution of cells, focusing on the importance of endosymbiosis and cellular structure in determining the course of evolution. Prochoice! Nick was awarded the quotes, inaugural UCL Provost's Venture Research Fellowship in that is an democracy 2009, the BMC Research Award for Genetics, Genomics, Bioinformatics and Evolution in 2011, and the Biochemical Society Award for 2015.

He leads the UCL Research Frontiers Origins of Life programme and odyssey quotes was a founding member of the UCL Consortium for Mitochondrial Research. He has published some 70 research papers and articles, co-edited two volumes and written four critically acclaimed books on evolutionary biochemistry, which have been translated into 20 languages. His book Life Ascending won the a nation that is an is, 2010 Royal Society Prize for Science Books.

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15 Oracle BPEL Process Manager Workflow Services. A company's business processes drive the integration of penelope odyssey, systems and Essay, people that participate in it. The business process and associated systems have a life cycle and certain behavior. The users who participate in the business process have roles and privileges to odyssey perform tasks in the business process. Using the workflow services of Oracle BPEL Process Manager, you can blend the integration of systems and services with human workflow into a single end-to-end process flow, while providing visibility and enabling exception handling and optimization at various levels. This chapter contains the following topics: Oracle BPEL Process Manager Administrator's Guide for the organizational hierarchy of the demonstration user community used in examples throughout this chapter. SOA_Oracle_Home bpelsystemxmllibworkflow for workflow service WSDL files. 15.1 Oracle BPEL Process Manager Workflow Services 10.1.2 and 10.1.3.1.0 Compatibility. Workflows that you designed in 10.1.2 with the prolife prochoice, workflow wizard can be deployed and run in 10.1.3.1.0. However, you must use the old worklist URL to access these tasks: For release 10.1.3.1.0, the workflow wizard has been replaced by a Human Task editor. This editor enables you to specify task settings such as task outcome, payload structure, task participants, assignment and routing policy, expiration and odyssey quotes, escalation policy, notification settings, and so on. You cannot use the Human Task editor to movement edit 10.1.2-based workflows. To use any new 10.1.3.1.0 functionality, the task scope of the workflow must be manually migrated to use the new workflow metadata. Note also that this is the last release in which you can deploy workflows designed with 10.1.2. 15.2 Overview of penelope, Workflow Services. Workflow services enable you to interleave human interactions with connectivity to systems and services within an end-to-end process flow. As shown in Figure 15-1, workflow services are linked to a BPEL process through a WSDL contract, like any other Web service. The process assigns a task to a user or role and waits for a response. The users act on the task using Oracle BPEL Worklist Application. Figure 15-1 High-Level View of Workflow Services in Euclid's Contributions, Oracle BPEL Process Manager. Penelope Odyssey? Terms used in workflow services include: Task#x2014;work that needs to be done by a user, role, or group. Notification#x2014;an e-mail, voice, fax, pager, or short message service (SMS) message that is 1 corinthians 13:8-10, sent when a user is assigned a task or informed that the odyssey, status of the task has changed. Worklist#x2014;an enumeration of the tasks, or work items, assigned to or of interest to Contributions Essays a user. Human Task editor#x2014;A tool that enables you to specify task settings such as task outcome, payload structure, task participants, assignment and routing policy, expiration and odyssey, escalation policy, notification settings, and that is an democracy, so on. .task file #x2014;The metadata task configuration file that stores the task settings specified with the Human Task editor. Quotes? routing slip#x2014;Contains information about the flow pattern for the workflow, assignees, escalation policy, expiration duration, signature policy, sequence in which the Krishna/Hinduism Worldview, participants interact in the task, and so on. Features of odyssey, workflow services include: Standard work queues #x2014; high priority tasks, tasks due soon, new tasks, and so on. Custom work queues #x2014; Users can define new work queues based on specific search criteria. Proxy work queues #x2014; can grant access to other users to selected work queues. Other users can act on your behalf on those tasks. User rules #x2014; can define custom delegation, auto-approval, or vacation rules. Group rules #x2014; can define auto-assignment rules for roles or groups; for example, round-robin, least-busy, and example is, so on. Task assignment and routing#x2014;includes creating tasks from the business process and assigning the tasks to users or roles. Other task assignment and penelope quotes, routing features include: Support for task expiration and scientific, automatic renewal. Support for task delegation, escalation, and reapproval. Storage of task history information for auditing, extending workflows to include other workflows, and the ability to archive and purge task details based on specified policies. Support for penelope creating custom task escalation rule functions. Override and restrict default system actions. Specify callback classes on task status. JSP-based forms for viewing and updating task details. Dynamic assignment functions. Built-in reports #x2014; Priority reports, productivity reports, cycle time reports, and unattended tasks report. Participant types#x2014;consists of single approver, group vote, management chain, sequential list of approvers, FYI assignees, and external routing services. Identity service#x2014;interacts with back-end identity management systems to capture all user information from away from omelas full Java AuthoriZatioN (JAZN) and LDAP. The identity service provides role-based access control; you can assign permissions to roles and link an organizational hierarchy to a role model for authorization. You can also do the following: Assign worklist privileges to users, roles, or groups. Maintain user properties such as name, location, phone, fax, and e-mail. Capture organizational hierarchy (reporting structure) and group information. Integrate with standard (for example, LDAP-based) directory services for user and role provisioning. Identity Service for identity service concepts. Odyssey? Send notifications to specified users on specified task changes. Notifications through different delivery channels (e-mail, phone, fax, voice, and SMS) Ability to customize content of notifications for different types of tasks. Perform actions on tasks through e-mail. Notification Service for prolife prochoice notification service concepts. The Oracle BPEL Worklist Application. Penelope? Out-of-the-box fully customizable worklist. Support for various user profiles #x2013; end user, supervisor, task owner, group owner, administrator. View tasks based on user or role ability to perform authorized actions on tasks in Contributions to Geometry, the worklist. Ability to filter tasks in worklist view based on various criteria. Ability to acquire and check out shared tasks. Support for custom work queues. Define custom vacation rules and penelope, delegation rules. Provide access to Contributions selected worklist views to other users (proxy support) Complete workflow history and audit trail. Out-of-the-box productivity reports. Penelope Quotes? 15.2.1 Workflow Functionality: A Procurement Process Example. The functionality of workflow services can be illustrated using a simple order approval business process to Essay approve or reject an order, as shown in Figure 15-2. requested items. Approval and rejection is a two-step process involving an initial approver and odyssey, the manager of the initial approver. The order is first assigned to the Supervisor role. Once a user belonging to the Supervisor role approves the a nation that is an of social, order, it is sent to this user's manager for penelope quotes final approval. Figure 15-2 BPEL Workflow. Oracle BPEL Process Manager Order Booking Tutorial for instructions on that is an example of social, designing an order approval business process to approve or reject an order. 15.2.2 Workflow Services Components. Figure 15-3 shows the following workflow services components: The task service provides task state management and persistence of tasks. Odyssey? In addition to these services, the task service exposes operations to update a task, complete a task, escalate and reassign tasks, and so on. The task service is used by the Oracle BPEL Worklist Application to retrieve tasks assigned to prolife users. This service also determines if notifications are to be sent to users and groups when the state of the task changes. The task service consists of the following services. Task Routing Service. The task routing service offers services to route, escalate, and reassign the task. The service makes these decisions by interpreting a declarative specification in the form of the routing slip. Task Query Service. Penelope Odyssey Quotes? The task query service queries tasks for a user based on a variety of search criterion such as keyword, category, status, business process, attribute values, history information of a task, and so on. Task Metadata Service. The task metadata service exposes operations to retrieve metadata information related to a task. The identity service is a thin Web service layer on top of the Oracle Application Server 10 g security infrastructure or any custom user repository. It enables authentication and authorization of users and the lookup of user properties, roles, group memberships, and privileges. Scientific Movement? The notification service delivers notifications with the specified content to the specified user to quotes any of the following channels: e-mail, telephone voice message, pager, fax, and SMS. See Notifications from Workflow Services for more information. User Metadata Service. Movement? The user metadata service manages metadata related to workflow users, such as user work queues, preferences, vacation, and delegation rules. Odyssey? Runtime config service. The runtime config service provides methods for managing metadata used in the task service run time environment. Scientific? It principally supports management of task payload flex field mappings. Figure 15-3 Workflow Services Components. Odyssey Quotes? Figure 15-4 shows the interactions between the services and the business process. Figure 15-4 Workflow Services and who walk away omelas full, Business Process Interactions. 15.3 Use Cases for Workflow Services. Using workflow services is demonstrated in the VacationRequest, AutoLoanDemo, ExpenseRequestApproval, LoanDemoPlus, DocumentReview, HelpDeskServiceRequest, and penelope quotes, OrderApproval demos. The following sections describe multiple use cases for Krishna/Hinduism Worldview workflow services. 15.3.1 Assigning a Task to a User or Role. A vacation request process may start with getting the penelope odyssey quotes, vacation details from a user and then routing the request to their manager for approval. Scientific Movement? User details and the organizational hierarchy can be looked up from a user directory or store. This scenario, shown in Figure 15-5, is described in the OrderApproval sample. Figure 15-5 Assigning Tasks to a User or Role from a Directory. Penelope Quotes? 15.3.2 Using the Various Participant Types. A task can be routed through multiple users with a group vote, management chain, or sequential list of approvers participant type. Essay? For example, consider a loan request that is part of the loan approval flow. The loan request may first be assigned to a loan agent role. After a specific loan agent acquires and accepts the loan, the loan may be routed further through multiple levels of management if the loan amount is greater that $100,000. Penelope? This scenario, shown in Figure 15-6, is movement, described in the LoanDemoPlus sample. Figure 15-6 Flow Patterns and Routing Policies. Odyssey? See Participant Types in Workflow Services for the various flow types supported by workflow services. You can use these types as building blocks to create complex workflows. 15.3.3 Escalation, Expiration, and Euclid's Contributions, Delegation. A high-priority task can be assigned to penelope odyssey a certain user or role based on the task type. However, if the user does not act on example of social democracy, it in a certain time, the task may expire and in turn be escalated to the manager for further action. As part of the escalation, you may also notify the users by e-mail, telephone voice message, SMS, pager, or fax. Similarly, a manager may delegate tasks from one reportee to another to balance the load between various task assignees. All tasks defined in BPEL have an penelope odyssey associated expiration date. Additionally, you may specify escalation or renewal policies, as shown in Figure 15-7. For example, consider a support call, which is part of the HelpDeskServiceRequest process. A high-priority task may be assigned to a certain user and if the user does not respond in two days, then the task is routed to Euclid's Contributions to Geometry the manager for further action. Figure 15-7 Escalation and Notification. 15.3.4 Automatic Assignment and penelope, Delegation. A user may decide to have another user perform tasks on Euclid's Essays, their behalf. Tasks can be explicitly delegated from the Oracle BPEL Worklist Application or can be automatically delegated. For example, a manager sets up a vacation rule saying that all their high priority tasks are automatically routed to one of their reports while the quotes, manager is on vacation. In some cases, tasks can be routed to different individuals based on the content of the task. Another example of automatic routing is to allocate tasks among multiple individuals belonging to a group. For example, a help desk supervisor decides to allocate all tasks for the western region based on a round robin basis or assign tasks to the individual with the lowest number of outstanding tasks (the least busy). Prolife Prochoice? 15.3.5 Work Queues and Proxy Support. It is often required that one user be provided with access to part of another user's worklist. Penelope Quotes? For example, an executive decides to Worldview Essay provide access to expense approvals within a certain limit to their secretary. Penelope Odyssey? Work queues allow you to example of social democracy create a custom view to penelope group a subset of Krishna/Hinduism, tasks in odyssey, the worklist (say high priority tasks, tasks due in 24 hours, expense approval tasks, and so on). These work queues can then be granted to other users who can then act on the task owner's behalf. For example, in Euclid's to Geometry, the scenario described above, the executive can create a delegated expense approvals work queue for expenses below $5000. 15.3.6 The Oracle BPEL Worklist Application. Users typically access tasks assigned to them by using the Oracle BPEL Worklist Application, as shown in Figure 15-8. A worklist consists of tasks assigned to the user as well as the groups to which they belong. A task may also include forms and attachments in penelope odyssey quotes, addition to other task details such as history, comments, and approval sequence. The worklist may also be accessed from OracleAS Portal or other clients to act on tasks as well as get productivity reports. A Nation Of Social? The Oracle BPEL Worklist Application can be customized and extended based on the specific needs of an application. See Chapter 16, Worklist Application for details about worklist functionality and the sample Oracle BPEL Worklist Application. Figure 15-8 Oracle BPEL Worklist Application#x2014;Access Tasks, Forms, Attachments, and Reports. 15.4 Participant Types in Workflow Services. Oracle BPEL Process Manager provides a library of participant types (known in previous releases as workflow patterns). You can choose a participant type that meets your business requirement and model your workflow based on the participant type. Oracle BPEL Process Manager supports the following participant types: Single Approver #x2014; used for penelope quotes a single user to act on a task. If the task is assigned to a role or group with multiple users, one of the members must claim the 13:8-10, task and act on it. Based on the user's action, you define what the business process does. Group Vote #x2014; used when multiple users, working in parallel, must take action simultaneously, such as in a hiring situation when multiple users vote to hire or reject an applicant. Odyssey Quotes? You specify the voting percentage that is needed for the outcome to take effect, such as a majority vote or a unanimous vote. Management Chain#x2014;used to route tasks for approval to multiple users in Worldview, a management chain hierarchy. You specify the penelope odyssey quotes, task participants as a management chain list or a list of users. Sequential list of approvers (extension of a sequential workflow)#x2014;used to create a list of sequential participants for 13:8-10 a workflow. Penelope Odyssey Quotes? This type is similar to the management chain participant type, except that with that type, the users are part of an organization hierarchy. For the sequential list of approvers participant type, they can be any list of movement, users or groups. FYI assignee #x2014; used when a task is sent to a user, but the odyssey quotes, business process does not wait for a user response; it just continues. FYI assignees cannot directly impact the outcome of a task, but in some cases can provide comments or add attachments. 1 Corinthians 13:8-10? External Routing Service #x2014;used to configure an penelope external routing service that dynamically determines the participants in the workflow. If this participant type is a nation that example of social democracy is, specified, all other participant types are ignored. It is assumed that the external routing service provides a list of penelope odyssey, participant types (single approver, list of approvers, group vote, and Essay, so on) at penelope run time to determine the routing of the task. 15.4.1 Continuing Workflows from Other Workflows. Worldview? You can have situations where you need to continue a previous workflow task in the current workflow task. Oracle BPEL Process Manager enables you to include the task history, comments, and attachments from the previous task. This provides you with a complete end-to-end audit trail. 15.5 Overview of the Modeling Process. Odyssey? The modeling process consists of Essay, creating a human task, associating it with a BPEL process, and generating the penelope odyssey, format for displaying the human task during run time in the Oracle BPEL Worklist Application. This section provides a brief overview of these modeling tasks and provides references to specific modeling instructions. 15.5.1 Create a Human Task Definition with the Human Task Editor. The Human Task editor enables you to define the metadata for the task. The Ones Away Full? This editor enables you to specify human task settings, such as task outcome, payload structure, task participants, assignment and routing policy, expiration and escalation policy, notification settings, and so on. This information is saved to a metadata task configuration file with a .task extension. 15.5.2 Associate the Human Task Definition with a BPEL Process. You associate the .task file that consists of the human task settings with a BPEL process. Association is penelope, made with a human task activity that you drag and drop into movement your BPEL process for configuring. Penelope? You also define the task definition, task initiator, task priority, and map the task parameter that carries the input data to a BPEL variable. You can also define advanced features, such as the the ones away full, scope and global task variables names (instead of accepting the default names), task owner, identification key, BPEL callback customizations, and whether to extend the human task to include other workflow tasks. Penelope? When association is complete, a Task Service partner link is created. The Task Service exposes the operations required to act on the task. 15.5.3 Generate the that is an of social democracy, Task Display Form. You generate the layout of the odyssey quotes, task display form used for displaying the task header, body (task payload), and footer details at run time in Oracle BPEL Worklist Application. The task display form defines the display mechanism for the task payload (data in the task) in the Oracle BPEL Worklist Application. Two types of task display forms are available for prolife prochoice use: simple task form and custom task form. 15.6 Task 1: Creating the penelope quotes, Human Task Definition with the Human Task Editor. Scientific Movement? The Human Task editor enables you to define the metadata for the task. This editor enables you to penelope odyssey quotes specify human task settings, such as task outcome, payload structure, task participants, assignment and routing policy, expiration and escalation policy, notification settings, and so on. When human task creation is complete, the following folder and file are created: A folder with the human task name you specify in the Human Task Name field in Accessing the Human Task Editor is created under the Integration Content folder of your BPEL process in the Application Navigator. The human task settings specified in scientific, the Human Task editor are saved to a metadata task configuration file with a .task extension. This file is stored in the human task name folder. You can re-edit the settings in this file at any time by double-clicking it in the Application Navigator . This reopens the penelope quotes, .task file in the Human Task editor. This section contains the following topics: 15.6.1 Accessing the 1 corinthians 13:8-10, Human Task Editor. When you are ready to begin creation of a human task, the Human Task editor can be accessed in several ways in Oracle JDeveloper: 15.6.1.1 From the Application Navigator. This method enables you to create a human task that you can later associate with a BPEL process through use of a human task activity. Penelope? Right-click your BPEL process in prolife, the Application Navigator and select Create Human Task Definition . The Add a Human Task window appears. Enter a name in the Human Task Name field. The name you enter is added to the directory path in the Location field. The Human Task editor appears. You can also create a human task that you later associate with a BPEL process by selecting New from the File main menu, then selecting Integration Tier Human Tasks Human Task Definition . This method enables you to create a human task activity with which you immediately associate a BPEL process through use of a human task activity. Select Process Activities from the odyssey, Component Palette . Drag and drop a Human Task activity into your BPEL process. The Add a Human Task window appears. Click the second icon to the right of the scientific movement, Task Definition field. Enter a name in the Human Task Name field. Quotes? The name you enter is added to the directory path in the Location field. The Human Task editor appears. Krishna/Hinduism Essay? 15.6.2 Reviewing the penelope quotes, Sections of the a nation example democracy, Human Task Editor. The Human Task editor consists of the following main sections shown in Figure 15-9. These sections enable you to create a human task. Figure 15-9 Human Task Editor. Instructions for using these main sections of the Human Task editor to create a workflow task are listed in Table 15-1. Table 15-1 Human Task Editor. (title, outcomes, priority, and owner) (for specifying custom escalation rules, custom style sheets for attachments, multilingual settings, custom task actions, error messages, and callback classes) 15.6.3 Specifying the Task Title, Priority, Outcome, and Owner. Figure 15-10 shows the Task Configuration section of the Human Task editor. This section enables you to specify details such as the quotes, task title, task priority, task outcomes, and task owner. Figure 15-10 Human Task Editor #x2014; Task Configuration Section. Instructions for configuring the to Geometry, following subsections of the Task Configuration section are listed in Table 15-2: Table 15-2 Human Task Editor #x2014; Task Configuration Section. 15.6.3.1 Specifying a Task Title and Priority. Enter the following details. See Also: Specifying the Task Initiator and odyssey quotes, Task Priority for instructions on specifying a priority value in the Add a Human Task window. Task outcomes capture the possible outcomes of a task. The Oracle BPEL Worklist Application displays the prochoice, outcomes you specify here as the odyssey quotes, possible actions to perform during run time. You can specify the following types of task outcomes: Select a seeded outcome. Enter a custom outcome. The task outcomes can also have run time display values that are different from the actual outcome value specified here. This permits outcomes to be displayed in of social is, a different language in quotes, the Oracle BPEL Worklist Application. 1 Corinthians 13:8-10? See Specifying Multilingual Settings for more information about internationalization. Click the flashlight icon to the right of the Outcomes field. The Outcomes window displays the possible outcomes for tasks. APPROVE and REJECT are selected by default. Select additional task outcomes or deselect the default outcomes. Enter any custom outcomes separated by penelope odyssey commas in the Custom Outcomes field. Click OK to is an example of social return to the Human Task editor. Your selections display in the Outcomes field. The seeded and custom outcomes selected here display for selection in the Majority Voted Outcome section of the group vote participant type. 15.6.3.2.1 Displaying Custom Outcomes in a Human Task Activity. Penelope Odyssey Quotes? The method by which you create a human task definition determines whether custom outcomes initially display in who walk from omelas full text, a switch activity. If you perform the following tasks: Drag and drop a human task activity into the design window. Click the Create Task Definition icon (second icon) to the right of the Task Definition field. Create a human task definition with custom outcomes. Expand the human task activity. Note that the custom outcomes do not initially display in the switch activity. Penelope Odyssey Quotes? As a workaround, perform the example democracy is, following steps: Click the human task activity to display the odyssey quotes, Human Task window. Click Yes when prompted to update your human task definition to account for prochoice the custom outcomes. Open the switch activity of the human task activity and note that the custom outcomes now appear. Or, always create human task definition files as follows: Right-click the BPEL process in the A pplication Navigator . Select Create Human Task Definition . Design a human task definition. Drag a new human task activity into the design window and associate it with this human task definition file. Open the quotes, switch activity of the human task activity and note that the custom outcomes appear. The task owner can view the tasks belonging to business processes they own and a nation that is, perform operations on behalf of any of the assigned task participant types. Additionally, the owner can also reassign, withdraw, or escalate tasks. This optional field defaults to the system user bpeladmin if not specified. The task owner can also be specified in the Advanced tab of the Human Task window described in Specifying a Task Owner. The task owner specified in the Advanced tab overrides any task owner you enter here. Select a method for penelope odyssey specifying the 1 corinthians, task owner: 15.6.3.3.1 Specifying a Task Owner By Browsing the User Directory. Task owners can be selected by browsing the user directory (Oracle Internet Directory (OID), JAZN/XML, LDAP, and so on) that is configured for use with Oracle BPEL Process Manager. Click the first icon to the right of the Owner field to display the Identity lookup dialog. Search for the owner by entering a search string such as jcooper, j*, *, and so on. Clicking Lookup fetches all the users that match the search criteria. One or more users or groups can be highlighted and selected by penelope odyssey clicking Select . View the hierarchy of a user by highlighting the user and clicking Hierarchy . Similarly, clicking Reportees displays the reportees of Worldview Essay, a selected user or group. View the details of a user or group by highlighting the user or group and clicking Detail . Click OK to return to the Identity lookup dialog. Click Select to add the user to the Selected user section. Click OK to return to the Human Task editor. Your selection displays in the Owner field. 15.6.3.3.2 Specifying a Task Owner Dynamically. Task owners can be selected dynamically in the Expression Builder window. Click the second icon to the right of the Owner field to display the Expression Builder window: Browse the available variable schemas and functions to create a task owner. Penelope Odyssey Quotes? Click OK to return to the Human Task editor. You selection displays in the Owner field. Click Help for instructions on using the Expression Builder window and Krishna/Hinduism Essay, XPath Building Assistant. 15.6.4 Specifying the Task Payload Data Structure. Figure 15-11 shows the Parameters section of the Human Task editor. This section enables you to penelope define the structure (message attributes) of the task payload (the data in the task). Task payload data consists of one or more elements or types. Based on prolife, your selections, an XML schema definition is created for the task payload. Figure 15-11 Human Task Editor #x2014; Parameters Section. Click the penelope odyssey quotes, + sign to prochoice display the Add Task Parameter window. Enter the following details: You can only quotes, define payload flex field mappings in the Oracle BPEL Worklist Application for payload parameters that are simple XML types. Click OK to the ones who walk from full text return to the Human Task editor. Your selection displays in the Parameters section. If you want to edit your selection, highlight it and click the first icon in penelope, the upper right part of the Parameters section. Worldview Essay? Figure 15-12 shows the Assignment and Routing Policy section of the Human Task editor. This section enables you to select a participant type that meets your business requirement. In previous Oracle BPEL Process Manager releases, participant types were known as workflow patterns. Odyssey? You can mix and match multiple participant types to model the human task. The Ones Omelas Text? This enables you to extend the functionality of penelope quotes, a previously configured human task to model more complex workflows. Each of the participant types has an associated editor that you use for configuration tasks. The sequence in which the assignees are added indicates the execution sequence. Figure 15-12 Human Task Editor #x2014; Assignment and Routing Policy Section. Click the scientific, + sign to display the Add Participant Type window. Penelope Odyssey Quotes? This enables you to select a specific participant type. Select a participant type from the Type list. The configuration tasks for each participant type are described in subsequent sections. See the following section based on your selection: Sequential list of approvers. External routing service. See the prolife prochoice, following task assignment and routing policy sections shown in Figure 15-12 after you have configured a participant type. These sections are only available for selection after a participant type has been created. Users and groups for each of the participant types can be specified either statically or dynamically.When the users and odyssey quotes, groups are specified statically (or by browsing the identity service), the values can be either of the following: A single user or group (for example, jstein ), which in the case of Worldview, a single approver, is captured as follows: A delimited string of users or groups (for example, jstein , wfaulk , cdickens ), which in the case of a single approver, is captured as follows: You may have a business requirement to create a dynamic list of odyssey, task approvers specified in a payload variable. This XPath expression can resolve to zero or more XML nodes. Each node value can be either of the following: A single user or group. A delimited string of users or groups. For example, the following task shows that the payload message attribute is of type xsd:String and its value is a comma-delimited string of approvers. This node can be used to Krishna/Hinduism specify the participants. The default delimiter for the assignee delimited string is a comma ( , ). This delimiter can be changed using the assigneeDelimiter XML element in the wf-config.xml file. This delimiter applies to all workflows in quotes, the system. Specifying participants in this manner is applicable to all participant types, although they are interpreted differently for each type. For example: In a single user participant type, the task is assigned to everyone evaluated. Euclid's Contributions To Geometry? In a sequential list of quotes, approvers participant type, the task is sequentially assigned to users and Euclid's Contributions to Geometry, groups evaluated in penelope quotes, the list. In a group vote participant type, a task is created for each user and group evaluated in the list. This interpretation of resource XPath expressions provides orcl:create-nodeset-from-delimited-string -equivalent functionality to Krishna/Hinduism enable you to specify a dynamic list of one or more task approvers (resource element members) from the payload variable. Penelope Odyssey? 15.6.5.2 Configuring the Single Approver Participant Type. Figure 15-13 displays the 1 corinthians, Single Approver window. This participant type requires a single user to act on a task. If the task is assigned to a role or group with multiple users, one of the penelope, members must claim the task and act on it. Based on the user's action, you define what the business process does. Example Democracy Is? For example, a vacation request is assigned to a manager. The manager must act on the request task three days before the vacation starts. If the manager formally approves or rejects the request, the penelope, employee is Euclid's Contributions, notified with the penelope odyssey quotes, decision. If the manager does not act on the task, the request is treated as rejected. Notification actions similar to the formal rejection are taken. Figure 15-13 Add Participant Type #x2014; Single Approver. Enter a recognizable label for this participant in the Label field. This label must be unique within this workflow (for example, Approval Manager , Primary Reviewers , and so on). Instructions for configuring the following subsections of the Add Participant Type - Single Approver window are listed in Euclid's Essays, Table 15-3: Table 15-3 Add Participant Type #x2014; Single Approver. 15.6.5.2.1 Assigning Participants to the Single Approver Task. Select a method for assigning a user or group to participate in performing actions on this task. Enter a user or group name or click the first icon ( flashlight ) to the right of the field to display a window for selecting a user or group configured through the identity service. Odyssey Quotes? The identity service enables user authorization and the lookup of user properties, roles, group memberships, and privileges. Essay? User information is obtained from Java AuthoriZatioN (JAZN) or an LDAP server such as Oracle Internet Directory. You can use wild cards (*) to search for IDs. Dynamically assign this task to a user (for example, jcooper ) or group (for example, administrators ) by clicking the icon to the right of the field to display the Expression Builder window. Odyssey Quotes? Users who are members of a group are assigned this task. For a user to act on a task assigned to a group, they must first claim the task in the Oracle BPEL Worklist Application during run time. That Example Democracy? The XPath expressions for specifying assignees must follow these rules: They must be based off the task XSD. Odyssey Quotes? This includes the payload as defined in the payload section. For example, /task:task/task:payload/order:orderAssignee is an example of an XPath expression based of the task XSD. The XPath expressions cannot contain BPEL-specific XPath functions such as bpws:getVariableData() , and so on full text, because these XPath expressions are not evaluated from the context of a BPEL instance. The XPath expressions can contain XPath functions that are BPEL-independent. This includes identity service XPath functions like ids:getManager() , and so on. 15.6.5.2.2 Bypassing a Task Participant. Penelope Odyssey? Select the Specify skip rule check box if you want the Euclid's, user or group to be bypassed if a specific condition is satisfied. This action displays an icon for accessing the Expression Builder window for building a condition. For example, if a user submits a business trip expense report that is below a specific amount, no approval is required by their manager. Penelope Quotes? The expression to bypass a task participant must evaluate to a Boolean value. For example, /task:task/task:payload/order:orderAmount 1000 is Krishna/Hinduism Essay, a valid XPath expression for skipping a participant. 15.6.5.2.3 Specifying a Time Limit for Acting on a Task. Click the odyssey quotes, + sign to expand the Advanced section shown in Figure 15-13. Select Limit allocated duration to . Specify the amount of time a user or group receives to act on a task. If the user or group does not act in the time specified, the global escalation and renewal policies that you set in the Expiration and Escalation Policy section (known as the routing slip level) of the a nation is an example democracy, Human Task editor are applied. For example, if the global policy is set to escalate the task and this participant does not act in the duration provided, the task is escalated to the manager or another user, as appropriate. Escalating, Renewing, or Ending the penelope odyssey, Task for instructions on setting the global escalation and Krishna/Hinduism Worldview Essay, renewal policies in the Expiration and Escalation Policy section of the Human Task editor. Odyssey? 15.6.5.2.4 Inviting Additional Participants to a Task. Click the + sign to expand the Advanced section (if not already expanded). The Ones Away From Full Text? Select the Allow this participant to odyssey quotes invite other participants check box if you want this task assignee to invite other participants into the workflow before routing it to the next assignee in Essay, this workflow. For example, assume the odyssey, approval workflow goes from movement James Cooper to John Steinbeck. If this option is checked, James Cooper can decide to first route it to penelope odyssey quotes Irving Stone before it goes to John Steinbeck. 15.6.5.3 Configuring the Group Vote Participant Type. Figure 15-14 displays the Group Vote window. This participant type is Essays, used when multiple users, working in parallel, must take action simultaneously, such as in a hiring situation when multiple users vote to quotes hire or reject an applicant. You specify the voting percentage that is needed for Euclid's to Geometry Essays the outcome to take effect, such as a majority vote or a unanimous vote. Penelope? For example, a business process collects the feedback from all interviewers in the hiring process, consolidates it, and assigns a hire or reject request to each of the interviewers. That Of Social? At the end, the candidate is hired if the majority of interviewers vote for hiring instead of penelope quotes, rejecting. Figure 15-14 Add Participant Type #x2014; Group Vote. Enter a recognizable label for this participant in 1 corinthians 13:8-10, the Label field. This label must be unique within this workflow (for example, Approval Manager , Primary Reviewers , and so on). Instructions for configuring the following subsections of the Add Participant Type - Group Vote window are listed in Table 15-4: Table 15-4 Add Participant Type #x2014; Group Vote Window. Immediately trigger voted outcome when minimum percentage is met. Wait until all votes are in before triggering outcome. 15.6.5.3.1 Assigning Participants to the Group Vote Task. Select a method for assigning a user or group to participate in this task. The assigned participants must establish a consensus on odyssey, when a task is considered complete. Enter a user or group name or click the first icon ( flashlight ) to the right of the field to display a window for Krishna/Hinduism Worldview Essay selecting a user or group configured through the identity service. The identity service enables user authorization and the lookup of quotes, user properties, roles, group memberships, and privileges. User information is obtained from Java AuthoriZatioN (JAZN) or an LDAP server such as Oracle Internet Directory. You can use wild cards (*) to search for IDs. Worldview Essay? Dynamically assign this task to a user (for example, jcooper ) or group (for example, administrators ) by clicking the odyssey, icon to the right of the field to display the Expression Builder window. Users who are members of a group are assigned this task. For a user to act on a task assigned to a group, they must first claim the task in the Oracle BPEL Worklist Application during run time. Assigning Participants to the Single Approver Task for rules to 1 corinthians follow when specifying assignees with XPath expressions. 15.6.5.3.2 Bypassing a Task Participant. Select the quotes, Specify skip rule check box if you want the user or group to be bypassed if a specific condition is satisfied. Worldview? This action displays an icon for accessing the Expression Builder window for building a condition. For example, if a user submits a business trip expense report that is below a specific amount, no approval is required by their manager. The expression must evaluate to penelope a Boolean value. Bypassing a Task Participant for 1 corinthians 13:8-10 an example of a valid XPath expression for skipping a participant. 15.6.5.3.3 Sharing Attachments and Comments with Task Participants. Select the Share attachments and comments check box if you want all group voters or workflow participants to share comments and attachments for this task. Odyssey Quotes? This information typically displays in the footer region of the Oracle BPEL Worklist Application. 15.6.5.3.4 Specifying Group Voting Details. Specify a method for selecting the outcome for the final task. If you select By Expression from the lists below, you can dynamically specify the details by 13:8-10 clicking the icon to penelope the right of the field to display the Expression Builder window. Select the default outcome for this task to 1 corinthians 13:8-10 take effect if the consensus percentage value is penelope odyssey, not satisfied. This happens if there is a tie or if all participants do not respond before the task expires. The Ones Away From Full? Seeded and penelope, custom outcomes that you entered in the Outcomes window in Specifying a Task Outcome display in 13:8-10, this list. Select a percentage value required for the outcome of this task to take effect; for example, a majority vote ( 51 ) or a unanimous vote ( 100 ). For example, assume there are two possible outcomes ( ACCEPT and REJECT ) and five subtasks. Penelope Quotes? If two subtasks are accepted and three are rejected, and the required acceptance percentage is 50%, the outcome of the Essays, task is rejected. Specify additional group voting details: Immediately trigger voted outcome when minimum percentage is met. If selected, the odyssey, outcome of the task can be computed early with the outcomes of the prolife prochoice, completed subtasks, enabling the pending subtasks to be withdrawn. For example, assume four users are assigned to act on a task, the default outcome is APPROVE , and the consensus percentage is set at 50 . If the penelope odyssey quotes, first two users approve the task, the third and fourth users do not need to act on the task, since the consensus percentage value has already been satisfied. Wait until all votes are in before triggering outcome. If selected, the workflow waits for all responses before an outcome is initiated. 15.6.5.3.5 Specifying a Time Limit for Acting on a Task. Click the + sign to expand the Advanced section shown in Figure 15-14. Select Limit allocated duration to Euclid's Contributions Essays . Specify the amount of penelope odyssey quotes, time a user or group receives to act on to Geometry, a task. If the user or group does not act in the time specified, the global escalation and renewal policies that you set in the Expiration and Escalation Policy section (known as the routing slip level) of the Human Task editor are applied. For example, if the global policy is set to escalate the task and odyssey, this participant does not act in Euclid's Essays, the duration provided, the task is escalated to penelope the manager or another user, as appropriate. Escalating, Renewing, or Ending the Task for instructions on setting the global escalation and renewal policies in the Expiration and Escalation Policy section of the Human Task editor. 15.6.5.4 Configuring the Management Chain Participant Type. Worldview? Figure 15-15 displays the Management Chain window. This participant type routes tasks for approval to multiple users in a management chain hierarchy. You specify the task participants as a management chain list or a list of users. For example, a purchase order is assigned to a manager. Penelope Odyssey Quotes? If the manager approves the order, it is assigned to their manager. If that manager approves it, it is scientific movement, assigned to their manager, and so on until three managers approve the order. If any of the penelope odyssey, managers reject the request or the request expires, the order is rejected. Figure 15-15 Add Participant Type #x2014; Management Chain. Enter a recognizable label for this participant in the Label field. This label must be unique within this workflow (for example, Approval Manager , Primary Reviewers , and so on). Instructions for configuring the Essays, following subsections of the Add Participant Type - Management Chain window are listed in Table 15-5: Table 15-5 Add Participant Type - Management Chain. Highest Title of Approver. 15.6.5.4.1 Assigning Participants to the Management Chain Task. Select a method for assigning a user or group to participate in this task. Enter a user or group name or click the penelope odyssey, first icon ( flashlight ) to a nation that example of social democracy is the right of the field to display a window for selecting a user or group configured through the identity service. The identity service enables user authorization and the lookup of user properties, roles, group memberships, and privileges. User information is obtained from Java AuthoriZatioN (JAZN) or an LDAP server such as Oracle Internet Directory. You can use wild cards (*) to search for IDs. Dynamically assign this task to a user (for example, jcooper ) or group (for example, administrators ) by clicking the icon to the right of the penelope, field to display the Expression Builder window. Users who are members of a group are assigned this task. For a user to example of social democracy is act on a task assigned to a group, they must first claim the task in the Oracle BPEL Worklist Application during run time. Penelope Quotes? Assigning Participants to 13:8-10 the Single Approver Task for rules to follow when specifying assignees with XPath expressions. 15.6.5.4.2 Bypassing a Task Participant. Select the odyssey, Specify skip rule check box if you want the user or group to be bypassed if a specific condition is satisfied. This action displays an the ones from omelas text icon for accessing the Expression Builder window for building a condition. For example, if a user submits a business trip expense report that is quotes, below a specific amount, no approval is required by their manager. The expression must evaluate to a Boolean value. Bypassing a Task Participant for an example of a valid XPath expression for 1 corinthians 13:8-10 skipping a participant. 15.6.5.4.3 Specifying the Number of Approvers. Specify the following task routing parameters. When both parameters are specified, task routing is determined by both parameters. The routing continues until one of these parameters is satisfied. Penelope? If you select By Expression from the lists below, you can dynamically specify the details by scientific movement clicking the icon to quotes the right of the field to display the Expression Builder window. Maximum Number of Chain Levels Up. Enter a value for the number of levels in the management chain to include in this task. For example, if set to 2 and the task is initially assigned to user jcooper , both the user jstein (manager of jcooper ) and Essay, the user wfaulk (manager of jstein ) are included in penelope odyssey quotes, the list (apart from jcooper , the initial assignee). This is a mandatory field. Highest Title of Approver. Select the title of the last (highest) user in the management chain. The title is retrieved from the identity service. 15.6.5.4.4 Specifying a Time Limit for Acting on a Task. Click the + sign to expand the Advanced section shown in Figure 15-15. Select Limit allocated duration to prolife prochoice . Specify the penelope quotes, amount of the ones who walk away omelas full, time a user or group receives to act on a task. If the user or group does not act in odyssey, the time specified, the global escalation and renewal policies that you set in the Expiration and Escalation Policy section (known as the routing slip level) of the Human Task editor are applied. For example, if the Euclid's to Geometry, global policy is set to escalate the task and this participant does not act in the duration provided, the task is escalated to the manager or another user, as appropriate. Escalating, Renewing, or Ending the Task for instructions on setting the global escalation and renewal policies in the Expiration and Escalation Policy section of the Human Task editor. 15.6.5.4.5 Inviting Additional Participants to a Task. Click the + sign to expand the Advanced section (if not already expanded). Select Allow this participant to invite other participants if you want this task assignee to invite other participants into odyssey quotes the workflow before routing it to the next assignee in this workflow. For example, assume the approval workflow goes from James Cooper to John Steinbeck. If this option is checked, James Cooper can decide to first route it to Essays Irving Stone before it goes to John Steinbeck. For the management chain participant type, the additional participants can be invited only by the last user in the management chain. 15.6.5.5 Configuring the Sequential List of Approvers Participant Type. Penelope Quotes? Figure 15-16 displays the Sequential List of Approvers window. 1 Corinthians? This enables you to create a list of sequential participants for a workflow. For example, if you want a document to be reviewed by John, Mary, and Scott in sequence, use this participant type. This is similar to the management chain participant type, except that with that type, the users are part of an penelope quotes organization hierarchy. For the Krishna/Hinduism, sequential list of approvers participant type, they can be any list of users or groups. Figure 15-16 Add Participant Type #x2014; Sequential List of Approvers. Enter a recognizable label for this participant in the Label field. This label must be unique within this workflow (for example, Approval Manager , Primary Reviewers , and penelope quotes, so on). Instructions for configuring the 1 corinthians, following subsections of the Add Participant Type - Sequential List of penelope odyssey quotes, Approvers window are listed in Table 15-6. Table 15-6 Add Participant Type #x2014; Sequential List of Approvers. 15.6.5.5.1 Assigning Participants to the Sequential List of Approvers Task. Select a method for assigning a user or group to Euclid's Contributions to Geometry participate in quotes, this task. 1 Corinthians 13:8-10? Enter a user or group name or click the first icon ( flashlight ) to the right of the field to display a window for selecting a user or group configured through the identity service. The identity service enables user authorization and the lookup of user properties, roles, group memberships, and quotes, privileges. User information is obtained from 13:8-10 Java AuthoriZatioN (JAZN) or an LDAP server such as Oracle Internet Directory. You can use wild cards (*) to search for IDs. Dynamically assign this task to a user (for example, jcooper ) or group (for example, administrators ) by penelope clicking the icon to the right of the field to display the Expression Builder window. Users who are members of a group are assigned this task. For a user to act on a task assigned to a group, they must first claim the task in the Oracle BPEL Worklist Application during run time. Assigning Participants to the Single Approver Task for rules to follow when specifying assignees with XPath expressions. 15.6.5.5.2 Bypassing a Task Participant. Select the Specify skip rule check box if you want the user or group to Krishna/Hinduism Essay be bypassed if a specific condition is satisfied. This action displays an icon for accessing the Expression Builder window for building a condition. For example, if a user submits a business trip expense report that is below a specific amount, no approval is required by their manager. The expression must evaluate to a Boolean value. Bypassing a Task Participant for an example of a valid XPath expression for skipping a participant. 15.6.5.5.3 Specifying a Time Limit for Acting on a Task. Click the + sign to expand the Advanced section shown in Figure 15-16. Penelope? Click Limit allocated duration to . Specify the Euclid's Contributions, amount of time a user or group receives to act on a task. If the user or group does not act in the time specified, the global escalation and renewal policies that you set in the Expiration and Escalation Policy section (known as the routing slip level) of the Human Task editor are applied. For example, if the global policy is set to escalate the task and odyssey, this participant does not act in a nation that democracy, the duration provided, the task is escalated to the manager or another user, as appropriate. Escalating, Renewing, or Ending the Task for instructions on setting the global escalation and renewal policies in the Expiration and Escalation Policy section of the Human Task editor. 15.6.5.5.4 Inviting Additional Participants to a Task. Click the + sign to expand the Advanced section (if not already expanded). Odyssey Quotes? Select Allow this participant to invite other participants if you want this task assignee to 13:8-10 invite other participants into the workflow before routing it to the next assignee in this workflow. For example, assume the approval workflow goes from James Cooper to John Steinbeck. If this option is checked, James Cooper can decide to first route it to Irving Stone before it goes to John Steinbeck. For the sequential list of approvers participant type, the additional participants can be invited only by quotes the last user in the management chain. 15.6.5.6 Configuring the FYI Assignee Participant Type. Figure 15-17 displays the FYI Assignee window. This participant type is used when a task is sent to a user, but the business process does not wait for prolife a user response; it just continues. FYI assignees cannot directly impact the outcome of a task, but in some cases can provide comments or add attachments. For example, a magazine subscription is due for odyssey renewal. If the user does not cancel the current subscription before the expiration date, the subscription is Contributions to Geometry, renewed. This user is reminded weekly until the request expires or the user acts on it. Figure 15-17 Add Participant Type #x2014; FYI Assignee. Enter a recognizable label for this participant in the Label field. This label must be unique within this workflow (for example, Approval Manager , Primary Reviewers , and so on). Instructions for configuring the following subsections of the Add Participant Type - FYI Assignee window are listed in Table 15-7: Table 15-7 Add Participant Type - FYI Assignee. 15.6.5.6.1 Assigning Participants to the FYI Assignee Task. Select a method for assigning a user or group to participate in this task. Enter a user or group name or click the penelope, first icon ( flashlight ) to the right of the field to display a window for selecting a user or group configured through the identity service. The identity service enables user authorization and the lookup of Essay, user properties, roles, group memberships, and privileges. User information is obtained from Java AuthoriZatioN (JAZN) or an LDAP server such as Oracle Internet Directory. You can use wild cards (*) to search for IDs. Dynamically assign this task to a user (for example, jcooper ) or group (for example, administrators ) by clicking the penelope odyssey quotes, icon to the right of the field to display the Expression Builder window. Users who are members of that of social democracy, a group are assigned this task. For a user to odyssey quotes act on a task assigned to a group, they must first claim the task in Euclid's Contributions, the Oracle BPEL Worklist Application during run time. Assigning Participants to penelope odyssey the Single Approver Task for rules to follow when specifying assignees with XPath expressions. That Is An? 15.6.5.6.2 Sharing Attachments and Comments with Task Participants. Select the Share attachments and penelope quotes, comments check box if you want all group voters or workflow participants to share comments and attachments for Krishna/Hinduism Worldview Essay this task. This information typically displays in the footer region of the Oracle BPEL Worklist Application. 15.6.5.7 Configuring the penelope, External Routing Service Participant Type. Figure 15-18 displays the External Routing Service window. This participant type enables you to Essay configure an odyssey quotes external routing service that dynamically determines the participants in the workflow. If this participant type is that democracy, specified, all other participant types are ignored. It is penelope quotes, assumed that the external routing service provides a list of participant types (single approver, list of approvers, group vote, and so on) at run time to determine the Euclid's Contributions to Geometry, routing of the task. Odyssey Quotes? Figure 15-18 Add Participant Type #x2014; External Routing Service. Enter a recognizable label for this participant in the Label field. This label must be unique within this workflow (for example, Approval Manager , Primary Reviewers , and so on). Enter the scientific, fully qualified class file name or click the flashlight icon to select the name (for example, the org.mycompany.tasks.RoutingService class name). This class must implement the odyssey quotes, oracle.bpel.services.workflow.task.IAssignmentService interface. Click the + sign to add name and pair value parameters that can be passed to the external service. 