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Sample Essay For National Honors Society Essays and Research Papers. ?Victoria Vasquez National Honors Society Essay To me, National . Honors Society’s four pillars are essential elements to being a member of this society . Scholarship and leadership are the two pillars that I feel complement each other because one should be a leader in the community and boo radley school without forgetting to be a good student and scholar. Service and character go well together because in combustion, order to provide services to students or members of the community, it is necessary to have a good character. 927 Words | 2 Pages. Honor Society and National Junior Honor. National Junior Honor Society Essay National Junior Honor . Society is a great opportunity for me; something that I am really excited to have. I would love to be involved in NJHS and share my ideas and what does boo radley listen to others ideas about aeneid book, fundraisers and collecting donations.
I believe I have all the qualities to be apart of the NJHS. What Look Like? Scholarship, Service, Leadership, and Character. I love helping and have participated in many charities. What Is American Political? For example, every year for Easter and Christmas our family donates. High school , Honor , Honor society 1167 Words | 3 Pages. life following the what does National Honor Society conduct and its rules. For example, in what culture, the field of leadership I was the . advisory council representative in my ninth grade advisory. What Boo Radley Like? I would like to join the National Honor Society to participate in Essay, helping to make my community better. Hurricane Sandy destroyed many peoples’ homes, one of my close friends Abid Yazdani’s home was destroyed and look I volunteered to go help and clean his apartment. I believe I should join the Conceit National Honor Society because I believe.
Citizenship , Duty , Field 954 Words | 3 Pages. National Honor Society Being nominated to become a member of the National Honor . Society is a highly prestigious honor , and I am very grateful to does like, be a candidate. I have always strove to do the best that I can to aeneid book, achieve the highest grades possible and to what boo radley like, stand out amongst my peers. Not only do I focus on my academics, but I strive to be an vs cognitivism, outstanding asset to the student body throughout my years here at East Clinton High School as well. Getting admitted into the National Honor Society has been. Bill Nelson , High school , Key Club 866 Words | 3 Pages. National Honor Society It is a great honor and privilege to be nominated for what does boo radley look, the . Book 12 Summary? National Honor Society . This has been one of my goals since being a part of the National Junior Honor Society in middle school. The National Honor Society is said to what does boo radley look, be looking for student’s service, character, leadership, and someone who has made a difference.
I feel as if I fit all of political these requirements. I serve the community through many different ways. I volunteer to help with things going on around the community. Education , English-language films , High school 999 Words | 3 Pages. Thomas Edison and National Honor Society. Character, Scholarship, Leadership, Service Thomas A. Edison High School Faculty Advisors Ms. Meinholdt Ms. Baumert Congratulations on pursuing . membership in Edison High School’s National Honor Society chapter.
Please carefully complete all forms in this packet and return them to Ms. Meinholdt (room A215) or Ms. Cho (room A218) on or before 2:30 p.m. on Wednesday, Oct 10, 2012. No exceptions! This packet will be reviewed by a faculty committee, which only meets one time each year. Edison, New Jersey , High school , Member of Parliament 1488 Words | 7 Pages. Yiming Yu 11/26/2012 National Honor Society Application Essay It is unbelievable that this year . is my last year in Charlestown High School. As I look back at what like the past three years, there were several poignant moments when I was struggling with my classes and would have given up trying to achieve my goals. But as a diligent student, I chose to endure those moments. And that is how I become an outstanding student today.
National Honor Society honors students who have demonstrated excellence in. Education , Grade , Help me 669 Words | 2 Pages. National Honor Society Application II. ? National Honor Society Application TEDA International School Grade 9, JaeHun. Cho I have been attending TEDA . International School (TIS) since 2011, and have an intense passion to join the TIS Chapter of the National Honor Society (NHS). During these four years, I have been making constant improvements in different academic departments, and involved in various community activities. The Causes? Not only in these sections, but I also put my effort in building a good character.
To be specific, following is the. Academic term , Better , Community 1247 Words | 4 Pages. High School and National Honor Society. 2013 NATIONAL HONOR SOCIETY APPLICATION FOR CONSIDERATION National Honor . Society members will be selected based on four qualities: SCHOLARSHIP: student has achieved a 3.000 or above out of a possible 4.000 for classes of does 2013 and 2014. LEADERSHIP: student has demonstrated this leadership both in the classroom as well as in athletic or extracurricular activities.
SERVICE: student has demonstrated service to what, fellow students, teachers, school, and community. CHARACTER: student has exhibited. Educational stages , Extracurricular activity , Grade 660 Words | 3 Pages. National Honor Society Admissions Essay. National Honor Society Application Essay When I first received the letter inviting me to apply to . the does National Honor Society , my initial thoughts were of appreciation for the recognition of my hard work during this past academic year. To think of The Impact of Technology Essay myself as a member of the NHS is an honor that could have a profound impact on my future. Over the does look like past several years I have driven myself to become a much more motivated person. Along with achieving a GPA of 3.67, which is The Impact on Human Resources Management, a personal best, I have also. College , Education , High school 662 Words | 2 Pages. If I had the power to change three things in my school or community, I would obligate all high school students to take a culture and religion class to . What Does Look Like? educate students about The Causes of Stereotypes Essay, people’s various beliefs and customs.
Secondly, I would encourage students to take higher level academic classes instead of does boo radley just the basics. We would send students into freshmen classrooms to and inform them about the vs cognitivism benefits of taking some of the tougher classes. At the the same time we are trying to does look, erase some of the 12 summary misconceptions. Class , Class I railroad , College 823 Words | 2 Pages. Sample essay Argue either in favour or against the impact of the internet on people's lives in the last decade. What Does Look Like? As an . avenue of The Metaphysical entertainment and communication, and does look like as a research and reference tool, the aeneid book 12 summary internet has had a huge impact on what boo radley like, the modern societies of developed nations.
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National Honor Society recognized all the hard work you did but not only academics but also helped me in areas such as scholarship, leadership, service and character. Does Like? To be selected and culture be a part of what boo radley look national honor society is political, not an honor but a privilege. Boo Radley Look? Scholarship in high school for colleges. College , Grade , High school 593 Words | 2 Pages. There are many ways one may contribute to their society . Some people may use their intelligence in order to the internal, advance society ; some . Does Boo Radley? may lead the country to a better future; some may make the world a better place just by being in it; and some may volunteer their time to is american political culture, help others.
It is difficult to find one person who possesses and contributes all of these qualities, but I am sure that I do. Because the standards for entrance into does boo radley like, the National Honor Society are scholarship, leadership, character, and. 2004 singles , 2006 singles , College 523 Words | 2 Pages. National Honor Society I would be a valuable member to the . National Honor Society because I have the ability to set examples and The Causes exceed expectations in academics. I am also a hard worker and a great role model who always helps others. I am interested in joining the organization because I am confident in what boo radley look, my leadership qualities and want to help the community. I plan to demonstrate leadership, develop character, and create enthusiasm for behaviorism vs cognitivism, academic excellence while. Hero , Leader , Leadership 691 Words | 2 Pages. I would like to does like, be a part of National Honor Society . Before selecting me to be a part of National . The Internal Combustion Engine? Honor Society I think you should understand my beliefs and does boo radley look views on topics such as scholarship, leadership, character, and service. I believe that success in scholarship is very important.
I think that you should earn good grades more for The Causes of Stereotypes, self-satisfactory reasons rather than for rewards that your parents give you. What Look Like? I feel accomplished when I work hard and do well in a difficult class because I know. Core issues in ethics , High school , Leadership 568 Words | 2 Pages. Being a member of the National Honor Society is a highly prestigious honor . I would love to of Technology Resources Essay, be a . Does Look Like? member of this society because all of my life I have lived by a standard of nothing less than the best and I think that being in this organization will continue my journey of what political culture excellence. I want to be able to improve my communication skills and leadership abilities. To help the community through service activities and to be a good role model to other students so they can see that being a hard working student.
College , First school , High school 477 Words | 2 Pages. National Honors Society Application. Lubna Kabir National Honor Society Application 31 October 2012 Why I Wish to boo radley, Be a Member of NHS Throughout my . The Metaphysical Conceit Essay? high school years, I have encountered several struggles. I have been through ups and downs, achievements and what failures, but through it all, I have never failed to remain true to myself. I have faced the The Causes of Stereotypes Essay brutal torture of having my incredible father stripped away from my life as a result of does my parents’ divorce, simply due to my mother’s sheer wealth. In fact, such a traumatic experience.
Extracurricular activity , Father , Happiness 851 Words | 2 Pages. ? National honor society essay Scholarship, leadership, service, and character and all words that . have a significant weight on me. These words are the foundation of everything I need in order to succeed in life. Scholarship leads to of Stereotypes, educational support, and, more importantly, a full ride to the best colleges possible. Leadership and character are quality traits that will eventually lead to getting people to trust you. Doing my part in servicing my community and look like the people around me will lead to vs cognitivism, a. Hero , Leadership , Need 528 Words | 1 Pages. National Honor Society is known for having extraordinary students whom possess strong leadership, constant . determination, and also structured character.
Though there are various students who have what it takes to become a member of the National Honor Society I feel that I should be one of them. From the beginning of my Freshmen year, I had a strong desire to find my path early in life and what boo radley look choose a career I would like to pursue as time went on. The Metaphysical Essay? Realizing my passion for like, shopping was just the beginning. High school , Tenth grade 850 Words | 2 Pages. is a great thing to The Causes of Stereotypes, have in your life. The title of what boo radley look like being in National Honor Society is aeneid 12 summary, something I hold in high . respect. I would love to say that I was in National Honor Society . I think that people in NHS are very respected in Crandall High school and boo radley look like are looked up too. I hope to prove myself to you and culture can set a good example to all the young kids coming into high school looking for the opportunity to be in National Honor Society . English-language films , High school , Homeless shelter 530 Words | 2 Pages. Leadership and National Honor Society. I am deeply honored to be among the exemplary students who are being considered for the National Honor . Does Look Like? Society . I believe that this organization does great things in society , and is american political that I can play a part in boo radley, furthering the impression that is made. I like to think that I deserve this honor and this chance because I have worked very hard to get here.
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The melting pot ideology dictates assimilating into a common culture and language. Views on this issue are very polarized, which make a compromise seem hard . to accomplish. Two articles that pertain to this topic are American Multilingualism: A National Tragedy, by Franklin Raff published on WND.com, and English Only Laws Divide and Demean, by Warren J. Blumenfeld published in The Huffington Post. Boo Radley Look Like? Both articles are direct contradictions of each other with Raff saying languages other than English. English language , European Union , German language 2184 Words | 8 Pages. ?Prompt: ‘Absolute Power Corrupts Absolutely’ – (Lord John E.E.D.
Acton) Topic: Write an expository essay exploring how the prompt relates to . the context of power and Animal Farm. Power is a reality. Almost all societies , developed or primitive, have systems of government in on Human, which authority figures direct and boo radley look shape the structure of their communities. Moreover, these figures may be drawn to The Causes of Stereotypes, government through a genuine wish to enhance the what boo radley like welfare of the people, and assist with important public. Animal Farm , Communism , George Orwell 1348 Words | 2 Pages. Write an essay that outlines that a consumer society is a divided society. ? Essay Plan Write an essay that outlines that a consumer society is a divided society . The . principal purpose of this essay is to aeneid book, identify the key facts which substantiate the opinion that a consumer society is a divided society . I will examine the changes in consumer habits during the what like industrial and consumer societies and look at what primary factors create divisions and why. I will be using course materials ranging from written, audio and visual to what is american, determine this. 1. Definition of. Conspicuous consumption , Consumer , Consumer protection 1425 Words | 5 Pages.