15.6.5.8 Allowing All Participants to prolife Invite Other Participants. After you configure a participant type and are returned to the Human Task editor, the Allow all participants to invite other participants check box is enabled, as shown in Figure 15-19. Figure 15-19 Human Task Editor #x2014; Assignment and Routing Policy Section. Penelope? This check box is the equivalent of the Adhoc workflow pattern of previous BPEL releases. Of Social? This applies when there is at least one participant. In this case, each user selects users or groups as the next assignee when approving the task. If you want this task assignee to invite other participants into the workflow before routing it to the next assignee in this workflow, select the penelope odyssey quotes, Allow all participants to invite other participants check box. 15.6.5.9 Abruptly Completing a Condition. After you configure a participant type and are returned to scientific the Human Task editor, the Enable abrupt completion condition check box is enabled, as shown in Figure 15-19. Penelope? If you want to specify conditions under which to complete the task early, regardless of the other participants in the workflow, select the Enable abrupt completion condition check box. The Abrupt Completion Details window appears. For example, assume an Euclid's Contributions to Geometry Essays expense report goes to the manager, and then the director. If the first participant (manager) rejects it, you can end the workflow without sending it to the next participant (director). There are two methods for specifying the abrupt completion of a task: XPath expression routing condition. If outcomes are specified, any time the selected task outcome occurs, the odyssey quotes, task completes. If both outcome and routing condition are specified, the workflow service performs a logical OR on the two. Select appropriate outcomes and click the button. To select all, click the button. Click the icon to the right of the Routing Condition field to display the 1 corinthians, Expression Builder window for dynamically creating a condition under which to complete this task early. For example, if a user submits a business trip expense report that is below a specific amount, no approval is required by penelope quotes their manager. Click OK to return to the Human Task editor. Example Of Social? The check box is selected, indicating that you have defined information. Penelope Quotes? You can click the icon to that the right of the Enable abrupt completion condition check box to edit this information. 15.6.6 Escalating, Renewing, or Ending the Task. Figure 15-20 shows the Expiration and Escalation Policy section of the Human Task editor. You can specify expiration duration of a task in penelope odyssey quotes, this global policy section (also known as the routing slip level). If expiration duration is specified at the ones who walk full the routing slip level instead of at the participant type level, then this duration is the expiration duration of the task across all the participants. However, if you specify expiration duration at the participant type level (through the Limit allocated duration to field), then those settings take precedence over settings specified in the Expiration and penelope odyssey, Escalation Policy section (routing slip level). Figure 15-20 Human Task Editor #x2014; Expiration and Escalation Policy Section. Krishna/Hinduism Essay? 15.6.6.1 Overview or Escalation and Expiration Policy. This section provides an overview of how specifying the expiration duration at this level makes this setting the penelope, expiration duration of the task across all the participants. Who Walk Away Full? For example, participant LoanAgentGroup and participant Supervisor have 3 days to act on the task between them, as shown in Figure 15-21: Figure 15-21 Expire After Policy. If there is no expiration specified at either the participant level or this routing slip level, then that task has no expiration duration. If expiration duration is odyssey quotes, specified at any of the participant's level, then for that participant the participant expiration duration is used. However, the global expiration duration is still used for the participants that do not have participant level expiration duration. The global expiration duration is always decremented by the time elapsed in the task. The policy to interpret the participant level expiration for the participants is described below: Management Chain #x2014; Each participant in the management chain gets the same expiration duration. The duration is not for all the assignments resulting from this assignment. If the prochoice, task expires at any of the assignments in the management chain, the quotes, task expires and the escalation and renewal policy is applied. Sequential list of to Geometry Essays, approvers #x2014; Each assignment in penelope, the management chain gets the same expiration duration as the one specified in the sequential list of approvers. Essay? Note that the duration is not for all the assignments resulting from this assignment. If the task expires at any of the assignments in the management chain, the task expires and odyssey quotes, the escalation and movement, renewal policy is applied. In a group vote workflow, if the parallel participants are specified as a resource, a routing slip is created for each of the resources. The expiration duration of each created routing slip follows these rules: The expiration duration is the same as the expiration duration of the parallel participant if it has an expiration duration specified. The expiration duration that is left on the task if it was specified at the routing slip level. No expiration duration, otherwise. If parallel participants are specified as routing slips, then the expiration duration for penelope odyssey quotes the parallel participants are determined by the routing slip. When the parent task expires in a parallel task, the subtasks are withdrawn if those tasks have not expired or completed. In the following routing slip sample, participant Loan Agent Group has an expiration duration of 1 day and participant Loan Agent Supervisor does not have any expiration duration on the task, even though an expiration duration is specified at scientific movement the routing slip level. In this example, the odyssey quotes, routing slip is treated just as if there were no expiration duration specified at the routing slip level. Euclid's? Table 15-8 demonstrates the expiration policy. Note that the management chain in the above example evaluates to two users #x2014; wfaulk and cdickens (manager of wfaulk ). Table 15-8 Expiration Policy. Select an escalation and expiration policy. You can enter a fixed time or a dynamic time by clicking the icon to the right of the By Expression field to display the Expression Builder window. Quotes? If you never want the task to expire, select Never Expire from the list shown in Figure 15-20. If you want the task to expire, select Expire after from the list shown in Figure 15-20. 1 Corinthians? Specify the maximum time period for the task to remain open. Odyssey? When the task expires, either the escalation policy or the renewal policy at prochoice the routing slip level is applied. Penelope Odyssey? If neither is specified, the task expires. Scientific Movement? The expiration policy at the routing slip level is odyssey, common to all the participants. The expiration policy for parallel participants is interpreted as follows. If parallel participants are specified as resources in parallel elements, there is no expiration policy for each of those participants. If parallel participants are specified as routing slips, then the expiration policy for from text the routing slip applies to the parallel participants. Figure 15-22 indicates that the task expires in 3 days. Figure 15-22 Expire After Policy. If you want to extend the expiration period when the user does not respond within the penelope odyssey quotes, allotted time, select Renew after from the list shown in Figure 15-20. Krishna/Hinduism? Specify the quotes, maximum number of times to continue renewing this task. The renewal policy specifies the number of times the task can be renewed on that of social democracy, expiration and the renewal duration. In Figure 15-23, when the task expires, it is renewed at most 3 times. Penelope? It does not matter if the task expired at the LoanAgentGroup participant or the Supervisor participant. Prolife? Figure 15-23 Renew After Policy. Penelope Odyssey Quotes? If you want to escalate the task (for example, to the user's manager) if the user does not respond within the allotted time, select Escalate after from the the ones who walk away omelas, list shown in Figure 15-20. Specify the following additional values: Maximum Escalation Levels. Number of management levels to which to escalate the task. Highest Approver Title. The title of the penelope, highest approver (for example, self, manager, director, or CEO). The escalation policy specifies the number of times the task can be escalated on expiration and the renewal duration. Contributions? In Figure 15-24, when the task expires, it is escalated at most 3 times. It does not matter if the task expired at the LoanAgentGroup participant or the Supervisor participant. Figure 15-24 Escalate After Policy. Penelope? 15.6.7 Specifying Participant Notification Preferences. Figure 15-25 shows the Notification Settings section of the Human Task editor (when fully expanded). Contributions To Geometry Essays? Notifications indicate when a user is assigned a task or informed that the status of the task has changed. Penelope? Notifications can be sent through e-mail, voice message, fax, pager, or SMS. Movement? Notifications are sent to different types of participants for different actions. Notifications are configured by default with default messages. For example, a notification message is penelope, sent to indicate that a task has completed and 1 corinthians 13:8-10, closed. Penelope Quotes? You can create your own or modify existing configurations. Figure 15-25 Human Task Editor #x2014; Notification Settings Section. Who Walk Away Full? Click the + sign to expand the Notification Settings section (displays as shown in odyssey quotes, Figure 15-25). Instructions for configuring the following subsections of the Notification Setting s section are listed in Table 15-9. Table 15-9 Human Task Editor #x2014; Notification Settings Section. Make e-mail messages actionable. Send task attachments with email notifications. 15.6.7.1 Notifying Recipients of Changes to Task Status. Three default status types display in the Task Status column: Assign , Complete , and Error . You can select other status types for who walk away from which to receive notification messages. Click a type in penelope quotes, the Task Status column to display the complete list of task types: Assign #x2014;when the task is assigned to users or a group. This action captures the following actions: Task is assigned to a user. Task is assigned to a new user in a sequential list of approvers workflow. Task is renewed. Task is delegated. Task is reassigned. Task is a nation is an example of social democracy, escalated. Information for a task is submitted. Select a task status type. Notifications can be sent to users involved in the task in various capacities. This includes when the penelope, task is assigned to a group, each user in the group is sent a notification if there is no notification endpoint available for full text the group. Click an entry in the Recipient column to display a list of possible recipients for the notification message. Assignees #x2014;the users or groups to whom the task is currently assigned. Penelope Quotes? Initiator #x2014;the user who created the scientific movement, task. Approvers #x2014;the users who have approved the task so far. This applies in a sequential list of quotes, approvers participant type where multiple users have approved the task and a notification must be sent to all of Euclid's to Geometry, them. Owner #x2014;the task owner. 15.6.7.2 Editing the Notification Message. A default notification message is available for quotes delivery to the selected recipient. If you want, you can modify the default message text. Worldview Essay? Click the icon in the Notification Header column to modify the default notification message. Penelope? The Edit Notification Message window appears. This message applies to all the supported notification channels: e-mail, voice, fax, pager, and SMS. E-mail and fax messages can also include the worklist task detail defined in Euclid's Contributions to Geometry, this message. The channel by which the message is delivered is based upon the notification preferences you specify. Modify the message wording as necessary. Click OK to return to the Human Task editor. Quotes? You can send task reminders, which can be based on Krishna/Hinduism, the time the penelope odyssey, task was assigned to Worldview Essay a user or the expiration time of a task. The number of reminders and the interval between the reminders can also be configured. Select the penelope quotes, number of reminders to send from the Remind list. If you selected to remind the assignee one, two, or three times, select the interval between reminders, and whether to prolife prochoice send the reminder before or after the assignment. 15.6.7.4 Securing Notifications, Making Messages Actionable, and Sending Attachments. You can perform additional notification tasks in this section. Select the corresponding check box for functionality you want to use. See Also : Sending Actionable E-mails for penelope odyssey quotes additional configuration details. Worldview? 15.6.8 Specifying Advanced Settings. Penelope Odyssey? This section enables you to specify advanced human task features, such as specifying custom escalation rules, custom style sheets for attachments, multilingual settings, custom task actions and error messages, and callback classes. Figure 15-26 shows the away text, advanced settings section of the Human Task editor. Penelope? Figure 15-26 Human Task Editor #x2014; Advanced Settings Section. Table 15-10 describes the sections available. Table 15-10 Advanced Settings Sections. 15.6.8.1 Specifying Escalation Rules. This option allows a custom escalation rule to be plugged in for a particular workflow. For example, to assign the task to a current user's department manager on task expiration, you can write a custom task escalation function, register it with the Krishna/Hinduism Essay, workflow service, and use that function in task definitions. The default escalation rule is to assign a task to the manager of the current user. Penelope Odyssey? To add a new escalation rule, follow the steps below. Implement interface oracle.bpel.services.workflow.assignment.dynamic.IDynamicTaskEscalationFunction . This implementation has to be available in the classpath for the server. Change the that example of social democracy is, file SOA_Oracle_Home bpelsystemservicesconfigwf-dynamic-assign-cfg.xml to add a new function: Enter the function name as defined in the wf-dynamic-assign-cfg.xml file for the escalation rule in the Specify Escalation Rule field. 15.6.8.2 Specifying WordML Style Sheets for Attachments. This option allows dynamic creation of Microsoft Word documents for the purpose of sending them as e-mail attachments using a WordML XSLT stylesheet. Quotes? The XSLT stylesheet is applied on the task document. Click the flashlight icon to prolife select a WordML style sheet as an attachment. 15.6.8.3 Specifying Style Sheets for Attachments. This option allows creation of e-mail attachments using an XSLT stylesheet. Penelope? The XSLT stylesheet is a nation that is an example is, applied on the task document. Click the flashlight icon to select a stylesheet as an attachment. 15.6.8.4 Specifying Multilingual Settings. You can specify resource bundles for penelope quotes displaying task details in different languages in the Oracle BPEL Worklist Application. Resource bundles are supported for the following task details. Displaying the value for Krishna/Hinduism Worldview Essay task outcomes in plain text or with the message(key) format. Displaying the XML element and attributes names in penelope odyssey, the payload display of the Oracle BPEL Worklist Application. The key name in scientific, the resource bundle must be the same as the name of the XML element and attributes for internationalization of XML element names in the Oracle BPEL Worklist Application. Making e-mail notification messages available in different languages. At run time, specify the XPath extension function hwf:getTaskResourceBundleString(taskId, key, locale?) to obtain the internationalized string from the specified resource bundle. The locale of the notification recipient can be retrieved with the function hwf:getNotificationProperty(propertyName) . Penelope Quotes? Click Configure Resource . 1 Corinthians? The Resource Details window appears. Enter the name of the resource used in the resource bundle. Click the flashlight icon to select the penelope odyssey, JAR or ZIP resource bundle file to use. The resource bundle can be part of your BPEL suitcase. Click OK to return to that of social the Human Task editor. 15.6.8.5 Overriding Default System Actions. The actions performed from the Oracle BPEL Worklist Application are common to penelope quotes all business processes. A Nation Is An Of Social Democracy Is? However, you can restrict some actions in a particular business process. For example, assume that in a loan approval process, the business requirement is to never suspend a loan application. To model this scenario at design time, you can select Suspend as a restricted action. When an action is selected as restricted, the penelope odyssey quotes, Oracle BPEL Worklist Application does not display the action for this task. By default, these actions are available on all tasks based on 13:8-10, the user's privileges. The task owner or bpeladmin administrator can always perform any of these actions on penelope odyssey, processes they own. Click Configure Actions . 1 Corinthians? Select the system actions allowed on a task. By default, all are selected and available (unrestricted). The following system actions can be restricted by unselecting them: Suspend #x2014; Enables task owners (or users with the penelope quotes, BPMWorkflowSuspend privilege) to put a workflow temporarily on hold. Task expiration and escalation do not apply until the workflow is resumed. No actions are permitted on a suspended task (except resume and withdraw). Push back #x2014; Sends the task one level back in Worldview, the workflow. For example, assume the task was routed to the LoanAgentGroup and then to jstein . If jstein now pushes the task back, it goes back to the LoanAgentGroup. Renew #x2014; If a task is about to expire, a task assignee can renew the penelope quotes, task and request more time to perform the task. This operation is not allowed if the process designer has restricted task renewal on the workflow. Skip current assignment #x2014; Skips the who walk away from, current assignment and moves to the next assignment or picks the outcome as set by penelope odyssey quotes the previous approver if there are no more assignees. Adhoc Route #x2014; Enables a user to enter an 1 corinthians outcome and penelope, then route the Euclid's Contributions Essays, task in an adhoc fashion to the next user who must review the task. Request Information #x2014; Any workflow participant can request information from the task initiator or any of the prior approvers of the task. When the requested information is submitted, the task is assigned to the user who requested the information. Delegate #x2014; Any workflow participant can delegate the task to another user. In this case, the other user is acting on behalf of the current assignee. When the task is delegated, it resides on both users' worklists until the original assignee or the delegated person acts on it. Reassign #x2014; Enables the current assignee of the task to transfer it to another user or group. In this case, the task is moved from the odyssey, worklist of the current assignee to the new assignee. Escalate #x2014; Escalates a task to their manager for further action. Withdraw #x2014; Enables the task initiator to withdraw any pending task if they no longer want to send it through the Essay, workflow. Penelope Odyssey Quotes? A task owner can also withdraw a task on behalf of the 1 corinthians, initiator. When a task is withdrawn, the odyssey quotes, business process is called back with the state attribute of the task set to Withdrawn . Click OK to return to the Human Task editor. Prolife? 15.6.8.6 Overriding Default Exception Management. Tasks can error due to incorrect assignments. Incorrect assignments can occur for penelope quotes any of the of social is, following reasons: Invalid assignees #x2014; The task assignee user or group is not a valid user in the system. Invalid dynamic assignment #x2014; When assignees are specified to be dynamic, the dynamic XPath expression is not evaluated. In the above cases, the task is marked as errored. By default, the life cycle of the task is completed with that action.During modeling of workflow tasks, you can specify error assignees for penelope the workflow. The Ones Who Walk Text? If error assignees are specified, they are evaluated and the task is assigned to them. The error assignee can perform one of the following actions: Adhoc route #x2014; route the task to the actual users assigned to odyssey the task. Adhoc route allows the task to be routed to users in sequence, parallel, and so on. Reassign #x2014; reassign the task to the actual users assigned to this task. Euclid's Contributions Essays? Error task #x2014; indicate that this task cannot be rectified. If there are any errors in evaluating the error assignees, the task is penelope odyssey quotes, marked as errored. This window enables you to specify the omelas, users or groups to whom the task is assigned if an error in assignment has occurred. Click Configure Assignment . Select the error assignees. Penelope Odyssey Quotes? 15.6.8.7 Specifying Callback Classes on Task Status. You can register callbacks for the workflow service to call during the life cycle of a task. Movement? The callback class has to implement the interface oracle.bpel.services.workflow.task.IRoutingSlipCallback . Make the callback class available in the classpath of the quotes, server. Click Configure Callbacks . Click the + sign to add a callback to the table. A callback named OnAssigned is automatically added to the Callback column. Click OnAssigned to display a list of additional callback values to select for this column. The following callbacks are available: onCompleted #x2014; This callback is invoked when the task is who walk away from full text, completed, expired, withdrawn, or errored. onAssigned #x2014; This callback is invoked when the penelope odyssey, task is assigned to a new set of assignees due to the following actions: skip current assignment. override routing slip. onUpdated #x2014; This callback is invoked for any other update to the task that does not fall in Euclid's Contributions Essays, the onTaskComplete or onTaskAssigned callback. This includes updates on a task due to request for information, submit information, escalation, reassign, and so on. onSubtaskUpdated #x2014; This callback is invoked for any update to a subtask. Click Java in the Type column to penelope odyssey display a list of additional values for this column. Click the empty field in the Value column to scientific movement enter a value. Odyssey? The value is the complete class name of the Java class that implements oracle.bpel.services.workflow.task.IRoutingSlipCallback . 15.6.8.8 Allowing Task and is an of social democracy, Routing Customization in BPEL Callbacks. The Allow task and routing customization in BPEL callbacks check box must be selected if you select the check box of the odyssey quotes, same name on the Human Task - Advanced tab shown in Figure 15-28. Selecting both check boxes updates the metadata for prolife prochoice callbacks. 15.6.9 Exiting the Human Task Editor and penelope, Saving Your Changes. You can save your human task changes at any time. The task can be re-edited at a later time by clicking the a nation that is an example democracy is, metadata task configuration .task file in the Application Navigator . Odyssey Quotes? Select Save from the File main menu or click the X sign to close the Krishna/Hinduism, .task metadata task configuration file. If you click the X sign, select Yes when prompted to save your changes. 15.7 Task 2: Associating the Human Task with a BPEL Process. You must associate the .task file that consists of the human task settings with a BPEL process. When association is complete, a Task Service partner link is created. The Task Service exposes the operations required to act on a task. The method by odyssey which you created the human task indicates if the task is already associated with a BPEL process. Table 15-11 describes these methods and references sections on how to proceed. Note that regardless of omelas, whether you have already associated the penelope odyssey quotes, human task with a BPEL process, you must still define key human task activity properties, including the task title, task initiator, task priority, and task parameter variables. These tasks are described in Defining the Human Task Activity Title, Initiator, Priority, and Parameter Variables and Defining the Human Task Activity Advanced Features. Table 15-11 Human Task Association with the BPEL Process. Right-clicked the BPEL process in the Application Navigator . Selected Create Human Task Definition . Dragged and 1 corinthians, dropped a human task activity into the BPEL process. Penelope Quotes? Selected the second icon ( Create Task Definition ) to the right of the Task Definition field in the General tab of the Human Task window. 15.7.1 Associating a Human Worklist Task with a BPEL Process. 13:8-10? Select the BPEL process with which to associate the .task file of the human task in the Application Navigator . Select Process Activities from the Component Palette . Drag and drop a new Human Task activity into your BPEL process. The Add a Human Task window appears. When you first drag and drop this activity into Oracle JDeveloper, the penelope odyssey, window is named Add a Human Task . After you finish specifying details on this window and Euclid's to Geometry, click OK , the name of this window changes to simply Human Task . Click the first icon to the right of the Task Definition field. The Choose Task Definition File appears. Select the penelope odyssey quotes, .task file and click Open . Scientific? This file is located in the bpel human_task_name directory of penelope odyssey quotes, your BPEL process. 1 Corinthians 13:8-10? The .task file is added to the Task Definition field. See the following sections to quotes configure the human task activity: 15.7.2 Opening a Human Task Activity Already Associated with a BPEL Process. Double-click the previously created Human Task activity in your BPEL process. The Human Task window appears. Click the third icon to the right of the Task Definition field to open the human worklist task you previously created. Scientific Movement? See the following sections to configure the human task activity: 15.7.3 Defining the Human Task Activity Title, Initiator, Priority, and Parameter Variables. Figure 15-27 shows the General tab. Figure 15-27 Human Task #x2014; General Tab. The General tab of the Human Task activity enables you to perform the tasks shown in odyssey, Table 15-12: Table 15-12 Human Task - General Tab. Enter the Essay, task title in the Task Title field through one of the following methods. This is a mandatory field. Penelope? Your entry in this field overrides the task title you entered in the Title field of the Human Task editor described in Specifying a Task Title and Priority. The title displays the task in the Oracle BPEL Worklist Application during run time. Enter the Worldview Essay, title manually. Click the icon to the right of the field to display the Expression Builder window to odyssey dynamically create the title. You can also mix static text and dynamic expressions in the same title. To include dynamic text, place your cursor at the appropriate point in the text and click the a nation that is an democracy, icon on the right to penelope invoke the Expression Builder window. 15.7.3.2 Specifying the Task Initiator and Task Priority. Enter the initiator (for example, jcooper ) or click the scientific, icon to penelope odyssey quotes the right of the Initiator field to display the Expression Builder window for Krishna/Hinduism dynamically specifying an initiator. This field is optional. The initiator is the user who initiates a task. The initiator can view their created tasks from the quotes, Oracle BPEL Worklist Application and perform specific tasks defined in the System Action Details window, such as withdrawing or suspending a task. If not specified, the initiator defaults to the task owner specified on the Advanced tab of the Human Task window. Scientific Movement? The initiator defaults to bpeladmin if a task owner is also not specified. Select a priority value between 1 (the highest) and 5 from the Priority list. This field is provided for user reference and does not make this task a higher priority during run time. The priority can be used to sort tasks in the Oracle BPEL Worklist Application. This priority value overrides the priority value you select in penelope quotes, the Priority list of the Human Task editor. Specifying a Task Title and Priority for instructions on specifying the priority in the Human Task editor. The task parameter table displays a list of task parameters after you complete the Task Title and Initiator fields. Click the flashlight in scientific movement, the BPEL Variable column to map the task parameter to the BPEL variable. You must map only the task parameters that carry input data. For output data that is filled in from the worklist, you do not need to map the corresponding variables. The Task Parameters window appears. Expand the Variables navigation tree and select the odyssey, appropriate task variable. The Human Task window appears as follows. If you want to scientific define advanced features for the human task activity, click the Advanced tab and go to section Defining the Human Task Activity Advanced Features. Otherwise, click OK to close the Human Task window. 15.7.4 Defining the Human Task Activity Advanced Features. Figure 15-28 shows the Advanced tab. Figure 15-28 Human Task #x2014; Advanced Tab. The Advanced tab of the Human Task activity enables you to perform the tasks shown in Table 15-13: Table 15-13 Human Task - Advanced Tab. Global Task Variable Name. 15.7.4.1 Specifying a Scope Name and a Global Task Variable Name. You are automatically provided with default scope and penelope odyssey quotes, global task variable names during human task activity creation. However, you can specify custom names that are used to name the scope and global variable during human task activity creation. Enter the name for movement the BPEL scope to be generated in the Scope Name field. This BPEL scope encapsulates the entire interaction with the workflow service and BPEL variable manipulation. Enter the global task variable name in the Global Task Variable Name field. This is the name of the BPEL task variable used for the workflow interaction. Enter the task owner name in the Owner field or click the quotes, icon to the right to use the Expression Builder to dynamically specify the 1 corinthians 13:8-10, owner of this task. The task owner can view tasks belonging to business processes they own and odyssey quotes, perform operations on the ones who walk away from full text, behalf of any of the task assignees. Additionally, the owner can also reassign, withdraw, or escalate tasks. If you do not specify a task initiator on penelope, the General tab of the Human Task window, it defaults to the owner specified here. If an scientific owner is not specified, it defaults to the bpeladmin administrator. 15.7.4.3 Specifying an Identification Key. Enter an optional identification key value in the Identification Key field. The identification key can be used as a user-defined ID for the task. Odyssey? For example, if the task is meant for the ones who walk away from omelas full text approving a purchase order, the purchase order ID can be set as the penelope quotes, identification key of the is, task. Tasks can be searched from the Oracle BPEL Worklist Application using the identification key. This attribute has no default value. 15.7.4.4 Including the Task History of Other Human Tasks. This feature enables one workflow to be continued with another workflow. Select the Include task history from check box to extend a previous workflow task in the BPEL process. Selecting this check box includes the task history, comments, and attachments from the previous task. This provides you with a complete end-to-end audit trail. Odyssey? When a workflow task is continued with another workflow, the following information is carried over to the new workflow: Task payload and the changes made to the payload in the previous workflow. Comments added to movement the task in the previous workflow. Attachments added to the task in the previous workflow. In the Include task history from list, all existing workflows are listed. Selecting a particular workflow permits you to extend (continue) the selected workflow. For example, a hiring process is used to hire new employees. Each interviewer votes to hire or not hire a candidate. If 75% of the votes are to hire, then the candidate is quotes, hired; otherwise, the candidate is rejected. If the candidate is to be hired, an entry in the HR database is created and the human resources contact completes the hiring process. The HR contact also needs to see the interviewers and the comments they made about the candidate. This process can be modeled using a group vote for the hiring. If the candidate is hired, a database adapter is used to 13:8-10 create the entry in the HR database. After this, a simple workflow can include the task history from the group vote so that the hiring request, history, and interviewer comments are carried over. This simple workflow is assigned to the HR contact. 15.7.4.5 Allowing Task and Routing Customizations in BPEL Callbacks. Select the Allow task and routing customizations in BPEL callbacks check box to notify the BPEL process using OnMessage callbacks every time a task is odyssey quotes, routed to a different user or when the task status changes. You must also select the check box of the same name in the Advanced Settings section of the Human Task editor shown in Figure 15-26 in who walk away full, order to update the metadata for callbacks. In these callbacks, you can call the Task Service to change the routing or update the current assignees. This option impacts the BPEL code generated to interact with the Task Service. If this option is not selected, the penelope odyssey, client process gets notified only when the task completes or when it expires or errors out. Click OK to close the Human Task window. Go to the Human Task editor for this human task (the .task file). Expand the Advanced Settings section at the bottom of the Krishna/Hinduism Worldview, editor. Quotes? Click Allow task and routing customization in BPEL callbacks . This check box must be selected to use callbacks. This enables you to Krishna/Hinduism Essay update the metadata. 15.7.5 Viewing the penelope quotes, Generated Human Task Activity. When you have completed modeling the human task activity, the human task is generated in the designer window. Figure 15-29 shows how a workflow interaction is modeled in Oracle BPEL Process Manager. Figure 15-29 also illustrates the interaction when no BPEL callbacks are modeled. In this case, once a task is complete, the BPEL process is called back with the completed task. No intermediary events are propagated to prolife the BPEL process instance. It is recommended that any user customizations be done in the first assign, AssignTaskAttributes, and that AssignSystemTaskAttributes not be changed. Figure 15-29 Workflow Interaction Modeling. Figure 15-30 shows a workflow interaction in Oracle JDeveloper. Odyssey? Figure 15-30 Workflow Interaction Modeling in Oracle JDeveloper. If intermediary events need to be propagated to the BPEL process instance, select the Allow task and routing customization in BPEL callbacks check box in both the Advanced tab of the Human Task window and the Advanced Settings section of the movement, Human Task editor. When these options are selected, the workflow service invokes callbacks in the BPEL instance during each update of the task. The callbacks are listed in the TaskService.wsdl file and described below: onTaskCompleted #x2014; This callback is invoked when the task is completed, expired, withdrawn, or errored. onTaskAssigned #x2014; This callback is invoked when the task is assigned to a new set of assignees due to the following actions: Skip current assignment. Override routing slip. Odyssey Quotes? onTaskUpdated #x2014; This callback is who walk text, invoked for any other update to the task that does not fall in the onTaskComplete or onTaskAssigned callback. This includes updates on tasks due to request for penelope quotes information, submit information, escalation, reassign, and so on. onSubTaskUpdated #x2014; This callback is invoked for any update to a subtask. Movement? Figure 15-31 shows how a workflow interaction with callbacks is modeled in Oracle BPEL Process Manager. Once this task is initiated, a while loop is odyssey, used to movement receive messages until the task is complete. The while loop contains a pick with four onMessage branches #x2014; one for each of the above-mentioned callback operations. The workflow interaction works fine even if nothing is changed in the onMessage branches, meaning that customizations in the onMessage branches are not required. Penelope Odyssey? In this scenario, a workflow context is captured in the BPEL instance. This context can be used for all interaction with the workflow services. The Ones From Omelas Full? For example, if you want to reassign a task if it is assigned to a group, then you need the workflow context for the reassignTask operation on the Task Service. It is penelope, recommended that any user customizations be done in the first assign, AssignTaskAttributes, and that AssignSystemTaskAttributes not be changed. Figure 15-31 Workflow Interaction Modeling (with Callbacks) Figure 15-32 shows a workflow interaction in Oracle JDeveloper. Figure 15-32 Workflow Interaction Modeling (with Callbacks) in Oracle JDeveloper. 15.7.5.2 Including the Task History from Other Workflows. When the task history is included in a nation that example democracy, a workflow, the penelope odyssey, generated BPEL process described in 13:8-10, the previous two sections is similar, with the following differences: The BPEL variable from the workflow whose task history is to be included is odyssey quotes, reused and no new BPEL variable is created. The first invoke activity invokes the reinitiate operation instead of the initiate operation. In many cases, the outcome of a task determines the flow of the business process. To facilitate modeling of the business logic, when a user task is generated, a BPEL switch activity is also generated with prebuilt BPEL case activities. By default, one case branch is created for each outcome selected during creation of the task. An otherwise branch is also generated in the switch to represent cases when the task is withdrawn, expired, or errored. The task carries a payload in it. If the payload is set from a business process variable, then an assign activity with the name copyPayloadFromTask is created in each of the case and otherwise branches to copy the payload from the task back to its source. If the payload is expressed as other XPath expressions (such as ora:getNodes(. ) ), then this assign is not created because of the lack of a process variable to copy the payload back. Movement? If the payload does not need to penelope odyssey be modified, then this assign can be removed. 15.7.6.2 Case Statements for Other Task Conclusions. By default, the switch activity contains case statements for the outcomes only. The other task conclusions are captured in the otherwise branch. Euclid's Essays? These conclusions are as follows: The task is withdrawn. Penelope Odyssey? The task is errored. The task is expired. If business logic must be added for each of these other conclusions, then case statements can be added for each of the preceding conditions. The case statements can be created as shown in the following BPEL segment. The XPath conditions for the other conclusions in the case activities for each of the preceding cases are shown in bold. 15.8 Task 3: Generating the Task Display Form. The task display form defines the display mechanism for the task payload in the Oracle BPEL Worklist Application. This section describes the different types of task display forms you can use. This section contains the following topics: 15.8.1 Overview of Task Display Forms. The task display form for the human task can be automatically generated and then customized or developed completely from the beginning using the workflow APIs. In the automatically generated case, a set of seeded templates and regions are used for the task forms. There are two methods for Krishna/Hinduism Worldview Essay generating forms associated with the task definition: Automatically generate a simple task form #x2014; JSP-based forms that use the standard header, body, and penelope quotes, footer template. Custom task form #x2014; enables you to select one of the existing templates and regions to create a task form. Scientific Movement? You can also specify which task parameters to penelope odyssey display in scientific, the form. When task display forms are generated, a .tform file is created, which includes a template URI and region information. The .tform file is penelope odyssey, included in Essays, the process deployment archive and is deployed during process deployment. 15.8.2 Selecting a Task Display Form. Penelope Quotes? Follow these instructions to generate a task display form for the human task. Go to the Application Navigator in Oracle JDeveloper. Right-click the folder of the human task for which to create a task display form (for this example, ExpenseApproval of the ExpenseRequest BPEL process in selected). The following menu of selections appears. See the following sections for details about 1 corinthians 13:8-10, generating the different types of penelope, task forms: 15.8.2.1 Preview Release of Euclid's Contributions to Geometry, Task Display Form Support for ADF Data Controls. Odyssey Quotes? A preview release of task display form support for application development framework (ADF) data controls is provided. Very minimal support is provided with this preview release. Note the Worldview Essay, following limitations: There is penelope odyssey quotes, no support for complex XSDs with recursive elements. Task forms generated with ADF data controls cannot be edited. Follow these procedures to use this preview release: Open an operating system command prompt. Open Oracle JDeveloper in preview mode: Note that Auto Generate Task Form With ADF Datacontrols now appears as a menu option when you right-click the folder of the human task, as shown in Step 2 of Selecting a Task Display Form. Open the SOA_Oracle_Home j2ee OC4J_Home configserver.xml file. where OC4J_Home is the name of the OC4J container for your install type: home #x2014; for 1 corinthians the Oracle Application Server SOA Basic install type. OC4J_SOA #x2014; if you accepted the penelope quotes, default value for the Oracle Application Server SOA Advanced install types. Add the following line under the shared-library name=oracle.bpel.common version=10.1.3 section: Restart Oracle Application Server SOA Suite for the changes to take effect. 15.8.3 Automatically Generating a Simple Task Display Form. This option enables you to automatically generate a task form based on the default task parameters and three regions. Essays? Select Auto Generate Simple Task Form from the list shown in Step 2. The default layout is penelope odyssey quotes, based on Euclid's Contributions, the following three region template: Header region #x2014; this region has standard task attributes such as title, priority, created date, assignee, and expiration date. Penelope Quotes? This information is contained in the Header1.jsp file. Body region #x2014; this region is Krishna/Hinduism, generated based on the task parameters. Depending on penelope, the XSD used in the task, it is either generated as a list of values or as a table (for repeating items). If you specified the parameter to prochoice be modifiable through the worklist on the Add Task Parameter window in Step 2, it displays as an editable field in the form. Otherwise, the field displays as read-only. The information for this region is penelope odyssey, contained in the payload-body.jsp file and the payload-body.xml mapping file. After generation, if you want to change any read-only parameters, you can modify the payload-body.xml file. Footer region #x2014; this region has an area for comments, attachments, and a short history of the task routing. This information is contained in the Footer1.jsp file. A .tform file is generated. The contents of this file are as follows: 15.8.3.1 Payload File for the Autogenerated JSP. Two files are automatically generated to display the 1 corinthians 13:8-10, payload for penelope quotes the autogenerated JSP: A default JSP file named payload-body.jsp . This file is added to scientific the HTML root directory of your project, which is by default the public_html directory. A mapping XML file named payload-body.xml . This file is added to the same directory of your project as payload-body.jsp. If you select Custom Task Form in Step 2, you can specify a unique file name for the autogenerated JSP. The mapping XML file is odyssey quotes, created based on the JSP file name. You can also select the payload elements to include in prochoice, the autogenerated JSP. For example, if the JSP file is quotes, named autogenerate-body.jsp , then the mapping XML file is named autogenerate-body.xml . The JSP run-time library and the BPMWorkflow library are automatically added to your BPEL project for compilation of the JSP file. Krishna/Hinduism Worldview Essay? The default JSP is designed with two goals in mind: To present you with a simple form; that is, an XSD tree with a depth of more than three must be shown in a more readable way in the JSP. The default JSP must require minimum modification. If modification is unavoidable, it can be easily performed with a user interface tool. To attain these goals, instead of presenting a tree structure that mimics the payload XSD structure, the default JSP groups the entire payload structure in sections. Penelope Odyssey? It groups simple types that belong to the same parents and makes them sections. For example, assume you provide the following payload XSD: This XSD has the structure shown in Figure 15-33. Figure 15-33 Structure of the XSD for myCompanyType. In the default JSP, based on the structure of the leaf nodes, there are three sections: , , and . These three sections are named according to their parents' names; that is, the sections are named board , my Company , and department , respectively. In the board section, there are two fields, size and head . Each of these fields are in an editable HTML input type.The section department is away from omelas full text, different from other sections and can have multiple occurrences ( maxOccurs 1 ). In this case, all the fields in this section (that is, size , head , and function ) are horizontally presented in a table, with each row representing one department . This is called a table section. There is a plus ( + ) button for adding a row (department) and a minus ( - ) button for subtracting a row (department) for the department table section.Unlike a regular section, it is not necessarily true that all the quotes, fields belong to Essay the same XSD parent in a table section. For example, suppose the penelope odyssey quotes, head element has two elements: employeeNumber and dateOfBirth . Since these two elements have maxOccurs set to Euclid's Contributions to Geometry less than or equal to 1 , they are shown in the same department table section. This is a desired behavior, because adding a row in the department table not only adds a size and a function field, but also adds the head information fields in the same department row. This makes it easy to move through complicated payload instances. Penelope Quotes? Nested multiple ( maxOccurs 1 ) elements are supported. Assume the department element has a groupMember child element whose maxOccurs is unbounded. In that case, the parent element department is presented in a table section while the child groupMember elements are presented in different child table sections. The parent department table section has a column called group member that contains an HTML href link pointing to its corresponding child group member section in each department row. Pressing the + button in the parent department section not only adds a row in the parent table, but also adds a child section for prolife prochoice that corresponding new row. The default JSP in the current release has the following limitations: XSDs that contain recursive elements are not supported. The default JSP shows all the simple types defined in the payload XSD. If multiple simple types belong to the same XSD choice block, all these simple types are shown in the default JSP. Although simple types are preserved in quotes, the JSP, XSD restrictions are not relevant. Only payloads copied from variables that are not simple types are supported. For example, if the query is bpws:getVariableData(var) or bpws:getVariableData(var, part) and the variable is a simple type, then JSP generation fails. Note that bpws:getVariableData(var, part, query) and bpws:getVariableData(var, query) work even if the queried data is a simple type. You only need to make sure the variable itself is not a simple type. XSI extensions are not supported. No special handling of 1 corinthians, XSD order indicators occurs (that is, choice , all , and sequence ). For example, the default JSP does not check if you entered both firstname and lastname : 15.8.3.1.1 Customizing the Autogenerated JSP. The autogenerated default JSP is generic, and so may require changes to improve its look and feel. The JSP works in conjunction with the mapping file to determine which elements in the payload are displayed in the form. 15.8.3.1.2 Customizing the Mapping File. The mapping file gives you control of the presentation. The mapping file is an XML file that contains a list of viewable fields. The root element in penelope, the mapping file contains its targetNameSpace , other namespaces, and movement, xmlEditable as its attributes. All the elements that are simple types are listed as fields in the mapping file. Odyssey Quotes? Along with these elements, their immediate parents are listed as well for multilanguage support. Each field has three properties defined in the mapping file. Krishna/Hinduism Worldview? They are xpath , editable , and resource_key . The xpath property defines the XPath of this field. It is always prefixed by odyssey quotes /ns0:task/ns0:payload . This is the XPath to the root of the Euclid's to Geometry, payload object. When maxOccurs is greater than 1 , it is denoted by
  • . For example, /ns0:task/ns0:payload/company[*]/ceo shows that maxOccurs is greater than 1 for the company field. Do not modify this XPath field because it is also a unique key that determines the identity of the odyssey, field.
  • The editable property defines if this field is editable. It defaults to true . Text? If the value of penelope odyssey, this field is changed to 1 corinthians 13:8-10 false , the default JSP shows a disabled text field that disallows value changes. The resource_key property is for penelope odyssey multilanguage support. To ensure that your autogenerated JSP shows a preferred language other than English, you must supply a resource bundle. Prolife Prochoice? Follow these steps to add a resource bundle: Create a bundle file (for example, MyBundle ). This file points to a properties file that resides at the root of the project. The following code shows an example of MyBundle_en-US.properties : In this case, if a field is odyssey quotes, defined in your mapping file as follows. in the default JSP returns the string i18n Task if your locale is Essays, set to en-US . Similarly, if your locale is set to French, the proper properties file ( MyBundle_fr.properties ) is penelope odyssey quotes, picked up. A Nation Democracy? Specify the odyssey, resource bundle name and location in the Resource Details window of the Human Task editor, as shown in Specifying Multilingual Settings. 15.8.3.1.3 Customizing the Default JSP. If the mapping file does not provide enough control, you can modify the default JSP file. Only modify the section after the label: Most JSP modifications can be made in Essay, the JSP design view of Oracle JDeveloper. By default, all the fields are set to text field. If you want to penelope quotes change a text field to a text area, you can do the following. Select Text Area in Contributions to Geometry, the Component Palette , as shown in Figure 15-34. Figure 15-34 Oracle JDeveloper JSP Design View. Drop it into the position of the text field you want to replace. Note that the name of the text field is odyssey quotes, set by Krishna/Hinduism Essay calling the function oracle.bpel.services.workflow.worklist.payload.PayloadFormGenerator.constructName(String xpath) , and the value of the field is set by PayloadFormGenerator.selectNodeValue(Element payload, String xpath, Map namespace) . These functions must be used to construct form field names and to retrieve form field values. Set the penelope odyssey quotes, text area's name and Contributions to Geometry Essays, value to the same name and value as the text field. Delete the text field. In the place you want to insert text or other HTML elements that are not in a table, add text by typing it or add an HTML element by dragging and dropping the HTML component from the Component Pallet . If the place you want to insert HTML elements is in an HTML table, to insert text or a horizontal rule, first add a table row by clicking a row, right-clicking, and selecting Insert Row . After a row is inserted, you may need to merge all the cells in the row by selecting all the penelope odyssey quotes, cells in the row and prolife prochoice, right-clicking to select Merge Cells . Then you can either type your text or drag and drop your HTML component. Penelope Odyssey Quotes? If you want to to Geometry Essays change the layout of the table or form, highlight the section you want to quotes modify, right-click, and select table or form. If you want to prolife prochoice format the text, use the toolbar's color and style buttons. It is recommended that you modify the default JSP's look and feel only. You should preserve the functions being used in the JSP. You must not alter the penelope, hidden parameters being submitted in Krishna/Hinduism Worldview Essay, the HTML form, because the Update button invokes form submission to the WFTaskUpdate that expects certain values. If your change is complicated and has programming logic in it, you must switch to odyssey the source view and modify the JSP code directly. By putting the statement %@ page pageEncoding=UTF-8 % in the default JSP, UTF-8 is set as the default encoding. The HelpDeskServiceRequest demo in SOA_Oracle_Home bpelsamplesdemos for an example of an prolife prochoice autogenerated JSP and how to change the penelope quotes, payload presentation. 15.8.3.1.4 Displaying a Check Box on the Worklist Payload JSP. Follow these instructions if you want to customize the JSP page to prolife prochoice display a selectable check box instead of penelope odyssey quotes, a text box. Note that the input for the status is generated as follows. Substitute the Krishna/Hinduism Essay, entire code block shown in penelope quotes, Step 1 with the following code block: Add the following JavaScript . Worldview Essay? This is required because the value for the check box field in JavaScript is always the penelope quotes, value defined in the input element. 15.8.4 Generating a Custom Task Display Form. For this release, task display forms are generated by using templates consisting of scientific, different regions. Oracle JDeveloper automatically includes three templates and two default JSPs: The three templates are as follows: Three Region JSP #x2014; Consists of the header, body and footer regions. These regions can be displayed by using custom JSP, XSL, default JSP, or autogenerated JSP files. The automatically generated JSP displays the penelope odyssey, body region. Two Region JSP #x2014; Consists of the header and footer regions. One Region JSP #x2014; Consists of the Krishna/Hinduism, body region. The two default JSPs are as follows: The header JSP displays task attributes such as task number, priority, title, and so on. The footer JSP displays task attributes such as attachment, comments, and so on. The custom task display form enables you to select the template and rendering type for displaying task details. Select Custom Task Form from the list shown in Step 2. The Task Form Display window appears. Select a template from the Current Template list. Three are three seeded regions (three region JSP, two region JSP, and one region JSP). After selecting a region, you can specify how to render it. See the following sections for details about generating the different types of custom task display forms: This option enables you to automatically generate a form for the payload of the task. You can also optionally specify which particular task parameters you want to include in the displayed form. Select Auto JSP from the Body list in the Rendering section. An icon displays to the right of Body.jsp in the Source section. Odyssey? The Payload Mapping window appears. Prochoice? This window enables you to select message attributes. Select message attributes to include in the autogenerated JSP. Click OK to return to the Task Form Display window. This option enables you to invoke an external custom JSP to penelope quotes display the task details. You can also specify URL parameters to pass to this JSP at run time. Three parameters are passed in by default #x2014; taskID , version , and workflowContext . Additional parameters must be explicitly specified. Select Custom JSP from the Essay, Header list in penelope odyssey quotes, the Rendering section. A second icon displays to the right of the Source section for editing custom JSP parameters. Enter the custom JSP file name in the Source field or click the first icon to select the 13:8-10, JSP file to use. This JSP is used in the project and deployed with the other JSP files. Click the second icon to specify run time JSP parameters. The Payload Mapping window appears. This window enables you to add input JSP parameters. Add a parameter by penelope odyssey quotes clicking the + sign. Add a name in the Name column. Click the Euclid's Contributions Essays, icon to penelope the right of the 1 corinthians 13:8-10, row to penelope display the Expression Builder window to dynamically enter a value for the XPath column. For this example, the custom JSP is using a parameter named PRIORITY to receive the task ID from the request. 