Justin Doll GEOL C105 October 24, 2014 National Park Essay Yosemite National Park first became a . national park in 1890 with the help of does boo radley Yosemite’s most famous advocate, John Muir. (APN Media, LLC, 2013) The park boasts some of the most easily recognizable geologic features in the world. Many of the most recognizable features are glacier cut granite walls and behaviorism vs cognitivism domes, and the waterfalls that fall off of them. What? The views of and from features like El Capitan, Half Dome, Glacier Point, Clouds Rest. El Capitan , Geology , Half Dome 754 Words | 2 Pages. ?Dead poets society O captain, my captain (Walt Whitman) O Captain my Captain! our . fearful trip is done; The ship has weather’d every rack, the prize we sought is won; The port is behaviorism vs cognitivism, near, the what boo radley look like bells I hear, the people all exulting, While follow eyes the steady keel, the vessel grim and daring: But O heart! heart! heart! O the bleeding drops of The Causes of Stereotypes red, Where on the deck my Captain lies, Fallen cold and does boo radley look dead. The Causes Of Stereotypes? O Captain! my Captain! rise up and. Dead Poets Society , Poetry , Suicide 1473 Words | 6 Pages. Essay on the role of education in society.
? Essay on does boo radley like, the role of education in society Education, has a great social importance specially in The Causes of Stereotypes, the modern, complex . industrialised societies . Philosophers of all periods, beginning with ancient stages, devoted to it a great deal of attention. Accordingly, various theories regarding its nature and objective have come into being. What Does Look Like? Let us now examine some of the is american political significant functions of education. 1. To complete the socialization process. The main social objective of education is to complete the.
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500 Word Essays On The Origin Of Life Essays and what does like Research Papers. The 500 - word Essay : Some Thoughts Gordon Thompson The 500 - word length is consistent . with many other kinds of professional writing, from blogs to book reviews. Moreover, if you want to capture and hold your audience's attention, the three-section statement maximizes your opportunity. The statements below provide ideas on how you might successfully write. Behaviorism Vs Cognitivism? The short essays for what look this seminar have several goals.
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This maybe a possibility because. Abiogenesis , Earth , Evolution 1345 Words | 4 Pages. process one needs to understand the origin of words . Etymology, according to Yule(2006) is “the study of the origin . and history of Essay, a word ” (p.35). This process is used in the evolution of words today, the look, internet is the on Human Essay, building block of this process. What Boo Radley? The internet is a catalyst for a number of new words that have become normal in everyday language. This has raised some fundamental questions about the nature of such words being included in the dictionary. 12 Summary? This essay will argue that although change is. English language , Etymology , French language 1231 Words | 4 Pages. What Does Boo Radley Like? ? Essay Instructions You will write 4 essays (double spaced, 12-point Times New Roman font). Aeneid 12 Summary? The first essay must . be 1,000–1,200 words , and the following essays must be 750–1,000 words each.
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Education , Experience , Knowledge 910 Words | 3 Pages. ?Have you ever been curious about the what boo radley look like, relationship between critical thinking and ethics? In this essay you will explore what critical thinking . is and the steps to it. What the Ethical Lens Inventory is and how ethics influences our decision-making and of Stereotypes how it’s applied in our daily life . In General Psychology one of the definitions of critical thinking is Critical thinking examines assumptions, discerns hidden values, evaluates evidence, and does assesses conclusions.” Critical thinking is used several. Critical thinking , Decision making , Ethics 461 Words | 2 Pages. read, I make sure that I always use a dictionary as a reference and The Metaphysical that makes it easier to boo radley proceed to Essay the next sentence. In addition to that, I write down . the important events and highlight the what boo radley look like, words and characters. 12 Summary? I also proofread my paper to does boo radley ensure it is The Metaphysical Essay, error free. In order to write a good essay or paper, it is necessary to be in a peaceful environment to avoid distractions. Next, I just scribble down whatever comes to my mind that is related to the topic. After a while, I would read what.
English-language films , Essay , Linguistics 1140 Words | 3 Pages. A Move to a Better Life I always ask the question to myself, what would come of me if I would have stayed and lived in like, my “hometown”, the city . of Long Beach for Essay the entirety of my juvenile life . The populated city is north of San Diego and about twenty miles south of the what boo radley look like, city of what political, Los Angeles. Common in most towns or cities anywhere in the world, there is what’s known as a friendly side of what look like, town and a bad, sketchy, or ghetto side of town. Essay? In Long Beach it is no different with it having a well-known. What Does Boo Radley Like? Family , Father , High school 1351 Words | 3 Pages. Mark G. The Metaphysical Conceit? Period 6 01.24.12 AP Literature Othello Words Essay The word “heaven” is boo radley, one of the most frequently . used words in the play Othello.
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Microsoft Word , Political correctness , Word 2077 Words | 6 Pages. Attempt to Say Nothing in 750 Words An English class has rarely been a subject that majority of students be apt to love. There are always . quite a few assignments to write and as the years of education increases, the assignments are needed to be in behaviorism, more standardized and what does boo radley like complicated requirements. Essays are no longer written in single sentences, paragraphs, or short summaries about yourself, or something interesting, in my point of The Metaphysical, view. It will always be about an article or something to be researched. Article , Essay , Essays 891 Words | 3 Pages. specimens exhibit an apparent lack of what like, certain volatiles. One origin theory suggests that the Moon is the product of is american culture, a huge collision between a . Mars-sized object and the primordial Earth. The resulting debris from this impact later accreted and formed the Moon. This theory mainly draws its support from computer impact simulations and a great many assumptions, but it lacks the does like, physical evidence necessary to support it. Finding a common theory of origin for the Earth and Moon has proven to be quite difficult.
Dwarf planet , Earth , Mars 987 Words | 3 Pages. ?The purpose of this essay is to reflect upon any article of my choice I have come across. For this reason,I have chosen an online article from . the daily mail under the health section dated March 23, 2014. On Human Resources Essay? For the purpose of this reflective essay , I shall be writing in the first person . What Look Like? Also in accordance to the NMC(2002) code of professional conduct and practice,confidentiality will be maintained and all names changed to protect identity. Behaviorism Vs Cognitivism? To help structure my essay , I will be using the Gibb’s (2008. Does Boo Radley Look? Blood , Drugs , Error 489 Words | 2 Pages. lives meaning, helps us make good choices, and allows us to keep going despite setbacks and vs cognitivism problems. Most successful people have dreams…a vision of want . they want in life . As a college student, you are in the process of dreaming about a new future, a new career, and new world of ideas and knowledge. You are looking for your purpose in life . What Boo Radley Like? You might be undecided (which is normal for new college students), but go with your “gut feelings”. So let’s begin with the end in mind…what are your dreams, or. Education , Essay , Five paragraph essay 745 Words | 4 Pages.
Chukanova Ms. Aeneid Book 12 Summary? Pannunzio ENG3UI 03/03/2014 The Power of Words . Patrie Rothfuss once . said - “ Words are pale shadows of forgotten names. As the names have power, words have power. What Like? Words can light fires in the mind of men. Words can bring tears from the hardest hearts.” Life of Pi directed by Ang Lee, highly inspired and The Causes of Stereotypes affectionate movie.
Life of Pi is a three part story of Piscine Patel, a sixteen- year- old South Indian boy who survives out at sea. What Does Boo Radley Like? Change , Existentialism , Fiction 1580 Words | 4 Pages. The thesis in The Impact Resources Management, the article ?The origins of the World War', by does, Sidney B. Fay, can clearly be stated as the explanation for World War I. Fay . states that no one country is responsible for the creation of the war. Furthermore, he goes on behaviorism vs cognitivism, to explain that each of the like, European country's leaders did, or failed to do ?certain' things to provoke the other countries into Essay a war. Fay states, One must abandon the dictum of the Versailles Treaty that Germany and her allies were solely responsible. It was a dictum.
Archduke Franz Ferdinand of Austria , Austria , Germany 1558 Words | 4 Pages. Origin and what does look like Definition of the Word Miasma. Miasma The word miasma is derived from Post-Classical Latin, derived from the Greek word miainein which means to behaviorism . pollute. The word Miasma has two main meanings that are similar but are different is distinct ways. The original meaning, the first i will be discussing, at what boo radley look like its most basic means bad air.
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Words - The Poet’s Tools to Life Words are powerful tools that inspire and connect people. Words . Essay? challenge and inspire a poet’s audience by allowing the author to convey different messages to the reader. Utilizing these tools, the look, poet can take readers to faraway places, lend understanding, and evoke strong emotions. Writers string them together in the hope of communicating new ideas that expose their deepest fears, desires, and truths. In “The Chimney Sweeper,” William Blake utilizes literary. Chimney , Chimney sweep , Chimneys 1529 Words | 4 Pages. : try — es·say·er noun Examples of ESSAY There is no hint as to which of the approaches essayed in is american political culture, this book will prove most useful. . Boo Radley Look? First Known Use of ESSAY 14th century Related to ESSAY Synonyms assay, endeavor, attempt, seek, strive, try Related Words fight, strain, struggle, toil, trouble, work; aim, aspire, hope; assume, take up, undertake Near Antonyms drop, give up, quit more See Synonym Discussion at attempt Rhymes with ESSAY abbe, affray, agley, airplay, airway. Article , Essay , Essays 437 Words | 3 Pages. 1. Paul Roberts draws us in to Essay his essay , How to what does look Say Nothing in aeneid book 12 summary, 500 Words , by presenting us with a relatable . situation.
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Bacteria , Cell , DNA 1187 Words | 4 Pages. In my opinion being a responsible soldier is a man or woman who attempts to live and apply the army values to everyday life . By placing the . mission first soldiers automatically put themselves second to everything they do; meaning selfless service. Regardless of rank they know how to act in situations where they must present a professional and military image. They also take pride in what does look, what they do every day for on Human Resources Management Essay their country. Responsible soldiers take full responsibility for all actions preformed by. American Revolutionary War , Army , Continental Army 536 Words | 2 Pages. Norma McCorvey, pro- life activists continue to thrive for does boo radley look like new laws banning, or at The Impact of Technology Management least tightly restricting induced abortion. Due to that . Does Like? decision, abortion has become a safety net—preventing unwanted pregnancies, controlling whether or not parents have a handicapped child, etc. In Sallie Tisdale’s “We Do Abortions Here: A Nurse’s Story”, readers get an is american political, inside look on the actual procedure itself, giving them an idea of what goes on in the world of medicine.
Although this essay may highlight the beneficial. Abortion , Abortion debate , Fertility 1081 Words | 3 Pages. limit, and applicants and counselors frequently debated whether a tight 450- word essay was a wiser approach than a detailed . 900- word piece. In 2011, that decision was taken away as the Common Application moved to a relatively short 500 - word limit. With the August 2013 release of CA4 (the newest version of the Common Application), the guidelines have changed once again. CA4 sets the limit at 650 words (and a minimum of boo radley look like, 250 words ). And unlike earlier versions of the Common Application, the length limit. Cash flow , College admissions in the United States , College application 736 Words | 4 Pages.
? Meghan McEwan The film 500 Days of Summer we see a developing relationship between the two main characters Tom and Summer. Book? Some . might deny that this is a love story because it doesn’t have your typical happy ending, but none the less it is a love story with a lot to what does say about relationships and the types of love that are evolved during it. This relationship starts out illustrating how both of the characters view life and love. Tom is described as a hopeless romantic in 12 summary, the beginning of. What Like? Agape , Greek words for love , Interpersonal relationship 1186 Words | 4 Pages. monograph; More 2. formal an attempt or effort. Who Invented The Internal? a misjudged essay synonyms: attempt, effort, endeavor, try, venture, trial, experiment, . What Does Boo Radley Look Like? undertaking his first essay in telecommunications a trial design of a postage stamp yet to be accepted. verbformal verb: essay ; 3rd person present: essays ; past tense: essayed; past participle: essayed; gerund or present participle: essaying e?sa/ 1. What Political Culture? attempt or try. essay a smile Origin late 15th century (as a verb in the sense ‘test the quality. What Does Boo Radley Look? Definition , Essay , Gerund 608 Words | 4 Pages. ?Assignment The student should complete a brief essay analysing the use of technologies to enhance your own learning and aeneid book teaching.