1 Corinthians? Therefore, PRIORITY is specified as the name and /tns:task/tns:systemAttributes/tns:PRIORITY is specified as the XPath expression. Creating Custom JSP Forms for details about explicitly passing parameters. This option provides the default Header1.jsp and Footer1.jsp files to display the header and footer regions, respectively. This option enables you to odyssey specify an XSL to convert the task XML document into an HTML document for the form. Note that this is useful only to create read-only forms. Essay? Enter the HTTP location in the Source field or click the first icon to select the input XSL file to use. 15.8.5 Deploying Task Display Forms. Workflow task display forms are deployed by odyssey using the deployTaskForm ant target. Krishna/Hinduism Worldview Essay? This target is penelope odyssey quotes, executed when you deploy the BPEL process from Oracle JDeveloper or from the command prompt. This target generates an EAR file that includes all generated default or custom JSPs. This generated EAR file is deployed as a child of the Oracle BPEL Process Manager application. The following directory structure is generated. Scientific? The following subdirectories and files are created: A J2EE enterprise archive directory named ear is created. EAR deployment descriptors are generated and stored in penelope odyssey quotes, the META-INF subdirectory. A Web archive (WAR) directory named war is created. Movement? This directory contains the following files and subdirectories: Style sheets and quotes, Java server page files for that is an of social democracy the header ( Header1.jsp ), footer ( Footer1.jsp ), and body ( payload-body.jsp and payload-body.xml ) are generated and stored in the war directory. Web service deployment descriptors are generated in penelope quotes, the subdirectory WEB-INF . A Nation Is? You can delete all form-related files by right-clicking the human task folder in the Application Navigator and selecting Delete Task Form files . As described earlier, you can register a custom JSP for rendering the penelope quotes, task details in who walk away omelas, the worklist. The BPEL worklist invokes any custom JSP that has been registered. Follow these instructions to odyssey quotes create a custom JSP form. Get the task ID, version, and context ID from the request. Get the workflow context object based on Krishna/Hinduism Worldview, the context ID. Get the task object based on the task ID and penelope odyssey quotes, version. Use the task query service API getTaskDetailsById if the version is null or empty. Otherwise, use the getTaskVersionDetails API. Use the task object methods to get the values you want to display in the JSP. Who Walk Away Omelas Full Text? In the case of update support, generate the hidden HTML type for the following parameters, so that the update servlet can read these parameter values: You can get the values for these parameters in the custom JSP servlet request object. Run time invokes the custom JSP by passing these parameters. The following custom JSP code shows how to use these steps to penelope odyssey write a custom JSP that uses the Contributions, local query service and verification APIs. For this reason, deploy this JSP as a child of the hw_services application. If you do not want to quotes deploy to the same application server, replace local APIs with remote APIs. 15.8.6.1 Adding Update Support in Krishna/Hinduism Worldview Essay, the Custom JSP. To add update support in the custom JSP, you can write the servlet that uses the remote task service APIs to odyssey update the custom JSP task values: Get the task object by using the same steps as used in the custom JSP. Query the task object and set the values based on the custom JSP form. 1 Corinthians 13:8-10? For example, if the custom JSP form allows a user to update the priority attribute, then get the priority JSP form value and call task.setPriority( newvalue ); . Penelope? Use the remote task service API to update the task. Get the value from scientific movement servlet parameter WORKLIST_NEXT_PAGE_PARAMETER_NAME , which the custom JSP page includes as a hidden parameter. Redirect the page to penelope the URL. 15.9 How Changes to a Workflow Appear in 1 corinthians 13:8-10, Worklist Application. Changes made in Oracle BPEL Control to a BPEL process that includes a human task impact how tasks display in odyssey, Oracle BPEL Worklist Application: If you abort an active BPEL process instance on the Instances tab, associated tasks are marked as Stale in the Status column of the Oracle BPEL Worklist Application home page. If you delete a BPEL process instance on the Instances tab, all associated tasks are deleted. If you undeploy a BPEL process on the BPEL Process tab, associated tasks are marked as Stale in the Status column of the Oracle BPEL Worklist Application home page. 15.10 Notifications from Workflow Services. Notifications are sent to alert users of changes to the state of Essays, a task. Notifications can be sent through any of the following channels: e-mail, telephone voice message, fax, pager, or SMS. This section contains the following topics: 15.10.1 Configuring the Notification Channel. After configuring the notification service for e-mail and penelope, other channels in Oracle JDeveloper, set the NotificationMode parameter for the notification service to scientific either ALL or EMAIL in the SOA_Oracle_Home bpelsystemservicesconfigns_emails.xml file. By default, this value is odyssey, set to NONE , meaning that no notifications are sent. The possible values for the NotificationMode attribute are: ALL #x2013; the e-mail, SMS, voice, fax, and Krishna/Hinduism Worldview, pager channels are configured and notification is sent through any channel. EMAIL #x2013; Only the e-mail channel is configured for sending notification messages. Penelope Odyssey Quotes? NONE #x2013; No channel is a nation that of social, configured for sending notification messages. This is the default setting. The notifications for a task can be configured during the creation of a task in the Human Task editor. Notifications can be sent to different types of participants for different actions. The actions for which a task notification can be sent are as follows: Assigned #x2014; when the task is odyssey quotes, assigned to users or a group. This action captures the following task actions #x2014; acquire, adhoc route, delegate, escalate, information for prolife prochoice a task is submitted, push back, reassign, release, and resume. Task is quotes, completed. Task is errored. Task is expired. Information is requested for a task. Task outcome is updated. Task is suspended. Task is away from omelas full, withdrawn. Notifications can be sent to users involved in penelope odyssey, the task in various capacities. This includes: Assignees #x2013; the users or groups to whom the task is currently assigned. Initiator - the user who created the movement, task. Creator #x2013; the user who created the penelope, task. Approvers #x2013; the users who have approved the task so far. This applies to a sequential list of scientific movement, approvers participant type where multiple users have approved the task and penelope odyssey, a notification must be sent to all. Owner #x2013; the owner of the task. Euclid's Contributions? When the task is assigned to a group, each user in odyssey quotes, the group is sent a notification if no notification endpoint is available for the group. Service Configuration chapter of the Oracle BPEL Process Manager Administrator's Guide for details about away full, editing the ns_emails.xml file and (for the JAZN XML provider) users-properties.xml file. Each e-mail notification can contain the following parts: The notification message. The HTML content from the penelope, worklist application #x2014; This is 1 corinthians 13:8-10, a read-only view of the worklist application on the task. Odyssey Quotes? Task attachments #x2014; If the notification includes task attachments. Notifications through SMS, voice, fax, and pager contain only the away text, notification message. The notification message is an XPath expression that can contain static text and dynamic values. In creating the messages, only the task BPEL variable is available for dynamic values. This restriction is because the messages are evaluated outside the context of the BPEL process. The payload in quotes, the task variable is also strongly typed to contain the type of the payload for 13:8-10 XPath tree browsing. The XPath extension function hwf:getNotificationProperty(propertyName) is odyssey, available to Krishna/Hinduism get properties for a particular notification. The function evaluates to corresponding values for each notification. The propertyName can one of the following values: recipient #x2014; The recipient of the notification. Penelope Quotes? recipientDisplay #x2014; The display name of the recipient. taskAssignees #x2014; The task assignees. taskAssigneesDisplay #x2014; The display names of the example democracy is, task assignees. locale #x2014; The locale of the recipient. taskId #x2014; The ID of the task for which the notification is meant. taskNumber #x2014; The number of the penelope, task for which the notification is meant. appLink #x2014; The HTML link to the worklist application task details page. Movement? The following example demonstrates the use of hwf:getNotificationProperty and hwf:getTaskResourceBundle together: This results in a message similar to the following: 15.10.3 Configuring Messages in Different Languages. It is possible to get internationalized messages in the notification content using one of the following methods. Penelope Odyssey Quotes? If you want to use values from the resource bundle specified during the task definition, use the XPath extension function hwf:getTaskResourceBundleString(taskId, key, locale?) . A Nation That Example Democracy Is? This function returns the internationalized string from the resource bundle specified in the task definition. The locale of the notification recipient can be retrieved with the function hwf:getNotificationProperty('locale') . Odyssey? The task ID corresponding to a notification can be retrieved with the function hwf:getNotificationProperty('taskId') . If a different resource bundle is used, the a nation is an democracy is, XPath extension function orcl:get-localized-string() can be used to retrieve localized messages. Task actions can be performed through e-mail if the task is penelope quotes, set up to enable actionable e-mail (the same actions can also be performed from the 1 corinthians, Oracle BPEL Worklist Application). An actionable e-mail account is the account in which task action-related e-mails are received and processed. This e-mail account name is odyssey quotes, identified by the element actionableEmailAccountName in the configuration file SOA_Oracle_Home bpelsystemservicesconfigwf_config.xml . Ensure that you select Make e-mail messages actionable in the Notification Settings section of the Human Task editor to make e-mail notifications actionable. (See Figure 15-25.) This enables you to perform task actions through e-mail. If a notification is prolife prochoice, actionable, the e-mail contains links for penelope odyssey quotes each of the custom outcomes. Clicking on example of social democracy is, the links invokes the compose window of the e-mail client. You do not have to change anything in the subject or the body in this e-mail. If you change the content with the NID substrings, the e-mail is not processed. Figure 15-35 shows an actionable e-mail sample: Figure 15-35 Actionable E-mails. 15.10.5 Sending Inbound and Outbound Attachments. If the include attachments flag is checked; only e-mail is quotes, sent. The e-mails include all the task attachments as e-mail attachments. Select Send task attachments with e-mail notifications in 13:8-10, the Notification Settings section of the Human Task editor. (See Figure 15-25.) In the actionable e-mail reply, the user can add attachments in penelope odyssey quotes, the e-mail and these attachments are added as task attachments. In the the ones who walk away from omelas, actionable e-mail reply, the penelope odyssey quotes, user can add comments in the e-mail between Comments[[' and ']] and those contents are added as task comments. For example, Comments[[looks good]]. In previous releases, the workflow outbound notification was not reliable. This meant that notifications were sent by using threads and the list of notifications to send was stored in memory. If Oracle BPEL Server went down, workflow lost any notification messages that had not yet been sent. With release 10.1.3, the workflow outbound notification service uses queues with the is an example democracy, persistency service to odyssey send notifications to users. Whenever a workflow needs to send a notification to a user, it stores the task information such as notification ID, task ID, version, and so on Krishna/Hinduism Worldview Essay, in the dehydration store and enqueues the notification ID to the queue. A message-driven bean (MDB) listening on this queue dequeues the message and creates the notification message to send to the user. It then uses the notification service to penelope send this message, which uses the queue with the movement, dehydration store. 15.10.8 Sending Secure Notifications. If a notification is penelope quotes, marked as secure in the Notification Settings section of the Human Task editor, a default notification message is used. (See Figure 15-25.) The default notification message includes a link to the task in Krishna/Hinduism Essay, the Oracle BPEL Worklist Application. You must log in to see task details. 15.10.9 Channels Used for penelope odyssey quotes Notifications. The channel through which a user is notified is determined by prochoice the notification preference attribute of the user specified in JAZN. The notification preference is identified by the attribute orclWorkflowNotificationPreference . Penelope? In a JAZN file-based system, the scientific movement, value for this attribute can be changed in the users-properties.xml file located at SOA_Oracle_Home bpelsystemservicesconfig . In an Oracle Internet Directory-based system, the user properties can be changed using the Oracle Delegated Administration Service. If this attribute is not set, the e-mail channel is odyssey quotes, used as the default. Tasks can be configured to send reminders, which can be based on the time the task was assigned to a user or the expiration time of a task. The Ones Full? The number of reminders and the interval between the reminders can also be configured. The message used for reminders is the message that is meant for ASSIGNEES when the task is marked as ASSIGNED . You set reminders in the Notification Settings section of the Human Task editor. (See Figure 15-25.) Reminder configuration involves these parameters. Recurrence #x2014; The recurrence specifies the number of times reminders are sent. The possible values for recurrence are EVERY , NEVER , 0 , 1 , 2 #x2026;, 10 . RelativeDate #x2014; The relativeDate specifies if the reminder duration is computed relative to the assigned date or to the expiration date of the odyssey quotes, task. Full Text? The possible values for the relativeDate are ASSIGNED and EXPIRATION . Duration #x2014; The duration from the relativeDate and the first reminder and each reminder since then. The data type of duration is xsd:duration , whose format is defined by penelope odyssey quotes ISO 8601 under the form PnYnMnDTnHnMnS . The capital letters are delimiters and can be omitted when the corresponding member is not used. Euclid's? Examples include PT1004199059S , PT130S , PT2M10S , P1DT2S , -P1Y, or P1Y2M3DT5H20M30.123S . The following examples illustrate when reminders are sent. The relativeDate is ASSIGNED , the penelope odyssey, recurrence is EVERY , and the reminder duration is PT1D . If the task is assigned at 3/24/2005 10:00 AM , then reminders are sent at 3/25/2005 10:00 AM , 3/26/2005 10:00 AM , 3/27/2005 10:00 AM , and so on Euclid's Contributions to Geometry Essays, until the odyssey, user acts on the task. If the relativeDate is EXPIRATION , the recurrence is 2 , the reminder duration is Worldview Essay, PT1D, and the task expires at 3/26/2005 10:00 AM , then reminders are sent at 3/24/2005 10:00 AM and 3/25/2005 10:00 AM if the task was assigned before 3 /24/2005 10:00 AM . If the relativeDate is EXPIRATION , the quotes, recurrence is 2 , the reminder duration is PT1D , the task expires at 3/26/2005 10:00 AM , and the task was assigned at 3/24/2005 3:00 PM , then only one reminder is sent at a nation example is 3/25/2005 10:00 AM . Table 15-14 shows the end-to-end workflow examples included with Oracle BPEL Process Manager. Follow the documentation included in quotes, the same directories with these samples. In addition to the demonstration features listed in Table 15-14, all samples show the use of worklist applications and workflow notifications. Table 15-14 End-to-End Examples. Integration with a business rule engine. Adding attachments to tasks. Use of decision service to determine the levels of approvals required for 13:8-10 a particular expense request. Microsoft Office integration. Custom worklist user interface. Promotion of task payload message attributes. Group assignment (in StarLoan process) Custom worklist user interface (in LoanFlowPlusUI and StarLoanUI) FYI tasks (in LoanFlowPlus process) This example describes how to create a vacation request business process. In this business process, the manager of a user requesting a vacation approves or rejects the request. The approval or rejection is a one-step process. This example highlights the use of the following: Modeling a single approval workflow using Oracle JDeveloper. Using the Oracle BPEL Worklist Application to quotes view and respond to tasks. Movement? This example assumes the following: You are familiar with basic BPEL constructs, including BPEL activities and partner links, and basic XPath functions. Familiarity with Oracle JDeveloper#x2014;the environment for creating and deploying BPEL processes#x2014;is also assumed. You must configure the e-mail server settings for the account Default to enable e-mail notifications. Penelope? The Default account is used to 1 corinthians 13:8-10 send e-mails. The e-mail server configuration is in. The following code example from the file shows the parameters that may require configuration in bold. You must set the NotificationMode parameter to penelope odyssey one of the following values in Euclid's Essays, the ns_emails.xml file: ALL #x2013; If you have the penelope, e-mail, SMS, voice, fax, and the ones who walk away omelas, pager channels set up. EMAIL #x2013; If you have only the e-mail channel set up. Quotes? You must change the e-mail address for the user jstein to an accessible e-mail address. 1 Corinthians? If the XML-based JAZN provider is used, these properties can be changed in: The following XML segment from the users-properties.xml file shows where the penelope quotes, e-mail is configured: You must restart Oracle BPEL Process Manager after making any of the Contributions to Geometry, preceding changes. 15.11.3 Modeling the Vacation Request Process. Penelope Quotes? In this phase of the tutorial, you create a new project, OrderApproval, and define the human workflow process, a single approver workflow in which the order is approved or rejected. The order is first assigned to the Supervisor role. After a user with the Supervisor role approves the order, it is sent to the user's manager for final approval. Scientific? This section contains these tasks: 15.11.3.1 Creating the Vacation Request Process and Importing the penelope, Schema. Right-click your application in the Application Navigator and select New Project . Select BPEL Process Project . Create an asynchronous BPEL process with the name VacationRequest . Click the flashlight next to Input Schema Element to browse for VacationRequest.xsd in. The Type Chooser window appears. Expand and select Imported Schemas VacationRequest.xsd VacationRequestProcessRequest . Click the flashlight next to Output Schema Element . Expand and select Imported Schemas VacationRequest.xsd VacationRequestProcessResponse . The schemas are now imported into the project. VacationRequest.xsd appears under VacationRequest Integration Content Schemas in the Application Navigator , and under Schemas in the Structure section. The BPEL process#x2014;a Receive activity ( receiveInput ) and an Invoke activity ( callbackClient )#x2014;is displayed. Select Save from the File main menu. 15.11.3.2 Adding a Human Task to the Order Approval Process. When you define the human task, the VacationApproval.task file#x2014;the task configuration metadata file#x2014;is created. Drag and movement, drop a Human Task activity between receiveInput and callbackClient . Click the Create Task Definition icon (second icon). Penelope Odyssey Quotes? Enter VacationApproval for the human task name and click OK . (Accept the default location.) The VacationApproval.task file is created. The Human Task editor is displayed. For Title , enter Vacation Approval . Accept the default values for Priority and Outcomes . For Parameters , click the Euclid's Contributions Essays, + icon on the right side of the window. The Add Task Parameter window is displayed. Penelope Quotes? Click Element and 1 corinthians 13:8-10, then the flashlight icon. Odyssey? In the Type Chooser window, expand and select Project Schema Files VacationRequest.xsd VacationRequestProcessRequest , and click OK . In the Add Task Parameter window, click Modifiable via worklist and click OK . This ensures that you can modify task data using the Oracle BPEL Worklist Application. In the Assignment and Routing Policy section, click the + icon on the right side of the window. The Add Participant Type window is displayed. For Type , select Single Approver . This participant type acts alone on the task. For Label , enter Vacation Approver . Click By expression . In this example, you assign the task to the manager of the vacation requester. Click the icon to the right of the Dynamic User Xpath field to display the Expression Builder window. Select Identity Service Functions from the list in the Functions section. Go to the Schema section on the left side of the Expression Builder window. Expand task:task task:payload ns0:VacationRequestProcessRequest ns0:creator . Click Insert Into Expression . The Expression Builder window appears as follows: Click OK to return to the Add Participant Type window. Click OK to return to prochoice the Human Task editor. Click the quotes, + sign to expand the Expiration and Essays, Escalation Policy section. Select Expire after from the drop-down list. Penelope Quotes? Click Fixed Duration and away from, select 1 from the Day list. Penelope? Select Save from the File main menu. Who Walk Away Omelas Full? Click the X next to penelope odyssey quotes VacationApproval.task to close the Human Task editor. 15.11.3.3 Assigning Input and a nation of social democracy, Output Parameters for the Human Task. Map the fields to the variables in penelope odyssey quotes, the BPEL process. Double-click the VacationApproval_1 human task service in the BPEL process. This displays the Human Task window. In the Task Title field, enter the word for after the words Vacation Approval . Click the icon at the right to prochoice display the Expression Builder window. Quotes? In the BPEL Variables section, expand and select inputVariable payload client:VacationRequestProcessRequest client:creator . Click Insert Into Expression . The XPath expression appears in the Expression section. The XPath expression is appended to the task title. Click the icon to the right of the Initiator field to display the Expression Builder window. Repeat Steps 4 through 6 to insert the scientific movement, same XPath expression in the Initiator field. Penelope Quotes? Click the 1 corinthians, flashlight icon under the BPEL Variable column. The Task Parameters window appears. In the Task Parameters window, expand and select Variables inputVariable payload client:VacationRequestProcessRequest . In the Human Task window, click OK . Select Save from the File main menu. 15.11.3.4 Creating a Task Form for the Worklist. An autogenerated task form, payload-body.jsp , is created. In the Application Navigator , right-click the VacationApproval folder and select Auto Generate Simple Task Form . This automatically generates a task form file. Close payload-body.jsp by clicking the X sign at the top. The Switch activity reflects the penelope, possible outcomes, or cases, specified previously, Approve and Reject. 1 Corinthians? It also has an Otherwise case to represent other outcomes, such as errored, stale, or expired. Quotes? Inside each of the to Geometry Essays, cases, you can add activities to complete modeling of the business process. The copyPayloadFromTask Assign activities copy the payload back to its source. Expand the taskSwitch Switch activity. Drag and drop an Assign activity to below the copyPayloadFromTask Assign activity in penelope, the case Task outcome is APPROVE section of the Switch activity. Double-click the Assign icon to display the Essay, Assign window. Click the General tab. Penelope Quotes? Enter assignVacationApproval1 in the Name field. Click the Copy Operation tab. Click Create and 1 corinthians 13:8-10, select Copy Operation . Enter the quotes, following details: Note: The namespace number values (for example, client , ns1 ) can vary. Use the namespace values that automatically appear. Click OK to close the Create Copy Operation window and the Assign window. 1 Corinthians 13:8-10? Repeat Steps 3 through 11 to create an Assign activity below the copyPayloadFromTask Assign activity in the case Task outcome is REJECT section. Enter the same details as described above, with the following exceptions: Name it assignVacationApproval2. Set the Expression field to string('Rejected') Repeat Steps 3 through 11 to create an Assign Activity below the penelope odyssey, copyPayloadFromTask Assign activity in full, the otherwise section. Quotes? Enter the same details as described above, with the following exceptions: Name it assignVacationApproval3. Set the Expression field to string('Rejected') The process looks as follows: Select Save from the File main menu. Click the - sign to close the scientific movement, taskSwitch Switch activity. 15.11.3.6 Validating, Compiling, and odyssey quotes, Deploying the Order Approval Process. Go to the Application Navigator section. Select Deploy my_integration_server_connection Deploy to default domain . This compiles the BPEL process. Check for errors by Essay clicking the buttons at the bottom of the window. If there are no errors, deployment was successful. 15.11.3.7 Running the Order Approval Process. Log into Oracle BPEL Control by selecting Start All Programs Oracle - Oracle_Home Oracle BPEL Process Manager BPEL Control . The Dashboard tab of penelope, Oracle BPEL Control appears. Prolife? Enter the following details to log into penelope Oracle BPEL Control and click Login : Click VacationApproval in the Deployed BPEL Processes list. Contributions Essays? Enter jcooper for the creator of the odyssey quotes, vacation. Enter appropriate values for the remaining fields. Click Post XML Message . The BPEL Processes tab displays a message similar to the following: Click the Instances tab at the top. Click the OrderApproval instance. A message appears indicating that the instance is active. Select Start All Programs Oracle - Oracle_Home Oracle BPEL Process Manager Sample Worklist Application to access the login window for Oracle BPEL Worklist Application: Log in as jstein / welcome1 . The user jstein is the Essay, manager of jcooper . This displays Oracle BPEL Worklist Application. A task waiting to be approved appears. Select Claim in penelope odyssey quotes, the Actions list for the task to approve. The task details and a nation is, payload information appear. Odyssey Quotes? Review the information. For example, the following information appears if you copied and pasted in the contents of scientific, OrderBookingPO_1.xml . Select Approve from the Task Action list and penelope, click Go . Log out 1 corinthians, as user jcooper . Log into Oracle BPEL Worklist Application as jstein / welcome1 . Select Approve from the Actions list and click Go . After processing, no tasks appear in Oracle BPEL Worklist Application. Return to Oracle BPEL Control. Click the Instances tab at the top. Click the VacationApproval instance. A message appears indicating that the instance has completed. Odyssey Quotes? Click the Audit and Flow links to observe additional details about the prolife, completed OrderApproval process. Workflow services and functions are responsible for a variety of tasks. This section describes the responsibilities of the following workflow services: 15.12.1 EJB, SOAP, and penelope, Java Support for the Workflow Services. Table 15-15 lists the type of Essays, SOAP, EJB, and Java support provided for the task services. Penelope Odyssey? Table 15-15 EJB, SOAP, and Java Support. To Geometry? Table 15-16 lists the location for the SOAP WSDL file for each task service. Table 15-16 SOAP WSDL Location for the Task Services. Odyssey Quotes? 15.12.2 Security Model for Services. With the exception of the identity service, all services that use the above-mentioned APIs (SOAP, remote EJB, local EJB, and Java WSIF) require authentication to be invoked. Movement? All the above channels support passing the user identity using the workflow context. The workflow context contains either of the quotes, following: Login and Euclid's, password. The task query service exposes the authenticate operation that takes the login and password and returns the workflow context used for all services. Optionally, with each request, you can pass the workflow context with the login and password. The authenticate operation also supports the concept of quotes, creating the context on behalf of a user with the admin ID and admin password. This enables you to create the context for a logged-in user to Essay the Oracle BPEL Worklist Application if the password for that user is not available. 15.12.2.1 Security in SOAP Web Services. SOAP Web services also support Web service security. Penelope Odyssey? When Web service security is used, the workflow context does not need to be present in the SOAP input. The Web service security can be configured from the Oracle Enterprise Manager 10 g Application Server Control Console. Workflow service SOAP clients cannot be used when Web service security is scientific, used. Configuring Single Sign-on Using SAML in the Oracle Application Server Web Services Security Guide for details about quotes, propagating the identity of a user from Euclid's to Geometry a Web application to the Web service. The workflow service EJBs also take a workflow context parameter that is used for authentication and authorization. 15.12.2.3 Creating Workflow Context on Behalf of a User. The authenticate API operation on the task query service can create the workflow context on behalf of a user by odyssey passing the prolife prochoice, user ID and password of an admin user in the request. An admin user is a user who has the BPMWorkflowAdmin role. This created context is as if it was created using the password on odyssey, behalf of the user. In this example, the workflow context is 1 corinthians, created for user jcooper . The task service exposes operations to act on tasks. Penelope? Table 15-17 describes the operations of the task service. Package oracle.bpel.services.workflow.task corresponds to scientific movement the task service. Table 15-17 Task Service Methods. The task query service queries tasks based on quotes, a variety of search criterion such as keyword, category, status, business process, attribute values, history information of a task, and so on. Table 15-18 describes the operations of the task query service, including how to use the service over SOAP. Package oracle.bpel.services.workflow.query corresponds to the task query service. Table 15-18 Task Query Service Methods. assignmentFilter #x2014; Filters tasks according to whom the task is assigned, or who created the Krishna/Hinduism Worldview Essay, task. Possible values for the assignment filter are as follows: ADMIN #x2014; No filtering; returns all tasks regardless of assignment or creator. ALL #x2014; No filtering; returns all tasks regardless of assignment or creator. CREATOR #x2014; Returns tasks where the odyssey, context user is the creator. GROUP #x2014; Returns tasks that are assigned to one of the groups of which the Contributions Essays, context user is a member. MY #x2014; Returns tasks that are assigned to the context user. MY_AND_GROUP #x2014; Returns tasks that are assigned to either the context user, or one of the groups of which they are a member. OWNER #x2014; Returns tasks where the context user is the task owner. PREVIOUS #x2014; Returns tasks the context user previously updated. REPORTEES #x2014; Returns tasks that are assigned to reportees of the context user. keywords #x2014; An optional search string. This only returns tasks where the string is odyssey, contained in the task title, task identification key, or one of the 1 corinthians, task text flex fields. predicate #x2014; An optional oracle.bpel.services.workflow.repos.Predicate object that allows clients to penelope quotes specify complex, SQL-like query predicates. Note: To use the that democracy, task query service over SOAP, call Predicate.enableXMLSerialization(true); to make the predicate object serializable. Penelope? This section describes the identity service component of Oracle BPEL Process Manager. The identity service is a thin Web service layer on top of the Oracle Application Server 10 g security infrastructure, namely OracleAS JAAS Provider (JAZN), or any custom user repository. It enables authentication and authorization of users and the lookup of user properties, roles, group memberships, and privileges. The Ones Who Walk Full? Some users and roles are automatically created when Oracle BPEL Process Manager is installed. Seeded users include: The identity service predefines the following roles, which can be granted to users to perform workflow-related operations: PUBLIC #x2014;This role is an implicit JAZN role; it does not need to be granted explicitly to any of the users. If any user can authenticate with the worklist, then they can see tasks assigned to them or groups they belong to penelope odyssey quotes and act on these tasks. Krishna/Hinduism Essay? The BPMPublic role can be used and explicitly granted to odyssey each user if a third-party provider does not support an implicit PUBLIC role. BPMWorkflowReassign #x2014;This role enables a user to reassign tasks to any other user in the organization. A manager can always delegate tasks to any users under him in a nation that is, the organization hierarchy without any Reassign privileges. However, to reassign to users outside the management hierarchy, the BPMWorkflowReassign role is required. BPMWorkflowSuspend #x2014;This role enables users to suspend a process. Odyssey Quotes? If a process is suspended, then the expiration time does not apply. When the movement, process is resumed, the expiration date is recomputed. Users cannot suspend the workflow if the process designer has designated Suspend as a restricted action, even if the user has the BPMWorkflowSuspend role. BPMWorkflowViewHistory #x2014;In general, a user can see only the task assignment sequence as part of their worklist. This role enables a user to drill down further into the BPEL business process audit trail from the penelope quotes, task approval sequence. BPMWorkflowAdmin #x2014;This role enables a user to perform system actions on movement, any workflow in the system. This role does not allow you to change the penelope odyssey quotes, outcome of the task (such as approve or reject); it only allows you to perform actions such as delegate, escalate, and suspend. Only the task assignee or the task owner can change the outcome of the task. BPMSystemAdmin #x2014;Both BPMWorkflowAdmin and BPMSystemAdmin have the same level of workflow privileges. BPMDefaultDomainAdmin #x2014;This role provides a user with access to the default domain through Oracle BPEL Control. Oracle BPEL Process Manager Administrator's Guide for instructions on who walk away text, configuring the penelope quotes, identity service and additional details about the BPMSystemAdmin and BPMDefaultDomainAdmin roles. Is An Of Social? Some of these roles are nested. The BPMWorkflowReassign , BPMWorkflowSuspend , and BPMWorkflowViewHistory roles are granted to quotes the BPMWorkflowAdmin role. The BPMSystemAdmin role is granted to Euclid's Essays the seeded bpeladmin user. The following table represents the relationship between the grantees and roles: You use directory-specific tools to create realms, users, or groups. For example: To create users and penelope odyssey, groups when using OID, you use the Oracle Delegated Administration Services tools. See Oracle Identity Management Guide to Delegated Administration for more information. To create user and group credentials when using the XML-based JAZN provider, you use the JAZN Admintool to modify the jazn-data.xml file. To add or remove an XML-based JAZN user or role, the JAZN Admintool must be used. You can manually edit the users-properties.xml file to specify detailed user properties that JAZN does not support. For example, to add a user to a specified realm, issue the following command: java -jar jazn.jar -user adminUser -password adminPassword -adduser realmName newUser newUserPassword. The JAZN Admintool provides different command options. Prolife? You can list all the odyssey, options and their syntax with the -help option, as in: java -jar jazn.jar -help. If you are using a third-party LDAP server or a custom user repository, you must use the specific tools available for that directory. 15.12.5.2 Identity Service Providers. Oracle BPEL Process Manager identity service supports three types of providers: JAZN, third-party LDAP, or custom plug-in, as shown in Figure 15-36. Figure 15-36 Identity Service Providers. The identity service providers perform the following operations: Authentication#x2014;authenticates users given their username and password. Authorization#x2014;determines roles and group memberships for a specific user. These roles are then used to control access to various work items and operations on the worklist. Retrieve user properties#x2014;includes contact information such as first name, last name, phone, e-mail, preferred notification channel, language preference, time zone, and 1 corinthians, organization details such as manager name and reportees. The JAZN provider mode, which is preconfigured, delegates all authentication and authorization inquires to the JAZN layer. Two JAAS providers are supplied as part of the OC4J security infrastructure: the XML-based file and LDAP-based OID. XML-Based JAZN Provider Type #x2014; The XML-based provider type is used for penelope odyssey quotes lightweight storage of information in the XML files. All the user names, roles, and permissions are stored in XML files. In this case, user names, passwords, and privileges are stored in the jazn-data.xml file. In addition, Oracle BPEL Process Manager uses a user-properties.xml file that works in conjunction with this file to of social democracy is store detailed user properties such as name, e-mail, phone, and manager. Odyssey Quotes? LDAP-Based JAZN Provider Type (Oracle Internet Directory) #x2014; The LDAP-based provider type is based on the Lightweight Directory Access Protocol (LDAP) for centralized storage of information in a directory. OID is a standard LDAP-based directory that provides a single, centralized repository for all user data. It allows sites to manage user identities, roles, authorization, and authentication credentials, as well as application-specific preferences and prolife prochoice, profiles in a single repository. Quotes? The third-party LDAP provider mode enables identity service to work with third-party LDAP servers such as Sun Directory Server (iPlanet), Microsoft Active Directory, or openLDAP. In this mode, identity service assumes that the directory is the central repository of all user data, including authentication credentials, roles, and profiles. The standard organizationalPerson , inetOrgPerson objects from the LDAP schema retrieve these details. 15.12.5.2.3 Custom User Repository Plug-ins. Who Walk From Omelas? This mode enables you to plug in penelope odyssey, a non-LDAP-based user repository by registering a custom identity service provider. The custom identity service plug-in must implement the BPMIdentityService interface (see Javadoc). This identityservice class name must be registered in is_config.xml . See SOA_Oracle_Home bpeldocsworkfloworacletippcservicesidentity for Javadoc on the BPMIdentityService interface. The identity service supports the following user properties : Given name, middle name, and movement, last name. Home phone number. Penelope Odyssey Quotes? Mobile phone number. Owners (applies to groups and roles, but not users) Language preference (Java locale) Notification preference (preferred notification channel) The preceding properties are optional for Oracle BPEL Process Manager users. However, some features, such as task notification, are not available if the contact information is not present in the directory or in the users-properties file for the JAZN XML-based provider. Krishna/Hinduism Essay? Also, automatic escalation and manager views are not available if the manager field is not available to the identity service. If the user is not listed among the owners of the group, they cannot modify the rule defined for the group. The service configuration chapter of Oracle BPEL Process Manager Administrator's Guide for instructions on odyssey, defining group ownership. The following OID objectClasses specify user and role properties such as mail , manager , and telephoneNumber . The identity service maintains a connection pool to retrieve these properties from the LDAP directory. If you are using the XML-based JAZN provider, the same entries are represented as XML elements in the users-properties.xml file in. The identity service enables you to specify multiple configuration settings (to express identity contexts, supported realms, and so on) in the is_config.xml file. The business process uses one of the defined configurations at run time. The configuration must specify the realm name to enable a business process to resolve the context at run time. For the JAZN provider, the realm name must match one of supported JAZN realm names. Otherwise, a run time exception is thrown. For the JAZN XML-based provider, extended user and role properties for different realms must be stored in different files. For the LDAP provider, the realm name can be any unique name, while the 13:8-10, context is defined by the LDAP URL, user search base, and role search base nodes in the LDAP server tree. These properties are controlled by the connection , userControls , and roleControls provider elements in penelope odyssey quotes, is_config.xml . If the is_config.xml file contains more than one configuration, then one is defined as the default configuration. The default context is used by the BPEL process if no specific context information is found at that of social democracy is run time. The identity service resolves the configuration context based on the realm name. The service configuration chapter of the Oracle BPEL Process Manager Administrator's Guide for configuration instructions. 15.12.5.5 Authentication, Authorization, and Identity Service Providers. The identity service supports authentication, authorization, and identity service providers. The identity service provider is the default pseudoservice provider. It must be defined for each configuration in the is_config.xml file. It delegates all calls either to the authentication or authorization service provider. By default, all three service providers share the same context setting defined in the identity provider.The identity service can define additional service providers with its own setting attributes for authentication or authorization services.If the provider service attribute is set to Authentication , the setting and penelope odyssey quotes, the provider context are used only for all authentication calls for the configuration. If the provider service attribute is set to Authorization , the setting and 13:8-10, provider context are used only for authorization calls. The multiple service providers section of the service configuration chapter of the Oracle BPEL Process Manager Administrator's Guide for an example of a configuration with two providers: The JAZN XML-based identity service provider is used for all calls, except authentication. The custom plug-in provider is used only for authentication calls. The notification service exposes operations that can be invoked from the BPEL business process to quotes send notifications through e-mail, voice, fax, pager, or short message service (SMS) channels. Scientific? Oracle BPEL Process Manager Administrator's Guide for instructions on configuring notification service delivery channels. Task metadata service exposes operations to retrieve metadata information related to a task. Table 15-19 describes these methods. Odyssey Quotes? Package oracle.bpel.services.workflow.metadata corresponds to the task metadata service. Table 15-19 Task Metadata Service Methods. The user metadata service provides methods for Worldview managing metadata specific to individual users and groups. It is used for getting and setting user worklist preferences, managing user custom views, and odyssey, managing workflow rules for users and groups. For most methods in the user metadata service, the authenticated user can query and away text, update their own user metadata. However, they cannot update metadata belonging to other users. In the case of group metadata (for example, workflow rules for groups), only a user designated as an owner of a group (or a BPMWorkflowAdmin user) can query and update the metadata for odyssey that group. However, a user that has been granted the BPMWorkflowAdmin role can query and Contributions to Geometry Essays, update metadata for any user or group. Table 15-20 describes the methods in the user metadata service. Package oracle.bpel.services.workflow.user corresponds to the user metadata service. Table 15-20 User Metadata Service Methods. Chapter 16, Worklist Application for details about the rule configuration and user preference pages. The runtime config service provides methods for penelope odyssey managing metadata used in the task service run time environment. It principally supports management of task payload flex field mappings. The task object used by the task service contains a number of flex field attributes, which can be populated with information from the task payload. 1 Corinthians? This allows the task payload information to penelope odyssey be queried, displayed in task listings, and used in workflow rules. The runtime config service allows administrators to create mappings between simple task payload attributes and these flex field attributes. Only a user with the BPMWorkflowAdmin privilege can make updates to payload mappings. However, any authenticated user can use the that is an of social democracy, query methods in this service. An administrator can create attribute labels for the various flex field attributes. These attribute labels provide a meaningful label for the attribute (for example, a label Location may be created for odyssey quotes the flex field attribute TextAttribute1 ). A given flex field attribute may have multiple labels associated with it. A Nation That Example? This attribute label is what is displayed to users when displaying lists of attributes for a specific task in the worklist application. The attribute labels for a specific task type can be determined by calling the getTaskAttributesForTaskDefinition method on the task metadata service. Quotes? When defining attribute labels, the following fields are automatically populated by the service. You do not need to specify values for these attributes when creating or updating attribute labels: Valid values for the task attribute field are as follows: TextAttribute1 through TextAttribute10. FormAttribute1 through FormAttribute5. 13:8-10? UrlAttribute1 through UrlAttribute5. DateAttribute1 through DateAttribute5. NumberAttribute1 through NumberAttribute5. Mappings can then be created between task payload fields and the attribute labels. For example, the payload field customerLocation can be mapped to the attribute label Location . Odyssey Quotes? Different task types can share the same attribute label. This allows payload attributes from different task types that have the same semantic meaning to be mapped to the same attribute label. Only payload fields that are simple XML types can be mapped. The runtime config service also provides methods for Euclid's to Geometry querying the dynamic assignment functions supported by the server. Penelope Odyssey Quotes? Table 15-21 describes the methods in the runtime config service. Package oracle.bpel.services.workflow.runtimeconfig corresponds to is an of social the runtime config service. Table 15-21 Runtime Config Service. 15.12.9.1 Internationalization of Attribute Labels. Attribute labels provide a method of quotes, attaching a meaningful label to a task flex field attribute. It can be desirable to present attribute labels that are translated into the appropriate language for the locale of the user. To achieve this, you can add entries to the WorkflowLabels.properties resource property file, and Contributions to Geometry Essays, associated resource bundles in quotes, other languages. This file exists in the SOA_Oracle_Home bpelsystemservicesconfigwfresource directory. Entries for flex field attribute labels must be of the form: For instance, the entry for a label named Location is: Note that adding entries to these files for the ones away attribute labels is optional. If no entry is present in the file, the name of the attribute label as specified using the API is used instead. 15.13 Configuring the Assignment Service. This section describes how to penelope odyssey quotes configure the Essay, assignment service. This section contains the following topics: 15.13.1 Dynamic Assignment Functions. Dynamic assignment functions select a particular user or group from either a group, or from a list of users or groups. The selection is made according to criteria specific to the particular dynamic assignment function. The three dynamic assignment functions shown in Table 15-22 are included with Oracle BPEL Process Manager: Table 15-22 Dynamic Assignment Functions. These functions all check a user's vacation status. A user that is currently unavailable is odyssey quotes, not automatically assigned tasks. These dynamic assignment functions can be called using the a nation that is an example of social, custom XPath functions in a BPEL process or task definition. These XPath functions must be called with at least two, and optionally more parameters: The name of the dynamic assignment function being called. The name of the group on which to execute the function (or a list of users or groups).(Optional) the odyssey, identity realm to which the a nation that of social, user or group belongs (default value is the default identity realm). Additional optional parameters specific to penelope odyssey quotes the dynamic assignment function. In the case of the most-productive assignment function, this is the length of time (in days) to calculate a user's productivity. The two other functions do not use additional parameters. In addition, workflow rules created for prochoice a group can use dynamic assignment functions to select a member of that group for reassignment of a task. In addition to the three functions, a dynamic assignment framework is provided that allows you to implement and configure your own dynamic assignment functions. 15.13.1.1 Implementing a Dynamic Assignment Function. To implement your own dynamic assignment function, write a Java class that implements one or both of the following interfaces: If your dynamic assignment function selects users, implement the first interface. If it selects groups, implement the odyssey quotes, second interface. The Ones Who Walk Omelas? If it allows the selection of both users and groups, implement both interfaces. The two interfaces above both extend the interface oracle.bpel.services.workflow.assignment.dynamic.IDynamicAssignmentFunction . Your Java class should also implement the methods in that interface. These interfaces as shown below: The dynamic assignment framework also provides the utility class oracle.bpel.services.workflow.assignment.dynamic.DynamicAssignmentUtils . This class provides a number of methods that are useful when implementing dynamic assignment functions. 15.13.1.2 Configuring Dynamic Assignment Functions. Dynamic assignment functions are configured using the wf-dynamic-assign-cfg.xml file in penelope odyssey quotes, the SOA_Oracle_Home bpelsystemservicesconfig directory. Worldview? Each dynamic assignment function must have an entry in odyssey quotes, this file, in prochoice, the form of a function tag. The function tag must contain two attributes: name #x2014; the name of the function. classpath #x2014; the classpath of the class that implements the function. Penelope Odyssey Quotes? In addition, the function tag can optionally contain any number of property tags. These tags pass initialization parameters to scientific the dynamic assignment function. Odyssey? Each property tag must contain a name attribute. The value of the property is specified in the body of the tag. 13:8-10? The property values specified in these tags are passed as a map (indexed by the value of the quotes, name attributes) to the setInitParameters method of the dynamic assignment functions. Two of the functions have initialization parameters. These are: ROUND_ROBIN #x2014; The parameter MAX_MAP_SIZE specifies the maximum number of sets of users or groups for which the function can maintain ROUND_ROBIN counts. The dynamic assignment function holds a list of users and groups in memory for each group (or list of users and groups) on which it is asked to execute the ROUND_ROBIN function. most-productive #x2014; The parameter DEAFULT_TIME_PERIOD specified the scientific movement, length of time (in days) over odyssey which to calculate the user's productivity. 1 Corinthians 13:8-10? This value can be overridden when calling the most-productive dynamic assignment function. Use an XPath function by specifying an alternative value as the third parameter in the XPath function call. 15.13.1.3 Configuring Display Names for Dynamic Assignment Functions. The runtime config service provides methods for returning a list of available user and group dynamic assignment functions. These functions return both the odyssey, name of the function, and a user-displayable label for the function. The functions support localization of the display name, so that it displays in the appropriate language for 13:8-10 the context user. These functions are used by the worklist application to show a list of available dynamic assignment functions. To specify display names (and appropriate translations) for your dynamic assignment functions, add entries to penelope odyssey the resource property file WorkflowLabels.properties , and associated resource property files in other languages. This file exists in is an example of social, the SOA_Oracle_Home bpelsystemservicesconfigwfresource directory. Entries for penelope odyssey quotes dynamic assignment functions must be of the form: For instance, the entry for the ROUND_ROBIN function is: Note that adding entries to these files for scientific dynamic assignment functions is optional. If no entry is penelope odyssey, present in the file, then the name of the function (for example, ROUND_ROBIN ') is used instead. 15.13.2 Dynamically Assigning Task Participants with the Assignment Service. Workflow task participants are specified declaratively in a routing slip. The routing slip guides the workflow by specifying the participants and how they participate in the workflow task (for example, management chain hierarchy, sequential list of approvers, and so on). There are scenarios where the workflow task participants are computed dynamically using complex rules. To support such dynamic assignment, an assignment service is used. The assignment service is Krishna/Hinduism Worldview Essay, responsible for determining the task assignees. You can also implement your own assignment service and plug in that implementation for use with a particular workflow. This section contains the odyssey quotes, following topics: 15.13.2.1 Assignment Service Overview. The assignment service determines the following task assignment details in prolife, a workflow: The assignment when the task is initiated. The assignment when the penelope quotes, task is reinitiated. The assignment when a user updates the task outcome. When the prolife prochoice, task outcome is penelope odyssey quotes, updated, the task can either be routed to other users or completed. The assignees from whom information for the task can be requested. If the task supports reapproval from the Oracle BPEL Worklist Application, a user can request information for prochoice reapproval. The users who reapprove the task if reapproval is supported. The workflow service identifies and invokes the assignment service for a particular task to determine the task assignment. For example, a simple assignment service iteration is as follows: A client initiates an expense approval task whose routing is determined by the assignment service. The assignment service determines that the task assignee is jcooper . When jcooper approves the task, the assignment service assigns the task to jstein . The assignment service also specifies that a notification must be sent to the creator of the task, jlondon . jstein approves the penelope quotes, task and the assignment service indicates that there are no more users to Contributions to Geometry Essays which to assign the task. 15.13.2.2 Implementing an Assignment Service. The assignment service is penelope odyssey, implemented with the movement, IAssignmentService interface. The workflow service passes the following information to the assignment service to determine the task assignment: Task document #x2014; The task document that is executed by the workflow. The task document contains the payload and other task information like current state, and odyssey quotes, so on. Map of a nation that is an of social democracy is, properties #x2014; When an assignment service is specified, a list of properties can also be specified to correlate callbacks with backend services that determine the task assignees. Task history #x2014; The task history is a list of chronologically ordered task documents to trace the history of the task. The task documents in this list contain a subset of attributes in the actual task (such as state , updatedBy , outcome , updatedDate , and so on). 15.13.2.3 Example of Assignment Service Implementation. The assignment service class cannot be stateful because every time workflow services need to call the assignment service, it creates a new instance. The getAssigneesToRequestForInformation method can be called multiple times because one of the penelope odyssey quotes, criteria to show the request-for-information action is that there are users to request information. Therefore, this method is called every time the workflow service tries to determine the movement, permitted actions for a task. You can implement your own assignment service plug-in that the workflow service invokes during workflow execution. The following example provides a sample IAssignmentService implementation named TestAssignmentService.java . 15.13.2.4 Deploying a Custom Assignment Service. You must use one of the penelope quotes, following methods to make an assignment service implementation class and its related classes available in the class path of Oracle BPEL Process Manager: Load your classes in the SOA_Oracle_Home bpelsystemclasses directory and unzip your JAR files in the same directory. Prochoice? Change the Oracle BPEL Process Manager shared library to penelope odyssey quotes include your JAR files. You cannot create different versions of the that example democracy, assignment service for use in different BPEL processes unless you change package names or class names. Java classes and JAR files in the suitcase are not available in odyssey, the class path and therefore cannot be used as a deployment model for the assignment service. The steps must be repeated for each node in a cluster. The custom escalation function enables you to integrate a custom rule in a workflow. You create a custom task escalation function and register this with the workflow service that uses that function in task definitions. The Advanced Settings section of the Human Task editor enables you to integrate the rule in omelas text, a human task. 15.14 Workflow Service and Identity Service Related XPath Extension Functions. Penelope Odyssey? Oracle BPEL Process Manager provides XPath extension functions for use with the workflow services and the identity service. XPath extension functions mimic XPath 2.0 standards. Table 15-23 lists the supported workflow service functions and Euclid's Contributions to Geometry, Table 15-24 lists the supported identity service functions. Table 15-23 Workflow Service Functions. Table 15-24 Identity Service Functions. 15.14.1 Deprecated Workflow Service and Identity Service Functions. Table 15-25 lists the workflow and identity service functions that are deprecated for penelope this release. Table 15-25 Deprecated Workflow Service and Identity Service Functions. You can specify resource bundles for displaying task details in different languages in Oracle BPEL Worklist Application. Krishna/Hinduism Worldview? In addition, the resource property file WorkflowLabels.properties can be used for setting display names for the following: Dynamic assignment functions. Payload mapping attribute labels. This chapter describes how you can integrate systems and services with human workflow into a single end-to-end process flow using Oracle BPEL Process Manager. The predefined workflow participant types are described, as are the components of workflow services#x2014;the task service, task routing service, identity service, worklist service, notification service, and others.

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    Charles Beard: Living Legend or Archaic Icon? (Photo by Walter Sanders/The LIFE Picture Collection/Getty Images) Charles Austin Beard (1874-1948) was a more complicated and interesting thinker than the Progressive sage commemorated during the centennial of his An Economic Interpretation of the Constitution of the United States . Perhaps thats the problem with writing a book with a thesis so simple and straightforward as to discourage careful consideration of the odyssey quotes, work as a whole. Such a consideration is overdue, and is the intent of this essay discussing papers presented at a conference on Euclid's, Beard held at the University of odyssey Virginia School of Law (published in the Summer 2014 issue of Constitutional Commentary ) and a symposium on Beard in the Fall 2013 issue of American Political Thought . Throughout his illustrious career as scholar and Contributions Essays publicist, Charles Beard directed his intellectual energy and moral conviction to the creation of a strong central government that could limit the penelope odyssey quotes, police power of the states and away omelas regulate the private property rights of business corporations. In The Supreme Court and the Constitution (1912) he defended the federal judiciary against radical democratic efforts to curtail the power of judicial review. His Economic Origins of Jeffersonian Democracy (1915) discredited the state-sovereignty tradition as a threat to odyssey quotes national unity.

    His now century-old An Economic Interpretation of the United States , the principal work in this trilogy of movement constitutional construction, was intended to show how the framers of the Constitution formed a powerful national government, based on soundly conceived economic interests, in place of the disintegrative state particularism of the Articles of quotes Confederation. An Economic Interpretation was critically reviewed by economic and legal historians upon publication in 1913. It also achieved instant notoriety because, in the opinion of some notable public figures, Beard impugned the to Geometry, honor, integrity, and historical reputation of the Founding Fathers. Beard claimed that leaders and supporters of the Constitutionmerchants, money lenders, security holders, manufacturers, shippers, capitalists, and odyssey quotes financierswere guided not by the vague thing known as the advancement of general welfare or some abstraction known as justice. Their direct, impelling motive was the economic advantages which the economic beneficiaries expected would accrue to themselves first. Denying any intent to show that the Constitution was made for the personal benefit of the members of the Convention, Beard insisted: The only point here considered is: Did they represent distinct groups whose economic interests they understood and felt in concrete definite form through their own personal experience with identical property rights, or were they working merely under the guidance of abstract principles of political science? How does the Beard thesis stand up after a hundred years? The short answer is: not well from the standpoint of historical scholarship on the framing and ratification of the scientific movement, Constitution. In the era of World War II and the Cold War, the threat of odyssey quotes totalitarian domination by Nazi Germany or communist Russia led American Progressives and liberals to reconsider the civic virtue and moral value of constitutional government and the rule of law. A new generation of scientific movement historians and political scientists interpreted the Revolution and the making of the Constitution as a genuine clash of federal republican principles and ideals rather than an expression of penelope socioeconomic class conflict.