This should . also include the benefits and limitations of using technology in what look like, learning and teaching. (400 words minimum) Technology has moved on in leaps and bounds within the last thirty years and can be a great benefit but may also be frustrating for some that do not understand how to use it. From my own perspective the internet (computers, tablets and phones) has helped. Learning 916 Words | 2 Pages. make a move. Whether the The Metaphysical Conceit Essay, outcome is good or bad, I have to what does look take responsibility for my actions. I hope that this tactic will ignite my future next year as a . college freshmen as well as something that will positively aid me throughout the duration of my life . Of Stereotypes? Over the course of what does look, high school, I have slowly felt myself grow and combustion engine mature into a young woman. I believe it is important to what look like feel a change in your character through the course of high school.
This change can either be good or bad, it is is american culture, up to that. 2004 albums , 2005 albums , 2008 singles 514 Words | 2 Pages. 3/1/10 6th period Word count: 862 Life of Pi Essay Many people that are religious look to does boo radley look God for guidance and . comfort. Especially in disastrous situations. In Yann Martel’s novel, Life of Pi, the theme of the internal combustion, will to survive is presented and demonstrated as having faith, letting animal instincts take over, and determination. Pi keeping his faith shows how strong his faith in does boo radley, God is. He discusses some Hindu symbolism to describe how insignificant he feels, then mumbled words of Muslim prayer and. Atheism , God , Instinct 891 Words | 3 Pages. A Definition Essay on the Word Romance. What Is American Culture? The Attraction of what boo radley look, Romance Romance: the of Stereotypes, word the puts the art in heart, the word describes the actions that take place to imprint . your name in a girls head, the word that everyone thinks about when two people are madly in love with one another. The Oxford English Dictionary tells the word came from 1497 from a time when chivalry was the key to boo radley love.
In this time, the word meant to be chivalrous, but in modern times to romance someone is to “put your moves on them” to dazzle someone with your personality. English language , French language , Kid Rock 925 Words | 3 Pages. ? Social media plays a significant role in ensuring that advertising is successful. What Political Culture? Social media is made up of websites that enable users to create and . share content with other users across the internet. In today’s world almost everything that takes place revolves around social media and as a result any new product, business or service being advertised is boo radley look like, associated with social media in Conceit Essay, some way. According to some analysts, social media is “a group of what does boo radley, Internet-based applications that build. Advertising , Brand , Facebook 844 Words | 3 Pages. these energy there is book, renewable energy. It is boo radley, very important nowadays as it brings a positive environmental impact, development in the economy, energy . security for a bright future. Who Invented Engine? These are some types of sustainable energy already mentioned.This essay is going to what look like focusing on who invented the internal, solar panel and will also discuss the cost, the use of facilities, energy storage and also the negative effects of using solar panel such as weather problem, it controlled by geography, need more space, sunlight is weak energy.
Alternative energy , Energy development , Fossil fuel 596 Words | 2 Pages. was different from the government in Sparta. Athens had 10 tribes, known as phylae, and these tribes were split into thirds, known as trittyes. Each trittye . was broken up into what does look like 140 demes (municipalities). The Boule was a council that was made up of 500 men, with 50 from each of the 10 tribes. The members of the council were chosen by The Causes Essay, their demes. The Assembly was open to what all male citizens in Athens. The Impact Of Technology Resources? The Assembly met 40 times a year (4 times each month, for boo radley 10 months), and would discuss foreign policy. Of Technology On Human Management? Ancient Greece , Athens , Classical Athens 997 Words | 3 Pages. comparison essay of boo radley look, two different life. Aeneid Book 12 Summary? ?Nur Liyana binti Aznan Debbie Lynch ESL 004 Comparison Essay : revision paper 21th November 2014 The Two Different World High school as well . What Does Boo Radley? as university have been major parts of my life and Essay I went through a transition between these two diverse and different worlds. My high school, which was International Education Centre (Intec) was a preparatory center for students who want to like further their education abroad. After I graduated, I started my tertiary education at Pennsylvania State University at.
Big Ten Conference , Education , Penn State Harrisburg 2387 Words | 11 Pages. Words are powerless when looked at individually but they have the is american political, potential for good or evil, when someone who can properly use them to his . or her advantage. That is what boo radley look like, what Nathaniel Hawthorne quote means, and I fully agree with him. An example of words being used for evil could be a dictator trying to convince his people that he is best for the country. Essay? An example of what, words being used for good could be a civil rights activist trying to persuade people to aeneid book get along and to treat everyone with respect. Boo Radley? Core issues in ethics , Evil , God 1292 Words | 4 Pages. drinking and posing funny styles. The Metaphysical Conceit Essay? She fears that if such photos are seen by her working mates who are younger and others older than her, they will not be . taking her seriously. She contributes that she does not have any problem exposing her personal life to her fellow teens. It is a normal phenomenon for her to post her newest fashion on her facebook profile for other teenagers to have a look at.
Ms. Liu is not only concerned about like her looks and reputation but also her sisters, she had asked her sister. 20th century , 2nd millennium , Change 1749 Words | 5 Pages. Communication: Meaning of Life and Words. CRIMINOLOGY/DLM MODULE: COMMUNICATION TASK 1: EXPLAIN HOW WORDS CAN DICTATE PREJUDICE AND PERCEPTION NAME: DENNIS OKODOI OJUMA ADMISSION . NUMBER: 8034 TRAINERS NAME: JACINTA WARINGA DATE SUBMITTED:1/02/2014 TABLE OF CONTENTS Introduction………………………………………. 2 How words dictate prejudice and of Technology on Human Management Essay perception……..
3,4,5,6 Conclusion…………………………………………. 7 References…………………………………………..8 INTRODUCTION The words we use and does boo radley like the order in we use them give particular meaning. The Internal Combustion Engine? Communication , Connotation , Existentialism 1558 Words | 5 Pages. 800 Word Essay Food, health and does look medical technologies have a large impact on individuals and communities today and in the . Political Culture? future. What Does Look? Throughout this paper, discussion will involve the issues that society faces regarding food and health and how we can create a healthier and who invented combustion engine safer world for our future. The food industry has a large impact on individuals and will affect wider communities in the future. The rush of today’s society has pushed food production to become more commercialized with prepackaged/premade. Fast food , Food , Health 826 Words | 3 Pages. the Usage of the what boo radley like, “N” Word When discussing the definition, effects, and the history behind the “N” word , it is interesting how . this word has managed to change over time from having a descriptive meaning, to a negative connotation, and to a positive controversial meaning.
That is combustion, why there are those who believe that the what does look like, “N” word should and should not be used, and there are those that believe that only some (or the accepted ones) should use it in order to avoid conflicts. The Metaphysical Conceit? This essay will go over some. Black people , Hip hop , Hip hop music 918 Words | 3 Pages. The Odyssey Translations Essay WORD. ?The Odyssey Translations Essay The Odyssey is an epic poem, written in classical Greek, describing Odysseus's adventures in does boo radley like, his ten year . Who Invented The Internal Engine? attempt to return to Ithaca after the Trojan War. Since this 2,500 year old book was written, there have been several English translations that are believed to be the closest interpretations to boo radley the original version of The Odyssey. Alexander Pope, Emile V. Rieu, Robert Fitzgerald, and Robert Fagles each wrote a translation of his own.
These translations are read. Aeneid Book? Aeneid , Cyclops , Homer 865 Words | 3 Pages. PHYS1160 Essays Essays should be between 1500 and 2000 words . The word limit should include the . text, figure captions, footnotes, but not the does look, reference list (we are happy to see lots of references). You will lose marks for behaviorism going over or under the word limit. You are welcome to boo radley like include pictures. However try to The Causes Essay ensure that they help to illustrate the argument presented in the essay and does boo radley like are not mere adornment. Your essay should be written for a well informed but non-specialist audience. The style used. Colonization of Mars , Jupiter , Mars 1356 Words | 5 Pages. Montessori Method.
This is because the child gets pleasure through work and the practical life exercise, provides the behaviorism, child with a meaningful . What Does Boo Radley Look Like? tasks. Children are naturally interested in activities they have witnessed. Therefore, Dr. Montessori began to who invented combustion using what she called “Practical Life Exercise” to allow the child to do activities of daily life and adapt himself in his society. The purpose and aim of does, practical life is to help the child gain control in the coordination of his movement, and help the.
Consciousness , Digestion , Maria Montessori 1948 Words | 6 Pages.
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Darwinism and the Nazi Race Holocaust. Originally published in Journal of Creation 13, no 2 (November 1999): 101-111. Leading Nazis, and early 1900 influential German biologists, revealed in their writings that Darwin’s theory and publications had a major influence upon Nazi race policies. Hitler believed that the human gene pool could be improved by using selective breeding similar to how farmers breed superior cattle strains. In the does formulation of their racial policies, Hitler’s government relied heavily upon The Causes of Stereotypes Essay, Darwinism, especially the elaborations by Spencer and Haeckel. As a result, a central policy of does like, Hitler’s administration was the development and implementation of policies designed to protect the ‘superior race’. This required at the very least preventing the ‘inferior races’ from mixing with those judged superior, in order to reduce contamination of the latter’s gene pool.
The ‘superior race’ belief was based on the theory of group inequality within each species, a major presumption and requirement of behaviorism vs cognitivism, Darwin’s original ‘survival of the what boo radley like fittest’ theory. This philosophy culminated in the ‘final solution’, the of Technology on Human Management Essay extermination of approximately six million Jews and four million other people who belonged to look like, what German scientists judged as ‘inferior races’. Of the many factors that produced the Nazi holocaust and World War II, one of the most important was Darwin’s notion that evolutionary progress occurs mainly as a result of the elimination of the weak in the struggle for survival. Although it is no easy task to assess the The Metaphysical Conceit conflicting motives of Hitler and his supporters, Darwinism-inspired eugenics clearly played a critical role. Darwinism justified and encouraged the Nazi views on both race and war. If the Nazi party had fully embraced and look like, consistently acted on the belief that all humans were descendants of Adam and Eve and equal before the creator God, as taught in both the Old Testament and behaviorism vs cognitivism, New Testament Scriptures, the holocaust would never have occurred. Expunging of the Judeo-Christian doctrine of the what does boo radley look divine origin of humans from mainline German (liberal) theology and its schools, and replacing it with Darwinism, openly contributed to the acceptance of The Impact Essay, Social Darwinism that culminated in the tragedy of the holocaust.1 Darwin’s theory, as modified by what boo radley like, Haeckel,2 , 3 , 4 , 5 , 6 Chamberlain7 and others, clearly contributed to Resources Essay, the death of over what like, nine million people in book, concentration camps, and about 40 million other humans in what boo radley look like, a war that cost about six trillion dollars. Furthermore, the primary reason that Nazism reached to the extent of the holocaust was the aeneid 12 summary widespread acceptance of Social Darwinism by the scientific and academic community.1 , 8 , 9 , 10. The very heart of Darwinism is the belief that evolution proceeds by the differential survival of the fittest or superior individuals.
The very heart of what like, Darwinism is the belief that evolution proceeds by the differential survival of the fittest or superior individuals. This requires differences among a species, which in time become great enough so that those individuals that possess advantageous features—the fittest—are more apt to survive. Although the process of raciation may begin with slight differences, differential survival rates in time produce distinct races by book 12 summary, a process called speciation, meaning the development of a new species. The egalitarian ideal that ‘all people are created equal’, which now dominates Western ideology, has not been universal among nations and cultures.11 A major force that has argued against this view was the does boo radley look Social Darwinian eugenics movement, especially its crude ‘survival of the fittest’ worldview.10 , 12 As Ludmerer noted, the idea that the hereditary quality of the book race can be improved by selective breeding is as old as Plato’s Republic but: ‘ … modern eugenics thought arose only in boo radley look, the nineteenth century. The emergence of interest in eugenics during that century had multiple roots. The most important was the theory of evolution, for behaviorism Francis Galton’s ideas on eugenics—and it was he who created the term “eugenics”—were a direct logical outgrowth of the scientific doctrine elaborated by what does boo radley, his cousin, Charles Darwin.’ 13.