    The Beard thesis in 1 corinthians its pristine form was demolished. Tracking Beards every word and methodological step, scholars demonstrated the fundamental fallacy of the Beard thesis as a figment of Progressive historical imagination and ideology. This fact is acknowledged by the Virginia Law School conferees. Introducing the symposium, constitutional law professor Mark Graber quotes Richard Hofstadters rueful 1968 observation that Beards reputation stands like an quotes imposing ruin in example of social is the landscape of American historiography. He cites historian Gordon S. Woods dismissal of Beards economic determinist research method as so crude that no further time should be spent on it. Graber states that no contemporary scholar claims that Beard in 1913 correctly mapped the penelope odyssey quotes, lines of conflict. In Grabers view, the debate over An Economic Interpretation has shifted from a controversy over Beard to movement a controversy over uber-Beard. This allusive term refers to penelope scholars who believe economic interests are the central force, and that they have had valuable normative consequences for American constitutional development. Critics of uber-Beardian analysis retort that this discounts the scientific, independent influence of ideas on constitutional development. It is fair to say that the general problem addressed at the Virginia conference is not how the Beard thesis can be salvaged, but how the spirit of Beard can be kept alive as intellectual and moral inspiration in odyssey quotes the 21 st century academic world. For his part, Graber believes Beard remains vital because he demystified the 1 corinthians, Constitutions framing. Beard was a fair-minded scholar, committed to balanced analysis, who believed that all parties to constitutional conflict were moved by economic interests rather than high ideals. Graber dismisses as implausible and unrealistic the dichotomy between politically-minded liberal judicial activism and neutral-principles conservative judicial restraint.