Nazi governmental policy was openly influenced by The Metaphysical Essay, Darwinism, the Zeitgeist of both science and educated society of the time.10 This can be evaluated by an examination of extant documents, writings, and artefacts produced by what does boo radley, Germany’s twentieth century Nazi movement and its many scientist supporters. Keith concluded the who invented the internal engine Nazi treatment of look like, Jews and other ‘races’, then believed ‘inferior’, was largely a result of the internal engine, their belief that Darwinism provided profound insight that could be used to significantly improve humankind.14 Tenenbaum noted that the political philosophy of boo radley look, Germany was built on the belief that critical for evolutionary progress were: ‘ … struggle, selection, and survival of the 12 summary fittest, all notions and observations arrived at … by Darwin … but already in luxuriant bud in what does boo radley like, the German social philosophy of the nineteenth century. Of Stereotypes Essay. … Thus developed the doctrine of Germany’s inherent right to rule the world on the basis of what does like, superior strength … [of a] “hammer and aeneid book 12 summary, anvil” relationship between the Reich and the weaker nations.’ 14. The importance of race in look like, Darwinism. The theory of evolution is based on individuals acquiring unique traits that enable those possessing the new traits to better survive adverse conditions compared to those who don’t possess them. Superior individuals will be more likely to survive and pass on these traits to their offspring so such traits will increase in number, while the ‘weaker’ individuals will eventually die off. Who Invented The Internal. If every member of a species were fully equal, natural selection would have nothing to select from, and evolution would cease for what boo radley that species. These differences gradually produce new groups, some of Resources Essay, which have an advantage in boo radley like, terms of survival. These new groups became the superior, or the more evolved races.
When a trait eventually spreads throughout the entire race because of the survival advantage it confers on those that possess it, a higher, more evolved form of animal will result. Is American Culture. Hitler and what boo radley, the Nazi party claimed that one of their major goals was to apply this accepted ‘science’ to society. And ‘the core idea of behaviorism, Darwinism was not evolution, but selection. Evolution … describes the results of selection’.16 Hitler stressed that to produce a better society ‘we [the Nazis] must understand, and cooperate with science’. As the what does boo radley look one race above all others, Aryans believed that their evolutionary superiority gave them not only the right, but the duty to aeneid book, subjugate all other peoples. Race was a major plank of the Nazi philosophy; Tenenbaum concluded that they incorporated Darwinism: ‘ … in their political system, with nothing left out what does look …. What Political Culture. Their political dictionary was replete with words like space, struggle, selection, and extinction (Ausmerzen). The syllogism of their logic was clearly stated: The world is a jungle in what, which different nations struggle for space. The stronger win, the weaker die or are killed ….’17. In the 1933 Nuremberg party rally, Hitler proclaimed that ‘higher race subjects to itself a lower race …a right which we see in nature and which can be regarded as the sole conceivable right,’ because it was founded on science.15. Hitler believed humans were animals to whom the genetics laws, learned from what is american, livestock breeding, could be applied. The Nazis believed that instead of permitting natural forces and chance to control evolution, they must direct the what does like process to advance the human race.
The first step to political culture, achieve this goal was to isolate the what look ‘inferior races’ in order to prevent them from further contaminating the who invented the internal engine ‘Aryan’ gene pool. The widespread public support for this policy was a result of the belief, common in the educated classes, in the conclusion that certain races were genetically inferior as was scientifically ‘proven’ by Darwinism. The Nazis believed that they were simply applying facts, proven by science, to produce a superior race of humans as part of their plan for what look a better world: ‘The business of the corporate state was eugenics or artificial selection—politics as applied biology.’ 18 , 19. As early as 1925, Hitler outlined his conclusion in Chapter 4 of Mein Kampf that Darwinism was the only basis for a successful Germany and which the title of his most famous work—in English My Struggle— alluded to. As Clark concluded, Adolf Hitler: ‘ …was captivated by behaviorism, evolutionary teaching—probably since the time he was a boy. What Does Like. Evolutionary ideas—quite undisguised—lie at aeneid book the basis of all that is worst in what does look like, Mein Kampf -and in his public speeches …. Hitler reasoned … that a higher race would always conquer a lower.’ 20. And Hickman adds that it is no coincidence that Hitler: ‘ … was a firm believer and preacher of behaviorism vs cognitivism, evolution.
Whatever the deeper, profound, complexities of his psychosis, it is certain that [the concept of struggle was important because] … his book, Mein Kampf , clearly set forth a number of what does like, evolutionary ideas, particularly those emphasizing struggle, survival of the fittest and the extermination of the The Causes of Stereotypes Essay weak to produce a better society.’ 21. Furthermore, the belief that evolution can be directed by scientists to produce a ‘superior race’ was the does central leitmotif of Nazism and many other sources existed from which Nazism drew: ‘ … its ideological fire-water. But in that concatenation of ideas and nightmares which made up the … social policies of the Nazi state, and to a considerable extent its military and diplomatic policies as well, can be most clearly comprehended in Conceit, the light of look like, its vast racial program.’ 22. The Nazi view on Darwinian evolution and race was consequently a major part of the fatal combination of ideas and events which produced the holocaust and World War II: ‘One of the central planks in Nazi theory and doctrine was …evolutionary theory [and] … that all biology had evolved … upward, and that … less evolved types … should be actively eradicated [and] … that natural selection could and should be actively aided, and The Metaphysical Conceit Essay, therefore [the Nazis] instituted political measures to eradicate … Jews, and does, … blacks, whom they considered as “underdeveloped”.’ 23. Terms such as ‘superior race’, ‘lower human types’, ‘pollution of the race’, and the word evolution itself ( Entwicklung ) were often used by Hitler and other Nazi leaders. His race views were not from fringe science as often claimed but rather Hitler’s views were: ‘ … straightforward German social Darwinism of political, a type widely known and accepted throughout Germany and which, more importantly, was considered by most Germans, scientists included, to like, be scientifically true.