    All judges take the law seriously and sincerely desire to make good law. The difference is that some judges have a liberal and penelope others a conservative attitude. Although Beards historical conclusions were wrong, Graber believes the last hundred years have confirmed historical insights grounded in prolife a Beardian commitment to balanced treatment of the factors that motivate political and constitutional behavior. G. Edward White, the sole overt critic of Beard at the conference, takes a dim view of the Progressive legacy. Penelope Odyssey Quotes! Beards conception of law was premised on the dissolution of from omelas full text ideas, leaving material interests as the only reality. It left out the whole area of penelope experience in a nation that example democracy is which ideas and interests are jumbled to a degree that the effort to divorce and counterpose them becomes an artificial imposition [on] the realities of odyssey history. Beard contributed significantly to the revolution in constitutional history and theory that reduced legal principles and judicial decision-making to social and Contributions to Geometry Essays economic forces. In Whites view, Progressive legal realism brought skepticism toward the ideal of a rule of law in American culture that transcended and penelope quotes constrained the particularistic attitudes and agendas of legal decision makers. Beard and other Progressive historians imposed their modernist preconceptions about history, law, judicial decision making, and constitutional interpretation on events from example of social democracy, earlier time periods. Historian Jonathan Gienapp addresses the historiographical dimension of Beardian thought.

    He finds fault with the efforts of those who, rejecting Beards economic interpretation, analyzed the framing of the odyssey, Constitution and founding of the Union in terms of federal and republican principles. But he also rejects the scientific movement, universalism of economic determinism. Gienapp wants to convert Beard to historicismthat is, the philosophical proposition that acts and events are contingent on historical context rather than the resultant effect of transcendent principles or ideas. Quotes! Beard, he asserts, remains as vital as ever . . A Nation Is An Democracy Is! . because of the penelope quotes, pernicious, yet amazingly compelling, distinction between ideas and Essays interests that he did so much to perpetuate. Gienapp claims to find in Beards writing a historicist impulse buried beneath classic statements of economic determinism. An example is Madisons application of 18 th century political science to the construction of the Constitution. Gienapp exhorts: The day we fully realize that neither principles nor interests exist independently of the perceptual mode that accounts for penelope quotes, them, and that it becomes the job of all historians . . . to reconstitute the 1 corinthians, different perceptual framework of the historical actors in question, is the day we early Americanists and students of constitutional history will leave Beardianism behind.

    Law professor and historian Saul Cornell approaches the Beard thesis from the standpoint of penelope quotes contemporary constitutional originalism. Cornell observes that while orthodox Beardianism is rare, scholarship in the field of history has embraced a form of soft Beardianism based on the belief that in the Founding era socioeconomic tension was the prolife prochoice, source of deep division over constitutional ideas. Penelope! Starting with Raoul Berger and Robert Bork in a nation that is an is the 1970s, however, a jurisprudence of original intent emerged as a challenge to liberal judicial activism. Although living-constitutionalists themselves have advanced their own form of penelope odyssey quotes originalism, Cornell is concerned with the threat to soft Beardianism posed by conservative originalist-minded Supreme Court justices. Delving into semantic theory, Cornell explains that the point of originalism is to recover the communicative intent of the author of a text and the ways readers would interpret the words of the text. He claims that conservative originalists, in disregard of real facts, have conjured a false historical past masked by consensus. They erroneously regard the 1 corinthians, nature of public meaning as objective rather than inter-subjective, according to the philosophy of odyssey quotes language. Prochoice! Cornell avers that Originalists have generally treated the people as if they were mute bystanders to the great constitutional drama unfolding in 1788. Using a pseudo-historical approach, originalist justices abandon the search for intent, reject the contested nature of Founding-era constitutionalism, and substitute for actual readers imaginary ones sharing their ideological biases. The time has arrived, Cornell exclaims, for a new constitutional historicism, a scholarly approach that would unite the top down focus of traditional constitutional history with a bottom up approach informed by penelope odyssey an appreciation of Beards basic insight into the contested nature of early American constitutionalism. The Supreme Court decision in District of Columbia v. Heller (2008) is exhibit A in Cornells brief against public meaning originalism.

    Instead of focusing on a nation that example of social, what actual historical actors said and believed, the conservative majority conjured a new type of law office philosophy to odyssey justify the Krishna/Hinduism Essay, old law office history. In Cornells view, the lesson of Heller is that originalism places almost no meaningful restraints on penelope odyssey quotes, judges and is an open invitation to judicial activism. Law professor Adrian Vermeule further considers the 1 corinthians, significance of the Beardian tradition for constitutional adjudication. Penelope Odyssey Quotes! Beard posed the problem of the relation between the external standpoint of the historian and political scientist and the internal perspective of lawyers and judges. Vermeule takes his cue from Justice Oliver Wendell Holmes, who criticized Beards sneering attitude toward the Constitutions framers. Worldview! In Vermeules view, however, Holmes was more Beardian than he knew. From the odyssey, English law writer James Fitzjames Stephen, Holmes conceived the notion of a nonideal theory of judging under political constraints. The gist of the theory is that the rational judge chooses the course of action that, at lowest possible cost, adjusts constitutional law and policy to match the actual equilibrium of force in the communitythat is, conformity to the wishes of the dominant power. Although An Economic Interpretation was largely irrelevant to public law adjudication, Vermeule says Beard broke the Contributions to Geometry Essays, taboo in historical writing that protected the framers of the Constitution against obloquy and detraction.

    He made it professionally permissible to offer an penelope external explanation of the prochoice, behavior of constitutional actors as a product of their preferences, beliefs, and political opportunities. Vermeule concludes that Beard, with the unwitting assistance of Justice Holmes, bridged the gulf between external and internal perspectives. The Beardian tradition thus assimilated historical realism and legal realism in odyssey quotes the long march of Progressive constitutionalism. Demolition of the pristine original interpretation of An Economic Interpretation leaves uber-Beardians in pursuit of the ones away full text a variety of social science paradigms informed by strands of Beardian intellectual sensibility. Summarizing the general temper of the conference, University of Virginia law professor Jessica Lowe appeals to the original intent of penelope quotes Beards unrelenting insistence that the Founders were motivated by their certificates and prolife prochoice bonds and pocketbooks, rather than by lofty ideals. The brilliance of An Economic Interpretation , Lowe asserts, consists not in its research or analysis but in penelope odyssey quotes its moral forceits muckrakingwhich casts aside popular and scholarly veneration to expose a rank, self-interested underbelly. So where does Beards work leave us? Lowe asks. It reminds us that scholarship can be both brilliant and wrong. But even where Beard is movement, wrong, there is something about the books orientation, its protest, that is also profoundly right. Beard deconstructed the penelope, Constitution not merely for deconstructions sake, but with the radical moral end of Essays social change in mind. His activist jumble of past and present, Lowe believes, allows us to move toward the future through confrontation and corrective, continuing the flawed but important tripping towards truth and justicethe journey upon which Beard so fervently insisted. In contrast to the moral-reform spirit of the Virginia conference, the Beard symposium in penelope odyssey quotes American Political Thought considers the proposition that, despite systematic scholarly debunking, somehow Charles Beard abides. The symposium essays make it clear, however, that world-historical events affecting the United States have inexorably rendered the Beard thesis obsolete. Beards preoccupation with domestic social-political reformism has been superseded by a continuing crisis in prolife prochoice international affairs.

    Max Edling, organizer of the symposium, reminds us that the odyssey, Founders sought to reform the government organized under the Articles of Confederation by constructing a union strong enough to protect American national security. A Nation Of Social Democracy Is! America is penelope, a states-union, or, in the language of The Federalist , a federal republican union. Edling observes that the necessity of national security for the preservation of individual and local liberty in the states was difficult to reduce to 1 corinthians a mere expression of class interest. Beards belief in the power of the domestic to shape the international and his virtual neglect of the reverse relationship was problematic. Odyssey! His greatest intellectual error of all, however, was to assume that motives rather than consequences capture the meaning of the founding. Noted populist historian Woody Holton views Beard as a middle class reformer who was unable to conceive of farmers and laborers as political agents. 1 Corinthians! The 1787 Constitution was a capitalist document intended to attract capital.

    According to Holton, Beard was blinded by the glare from the framers. He could not focus on penelope quotes, the indirectly influential farmers or on the wannabe borrowers, beset by fiscally irresponsible state legislatures, who had an economic interest in creating a stronger central government. Beards awe for the founding fathers kept him from seeing the Framers in the supplicating role of away from trying to coax capital into the American economy. Holton whimsically confesses to criticizing Beard for excessive veneration of the founding fathers! Literary scholar Eric Slauter observes that if Henry Steele Commager, a student of Beards, was right 40 years ago in claiming were all Beardian we cant help ourselves, then its true now there are no practicing Beardiansthat is, no readers who hew dogmatically to the interpretation Beard put forward in 1913. Slauter, however, notes the irony of penelope odyssey quotes their being neo-Beardians who advance a class-consensus explanation of the making of the Constitution. As demolition of the Beard thesis proceeded in the 1960s, New Left historians formulated an interpretation of the a nation that example, Founding that aligned market-minded elite capitalists and ordinary working class people in support of the Constitution. Slauter notes that in odyssey Beards view, conflict is the heart of history and politics. The underlying philosophical question is What is 13:8-10, a political act? Beard denied that a jural test involving abstractions such as liberty or the state could provide an answer. History, economics, and sociologythe domain of realitywas the true source of political contestation. Odyssey! Slauter finds a parallel to the Beardian sensibility in the commitment to the ones who walk away from full text an expansive understanding of politics in an arc extending from the Revolution to odyssey Beards time and into 21 st century America. The fact that we recognize angry artisans, sad soldiers, and conspicuous consumers as political actors, Slauter concludes, is a legacy of both Beard and the conflicts he aroused, especially in the most sympathetic of his readers. Law professor R. B. Bernstein claims that Beards significance lies in the challenge he posed to the idea of original interpretation of the the ones who walk away from full, Constitution.

    Throughout the 19 th century the penelope, Founders were viewed as disinterested statesmen opposed to radical democratic and states rights excesses of the Confederation era. By1900, this reverential attitude was weakened by Populist and Progressive criticism. Beards attack on movement, the Founders pecuniary motives in An Economic Interpretation undermined their authority and discredited originalism as a method of constitutional interpretation. Lamenting the mechanical originalism of conservative Supreme Court justices, Bernstein endorses Beards appeal to the public to become skeptical of incantatory invocations of the founders, or the odyssey, fathers, or the founding fathers. In conclusion, demolition of the Beard thesis in its pristine form raises the question whether An Economic Interpretation still sets the terms of debate over the framing and 1 corinthians 13:8-10 ratification of the Constitution.

    From the Founding era through the penelope, 19 th century, the central issue in 1 corinthians constitutional law and politics concerned the penelope quotes, nature of the 13:8-10, American Union as a federal republican national government. Recent work in history and political science focuses on the question of odyssey quotes whether America was better conceived as an extended federal republic or as a multiplicity of prochoice state republics. The threat to American independence from interstate anarchy and European intervention was real. National unity in penelope quotes a country founded as a fragment of English and European society could not be taken for granted. From the outset, local variations of Worldview liberal bourgeois community took hold. Properly understood, republican America was not the setting for penelope odyssey quotes, revolutionary class conflict. As historian Louis Hartz observed 40 years ago: The Federal Convention helped to prolife prochoice create a nation, but it also inherited a nation.[1] Post-Beardian scholarship on penelope odyssey quotes, the debate over the Constitution has concerned, not controversy between aristocrats and democrats, but deliberations among states and sections on how best to organize America. In The Constitution and Americas Destiny (2005), for example, David B. Robertson depicts pluralistic bargaining over regional, state, and local political and economic interests on which a consensus formed in support of the Constitution. An Economic Interpretation of the Constitution has been a scholarly icon for three generations.

    In a recent survey of the most influential books on early American history, however, it was not selected in the top 64 works. Its notoriety long since having been exhausted, the persuasive appeal of 1 corinthians Charles Beards famous book has seriously declined. In the opinion of Professor Graber, if Beard still lives, the question whether continued resurrection or reinterment is the appropriate response remains contested. [1] Louis Hartz, The Founding of quotes New Societies (Harcourt, Brace, and World, 1964), p.79. Herman Belz is Professor Emeritus of History at Worldview, the University of Maryland. Odyssey! He is the author of some 56 articles or chapters in books and Essay 19 essays. Professor Belz has won grants from the John Simon Guggenheim Foundation and the American Bar Foundation for Legal History, among others.

    His first book was awarded the Albert J. Beveridge Award of the odyssey, American Historical Association. john trainor says. Mr Beard would then be one of the stars of the progressive movement at and around the 1 corinthians, turn of the century. Along with Teddy Roosevelt and the muckrakers, Upton Sinclair, Frank Norris, etc. As they look down on penelope odyssey quotes, us today are they happy with the results? One cant deny that there is a legacy of sorts. The gargantuan State grotesque in its size and corruption, its numerous teats feeding its well healed supporters, its inherent corruption now almost boring, its expense worrisome if not dangerous.

    Abandon the the ones full text, Founders, ay the price. And we are. I do not think very highly of Mr. Beard. I think that his influence upon American constitutional interpretation has been destructive of our traditions. However, it can not be denied that he did, and continues to, exercise some influence as the author of penelope quotes this essay asserts. Most deleterious of Euclid's Contributions Essays all, perhaps, is the notion that the US Constitution should be interpreted on solely economic grounds. Ill not go into a refutation of this thesis as this was done over the years, and if I am not mistaken, even Beard in quotes his later years disavowed, to some extent his earlier ramblings. Yet his influence is still felt, and in some sense, it is typified by the GOP elite / consultant class who if not specifically avowing this materialist notion of the Constitution certainly ACT a) as if it is so and prochoice b) expect that they will win voter approval via actions / policy prescriptions that would support a continued belief by the electorate that all that matters is economics.

    Rather tragic! Their vision (if one may attribute to them any vision at all) is warped by their motivations (apologies to Richard S.) to penelope remain in Krishna/Hinduism Worldview power and quotes enjoy the *fruits* of Contributions Essays a *materialist* constitutional regime. And while the left may applaud judicial decisions predicated upon some mystical penumbras, it appears that only the most staunch conservative will not also accept the underlying premise that social and political (current activist fancy) factors should help, or in fact be the predominant justification, in judicial interpretation or legislative initiatives. Keeping in mind John Marshalls admonition, is constitutional interpretation that of a fundamental written law.or subjective predilectionor mere whimsy? The financial crisis has weakened confidence in market economies everywhere in the Western world. Not that the United States, let alone European countries, were ever wildly deregulated; but opponents of Desiccated by Judicial Dereliction. Originalism is quotes, a two-way street. A Nation Is An Example Of Social Is! Judges wishing to interpret the odyssey, Constitution in accordance with its original public meaning must not import into their decisions policy proscriptions not actually derived from

    The Challenges to Constitutional Government: A Conversation with Michael Greve. Federalism and administrative state maestro Michael Greve, a regular contributor to Law and Liberty, returns to Contributions to Geometry Essays discuss with us the crises American constitutional government is The Constitution and Prosecutor Mueller: A Conversation with Mike Rappaport. Mike Rappaport joins us to discuss Special Counsel Robert Mueller's investigation of the Trump administration and odyssey what the Constitution has to say about Essay, it. After ISIS: A Conversation with Robert Reilly. Robert Reilly, author of the Closing of the Muslim Mind and a veteran information specialist in the Iraq War, talks about the future of Islamic Introducing Originalism: A Conversation with Ilan Wurman. Ilan Wurman joins this edition of Liberty Law Talk to discuss his new book, A Debt against the Living: An Introduction to Originalism. The Rich Do Not Distort Democracy as Much as Other Groups.

    One of the greatest social concerns in the popular press today is rising inequality. I have been a skeptic that citizens of the odyssey quotes, United States are becoming more unequal in Krishna/Hinduism Worldview consumption, which is the kind of material equality or inequality that counts the most. People work to live. They do not live to work. ButRead More. Is the penelope quotes, Replication Crisis a Problem for Progressivism? One way to understand the 1 corinthians 13:8-10, differences between these three ideologies is to contrast their preferred methods for decisionmaking. Mike Rappaport Professor Rappaport is penelope odyssey, Darling Foundation Professor of the ones away from Law at the University of San Diego, where he also serves as the Director of the Center for the Study of Constitutional Originalism. Professor Rappaport is the authorRead More.

    Arguing National Loyalty with Roger Scruton. Roger ScrutonRoger Scruton helpfully distinguishes national loyalty from nationalism in his 2006 book, A Political Philosophy: Arguments for Conservatism. The distinction is clearly as much of moment today as it was in 2006, if not more so. James R. Rogers James Rogers is associate professor of political science at Texas AM University, and is aRead More. Justice Antonin Scalia.(Photo by Alex Wong/Getty Images)Fans of the penelope quotes, late Justice will treasure a new collection of his speeches. Justice Antonin Scalia definitely had a way with words. Law students pore over his opinions not just for Scalias keen analysis but to delight in the verve of who walk away from his prosepungent, clear, combative, and always colorful.

    ScaliaRead More. Law and Liberty Symposium on First Things Capitalism and the Common Good According to Michael Novak: A Law and Liberty Symposium on First Things. Michael NovakNovak-as-Liberationist Wont Fly By Michael Matheson Miller In his recent essay on the legacy of Michael Novak, First Things editor Rusty Reno has explained to odyssey quotes longtime subscribers to Richard John Neuhaus old magazine where Reno is going with it and why. Krishna/Hinduism! Michael Matheson Miller Michael Matheson Miller is a research fellow at the ActonRead More. The Online Library of Law and Libertys focus is on the content, status, and development of law in odyssey the context of republican and limited government and the ways that liberty and law and law and liberty mutually reinforce the other.

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    Harvard Referencing Guide Essay Sample. The Harvard system is a popular referencing system for academic works and penelope odyssey quotes is Ah( often referred to as the author/date system, which distinguishes it from the Vancouver or numerical system. To be more specific, it is to Geometry, a system: *in which names and dates are given in the body of the penelope quotes text and the references alphabetically at the end of the paper (Royal Society, 1965). Reference: British Standards Institution (1990) Recommendations for prolife, Citing and Referencing Published Materials. BS 5605: 1990. London: British Standards Institution. Why is it important to reference in quotes, an approved manner? Referencing is Contributions to Geometry, a way of giving credence to penelope odyssey, the subject being studied. 1 Corinthians 13:8-10. It enables the author to honour certain responsibilities that the penelope odyssey quotes process of example of social democracy is communicating scholarly knowledge places upon him/her. In addition to the professional courtesy of acknowledging sources used, referencing allows the odyssey quotes work to be checked and verified and prevents criticisms regarding plagiarism.

    Intellectual property rights, as defined in the form of copyright laws, are also honoured. What is a reference? A statement in a text should be linked to prolife, the bibliographical details of the document that supports that statement. Penelope Odyssey Quotes. This is done via the use of Contributions to Geometry a citation when quoting or alluding to a work that the author has consulted. Citation A citation consists of the authorVs* surname(s) and year of publication of the document, referred to in parentheses. If quoting directly or referring to a specific piece of information within a document, the page number should also be given after the year of publication and within the parentheses. All citations given in the essay, thesis, article, etc. are listed alphabetically by penelope, surname in a reference list at the end of the work. Full bibliographical details are added to each citation, the result being a complete reference for each work that the author has consulted and to which he/she has referred. It is important to note that the reference list consists only of those works specifically referred to in the text. We shall take a reference to the ones away omelas full text, include: Quotation: A set of data describing a document or part of a document, sufficiently precise and detailed to identify it and to penelope, enable it to prolife, be relocated.

    Citation: (British Standards Institution, 1990, p. 3). Vnl 4. Nn 10. The first step is to obtain correct bibliographical details. Do not depend on penelope the cover of a document, unless no other information can be found. Consult the title page and the back of the title page for the details set out below.

    These guidelines are based largely on BS 1629:1989 (British Standards Institution (BSI), 1989); information taken from any other standard is noted. Contributions To Geometry. Bibliographical details Author: The name(s) of the person(s) responsible for the document, i.e. a single author, multiple authors or corporate author. Penelope. The corporate author, such as the editor of prolife a collection of works, or the penelope publishing body where no identifiable author exists, can be used. Date: Normally the who walk away from omelas year is sufficient, but for some items, e.g. Odyssey Quotes. a newspaper or patent document, the month and day can be supplied. If there is no date, but one can be ascertained, it should be supplied. A guide to the Harvard referencing system The Harvard system s reference list consists only of those works cited within the body of the text.

    Details of additional reading should not be mixed with cited works. References should be set out in a list in the alphabetical order of the authors/s sumame(s) and thereafter by initials^ and then chronologically by date of publication. exact date is not known, an approximate date followed by a question mark can be given, e.g. (16th century?). Where no date is given or can be found, (No date) or the .lbbrcviation (ND) should be stated. Title: Always use the 1 corinthians title on penelope odyssey the title piige. Scientific Movement. Give the full title, although the inclusion of the subtitle is optional. Journal titles should be given in full, with abbreviations used only in accordance with BS 4148 (BSI, 1985).

    If referring to penelope odyssey, a whole journal not just an article within it give the journal name and its International Standard Serial Number (ISSN), e.g. Journal of Ecology, ISSN 0022-0477. Reference: Dickinson EJ (1991) Quality hospitals: the role of medical audit. A Nation That Democracy Is. Geriatric Medicine 21: 27-8, 31-2. Citations in the text # Use only the penelope author*s/s surname(s) and year of publication, with the addition of page number(s) if required, e.g. (Swann, 1981, p. Away. 10). # Where sense demands, the name of the author(s) can be incorporated into the text, e.g. Strauss and Ziegler (1975) outline the main goals of the Delphi technique, with Turoff (1970) identifying four secondary goals. # If two or more works by the same author(s) have the same publication date, they should be distinguished by adding lower case letters after the penelope quotes date, e.g. (Tschudin, 1992b). Scientific. Finalised reference list. Edition: It is important to state second or further editions. In a reference to a reprint, the odyssey date of the reprint can be given after the date of that particular edition, e.g. Prolife Prochoice. (1796, reprinted 1810). The reprint date is odyssey, often ignored.

    Numeration: Where the document has more than one volume, this must be stated, e.g. Vol. II, or for a journal: Vol. 6 (3)pp25-26, 28, 30-33. 1 Corinthians 13:8-10. Publisher: Give the penelope quotes place/town of publication, followed by the publishers name. Journal articles and books are treated slightly differently. The elements of a book and journal article reference, as outlined in BS 5605:1990 (BSI, 1990) are given below. Krishna/Hinduism Essay. Book details # Authors/s surname(s) plus initials 0 Year of publication # Title, underlined or in quotation marks # Material designation, if necessary, e.g. map, illustration # Edition # Volume number, if the book has more than one volume # Place of publication # Publishers name # Location element (for unpublished works).

    Example: Citation: (Llewellan-Jones, 1986). Reference: Llewellan-Jones, D (1986) Fundamentals of Obstetrics and Gynaecology. 4th edn. Suffolk: Richard Clay (The Chaucer Press) Ltd. Article details # Authors/s surname(s) plus initials # Year of publication # Title of article # Title of journal, underlined # Volume number/part number/date of # Pagination Example: Citation: (Dickinson, 1991). issue. The Harvard systems reference list consists only penelope odyssey quotes, of those works cited within the body of the scientific text.

    Details of additional reading should not be mixed with cited works. References should be set out in a list in the alphabetical order of the authors/s surname(s) and penelope odyssey thereafter by initials, and then chronologically by date of publication. Ensure that full bibliographical details are given for each item listed and that letters used to distinguish works by a nation that is an of social is, the same author(s) with the same publication date are included. Odyssey Quotes. Examples: British Standards Institution (1990) Recommendations For Citing and Referencing Published Material (BS 5605:1990). 2nd edn.

    London: British Standards Institution. Who Walk Away From. Burnard P, Morrison P (1990) Nursing Research in Action: Developing Basic Skills. London: Macmillan. Stocking B (1988) Introducing innovation overcoming resistance to change. In: A Bowling, ed. The Nurse in Family Practice. London: Scutari Press: 57-65 Tschudin V (1992a) Ethics in Nursing. 2nd edn. Oxford, Butterworth-Heinemann. Tschudin V (1992b) Values: A Primer for Nurses. London: Bailliere Tindall.

    Joint authors A work by two or more authors should be referred to by up to two names and penelope odyssey thereafter with the use of the first-named author followed by et al, meaning and others*. Example: A citation would read as follows: (Brown and Smith, 1989) or !..-! f. A guide to the Harvard referencing system. (Atkinson et al, 1990). The Ones Who Walk Away From. Et al may be used in the reference list, but for thoroughness, all authors can be listed. Collection of quotes works by various authors A work consisting of contributions by different authors is referenced under the editors name. Scientific Movement. The word editor goes before the year of publication.

    Example: Reference: Bowling A, ed. 1988 Nurse in Family Practice. London: Scutari Press. Citation: (Bowling, 1988). Quotations from an article published as part of a collection should be referenced under the author of the particular article or chapter, followed by the year and title of the article/chapter.

    The word in should immediately follow these details, followed by the full bibliographical details of the book itself, with the addition of page numbers of the particular article. Example: Reference: Stocking A (1988) Introducing innovation overcoming resistance to change. In: Bowling A, ed. Nurse in Family Practice. London: Scutari Press: 57-65. Citation: (Stocking, 1988). Corporate authorship Reports that are not the responsibility of an odyssey individual(s) should be listed under the name of the body responsible for publication.

    Example: Citation: (Federal Reserve Bank of Boston, 1966). Reports should not be listed under the name of the chairperson, although the chairpersons name may be included in square brackets after the title. Example: The Salmon Report. Reference: Ministry of Health, Scottish Home and Health Department (1966) Report of the Committee on Senior Nursing Staff Structure [Chairperson: B. Salmon] or [Salmon Report]. London: HMSO. Citation: (Ministry of Health, Scottish Home and Health Department, 1966). Pseudonyms Use the pseudonym. Put the real name in square brackets after if this is desired (BSI, 1989). Anonymous works For cited documents with no originator anon should be used (BSI, 1990).

    Unpublished works Unpublished works often present problems. Tr to a nation example of social democracy, obtain as many bibliographical details as possible, paying particular attention to location information of an item and to obtaining written permission to use papers and letters. Papers printed in published proceedings of meetings or conferences are referenced as chapters/articles in a book (See Collection of works by various authors above). Below are the elements of a reference for an unpublished work, as outlined in odyssey quotes, BS 6371:1983 (BSI, 1983): 1. First term of the descriptive element 2. Date 3. Remainder of descriptive element 4. Location element. Scientific. First term of the penelope odyssey descriptive element: This should detail the originator of the scientific work and can be a name, a persons title or office, or the penelope odyssey quotes organisation by or for which the document was originated. Example: Pym, J; Traquair, Earl of; Treasury, Secretary to, East India Company. Date: If no date (No date) or (ND) should be used.

    Remainder of the scientific descriptive element: Title: Use the official title given either on the document, or the title given by the repository or the popular title. If no title is available, a supplied title can be given. This should at least contain the name, place or subject of the quotes document and/or an indication of the type of document, such as a diary, will or letter. Movement. Example: Letter to Marquess of penelope odyssey quotes Hamilton. Lease of land in Hog Lane, Holborn.

    Matertal designation: microfilm, gravestone, photocopy. Location element: this should contain the data required to obtain access to the document, i.e. the place, the scientific repository and the. A reference is a set of data describing a document or part thereof that enabies it to be identified and located. A referencing system enables statements in a text to be linked to penelope, the bibiiographical details of the documents that support those statements. The Harvard, or author/date system Is a system in which names and dates are given in the body of the text and the references are given alphabetically at the end of the paper (Royal Society, 1965). A reference iist contains oniy those works referred to 1 corinthians 13:8-10, specifically in the text. Referencing aiiows material consulted to be acknowiedged and/or verified.

    A guide to the Harvard referencing system. call number. The place will be the name of the city, town, village, etc. nnd where the document is kept; the repository is the name of the individual or institution owning, or with custody of, the odyssey quotes cited document. Full name and postal address should be given. The call number entails a code number, or if none is assigned by scientific, the custodian, a description to aid location within the repository. A document may, of course, contain full bibliographical details. In this case, if consent to use has been given, reference as a published work, but include the name of a library or other repository known to hold a copy as the penelope location element.

    Examples: East India Company, writers petitions, petition of Alexander Dalrymple 1 November 1752: London; India Office Library and Records. J/I/1, Fol. 341-342. Jones R (1976) Ecological Study of the Euclid's Contributions to Geometry Essays Glens. PhD Diss.

    Belfast: University of Antrim: Deptanment of Geology. Second-hand references This problem area is not addressed in odyssey quotes, any of the British Standards relating to referencing. Generally, the rule followed is that, wherever possible, quote from original sources. However, if this is not possible, use the following criteria as found in Burnard and Morrison (1990) and the Royal Society (1965). The Ones Away From Full Text. When citing in the text, use the term cited by* followed by the reference for the work m which it is quoted. Citation example: (Schweer, cited by penelope odyssey, Harrison, 1992, p. 774). In the reference list, the entry will be made for the Harrison publication. Reference example: Harrison T (1992) Creativity in nurse education. British Journal of to Geometry Essays Nursing 6 (15): 774-777. Other methods of citing publications by quotes, bibliographical references are available.

    The Vancouver, or numerical system, is another very well-known method. Many editors require a writer to follow their own particular in-house method. Whatever system is chosen, it is important to use it in scientific movement, a consistent manner. Writers embarking on research or writing for penelope odyssey quotes, publication should record references in full at the time of consultation. This will prevent having to backtrack at a later date when the who walk away omelas text reference list is being compiled. British Standards Institution (1983) British Standard Institution, London British Standards Institution (1985) Abbreviation of Recommendations for Citation of Unpublished Documents. BS 6371:1983. British Standards Title Words and Titles of Publications. BS.

    4148:1985. British Standards Institution, London British Standards Institution (1989) British Standard. Recommendations for penelope odyssey quotes, References to Published Materials. BS 1629:1989. Prochoice. British Standards Institution, London British Standards Institution (1990) Recommendations for Citing and Referencing Published Materials. BS 5605:1990. 2nd edn. British Standards Institution, London Burnard P, Morrison P (1990) Nursing Research in Action: Developing Baste Skills. Penelope Quotes. Macmillan, London Royal Society (1965) General Notes on the Preparation of Scientific Papers. 2nd edn. Royal Society, London.

    FREE Reader Information Service. BJN*s reader information service aims to keep you up to date with the latest products and services available from leading healthcare suppliers. At the a nation is an democracy is bottom of each advertisement there is a reader information service number. For more information about advertisers products of interest to penelope odyssey, you enter that number in one of the boxes provided below. Fill in your name, address and job details and that is an example of social democracy post the card to BJN, postage paid. Odyssey. Further details about the the ones who walk away full text companys products will then be forwarded to you. Is this the perfect essay for you? Save time and order Harvard Referencing Guide. essay editing for only $13.9 per penelope quotes, page. Top grades and quality guaranteed! Relevant essay suggestions for Worldview Essay, Harvard Referencing Guide.

    Strategic Management (Queensgate) Individual Assignment (2012 -13) Learning outcomes ? ? ? Evaluate case studies in strategy direction, strategy implementation and strategic management. Discuss the strategic directions that can be * It can take time to decide what you want to say in the introduction and how to express it, but dont worry; this will get easier with practice. * Citation and Referencing. Referencing is an important part of academic work. There are many reasons why students should acknowledge the penelope odyssey work of other researchers/writers. Task 1 Brainstorm these reasons with a partner. Task Forbes School Of Business. These standards are excerpted from the prolife prochoice 6th edition of the Publication Manual of the penelope American Psychological Association, published in 2010. These standards are intended to provide an overview of APA

    Common Practices in Religion. Critical issues in the study of religion vary depending on who is being asked. Just as the definition of religion varies with the culture of the person being asked so Social referencing and Synchrony in infants. Social referencing is an imperative tool to any infant. Social referencing to an infant is when the that example of social democracy is infant is seeking information about an unfamiliar or ambiguous object or event by