More recent scholarship on national socialism and Hitler has begun to realize that … [their application of what political culture, Darwin’s theory] was the specific characteristic of Nazism. What Does Like. National socialist “biopolicy,” … [was] a policy based on a mystical-biological belief in radical inequality, a monistic, antitranscendent moral nihilism based on the eternal struggle for The Metaphysical existence and the survival of the fittest as the law of nature, and the consequent use of state power for a public policy of natural selection….’ 24. The philosophy that humans can control and even use Darwinism to produce a ‘higher level’ of what like, human is repeatedly mentioned in the writings and speeches of prominent Nazis.25 Accomplishing the Darwinian goal for the world required ruthlessly eliminating the on Human Management Essay less fit by look, open barbarian behavior: ‘The basic outline of German social Darwinism [was] … man was merely a part of nature with no special transcendent qualities or special humanness. On the other hand, the combustion Germans were members of a biologically superior community … politics was merely the straightforward application of the laws of biology. In essence, Haeckel and boo radley look, his fellow social Darwinists advanced the of Stereotypes Essay ideas that were to become the core assumptions of national socialism …. The business of the corporate state was eugenics or artificial selection ….’ 18. Hitler once even stated that we Nazis ‘ … are barbarians! We want to does look, be barbarians. The Causes. It is an honorable title [for, by it,] we shall rejuvenate the world ….’26 Hitler, as an evolutionist, ‘consciously sought to make the practice of Germany conform to what boo radley like, the theory of evolution’.
27 Keith adds that: ‘If war be the progeny of The Causes of Stereotypes Essay, evolution—and I am convinced that it is—then evolution has “gone mad”, reaching such a height of does like, ferocity as must frustrate its proper role in the world of life—which is the advancement of her competing “units”, these being tribes, nations, or races of what is american political, mankind. There is no way of what does boo radley look like, getting rid of war save one, and that is to of Stereotypes, rid human nature of the sanctions imposed on it by the law of evolution. Can man … render the law of evolution null and void? … I have discovered no way that is at once possible and what, practicable. “There is no escape from human nature.” Because Germany has drunk the vat of evolution to its last dregs, and in her evolutionary debauch has plunged Europe into a bath of Essay, blood, that is no proof that the law of what does boo radley, evolution is evil. Of Technology. A law which brought man out of the jungle and made him king of beasts cannot be altogether bad.’ 28. The German eugenic leadership was originally less anti-Semitic than even the British leadership. Most early German eugenicists believed that German Jews were Aryans, and consequently the eugenicist movement was supported by many Jewish professors and doctors both in Germany and abroad. The Jews were only slowly incorporated into the German eugenic theory and what boo radley like, then laws. The Darwinian racists’ views also slowly entered into many spheres of German society which they had previously not affected.9 The Pan German League, dedicated to ‘maintaining German Racial Purity’, was originally not overtly anti-Semitic and assimilated Jews were allowed full membership. Many German eugenicists believed that although blacks or Gypsies were racially inferior, their racial theories did not fit Jews since many Jews had achieved significant success in Germany.
Schleunes adds that by 1903, the influence of of Stereotypes Essay, race ideas permeated the League’s program to the degree that by does boo radley, 1912, the what is american political League declared itself based upon ‘racial principles’ and what does boo radley like, soon excluded Jews from membership.29. In spite of the scientific prominence of these racial views, they had a limited effect upon most Jews until the 1930s. Most German Jews were proud of being Germans and considered themselves Germans first and on Human, Jews second. Many Jews modified the German intelligentsia’s racial views by including themselves in what boo radley, it. Their assimilation into Essay German life was to the extent that most felt its anti-Semitism did not represent a serious threat to their security. Most Jews also were convinced that Germany was now a safe harbour for them.30 Many still firmly held to the Genesis creation model and rejected the views upon which racism was based, including Darwinism. What happened in Germany later was obviously not well received by Jewish geneticists, even Jewish eugenicists and what look, certain other groups: ‘The eugenics movement felt a mixture of apprehension and admiration at the progress of eugenics in combustion, Germany … but the actual details of the eugenics measures which emerged after Hitler’s rise to power were not unequivocally welcomed. Eugenicists pointed to what boo radley look like, the USA as a place where strict laws controlled marriage but where a strong tradition of political freedom existed.’ 31.
Nazi policies resulted less from of Technology on Human Resources Management, a ‘hatred’ toward Jewish or other peoples than from the idealistic goal of preventing ‘pollution’ of the superior race. Hitler elaborated his Darwinian views by comparing the strong killing the weak to a cat devouring a mouse, concluding that ultimately the Jews must be eliminated because they cause: ‘ … peoples to does boo radley like, decay …. In the long run nature eliminates the noxious elements. Resources. One may be repelled by this law of what does boo radley look, nature which demands that all living things should mutually devour one another. The fly is snapped up by The Causes of Stereotypes Essay, a dragon-fly, which itself is swallowed by a bird, which itself falls victim to a larger bird … to know the laws of nature … enables us to does look like, obey them.’ 32. Hitler then argued that for this reason, governments must understand and apply the ‘laws of Nature’, especially the ‘survival of the fittest’ law which ‘originally produced the human races and is the source of their improvement’. Behaviorism Vs Cognitivism. The government must therefore aid in what boo radley, the elimination, or at least quarantine, of the inferior races. Hitler argued: ‘If I can accept a divine Commandment, it’s this one: “Thou shalt preserve the species.” The life of the individual must not be set at aeneid book too high a price. If the individual were important in the eyes of nature, nature would take care to preserve him. Amongst the millions of eggs a fly lays, very few are hatched out — and what does look like, yet the race of flies thrives.’ 33.
Hitler was especially determined to prevent Aryans from breeding with non-Aryans, a concern that eventually resulted in the ‘final solution’. Once the inferior races were exterminated, Hitler believed that future generations would be eternally grateful for The Metaphysical the improvement that his programs brought to humanity: ‘The Germans were the higher race, destined for does boo radley look a glorious evolutionary future. For this reason it was essential that the behaviorism vs cognitivism Jews should be segregated, otherwise mixed marriages would take place. Were this to what boo radley like, happen, all nature’s efforts “to establish an evolutionary higher stage of being may thus be rendered futile” (Mein Kampf).’ 20. Individuals are not only far less important than the race, but the Nazis concluded that certain races were not human, but were animals: ‘The Jews, labelled subhumans, became nonbeings. It was both legal and right to exterminate them in the collectivist and evolutionist viewpoint. They were not considered … persons in the sight of the German government.’ 34. As a result, the book 12 summary Darwinist movement was ‘one of the what does look like most powerful forces in the nineteenth–twentieth centuries German intellectual history [and] may be fully understood as a prelude to the doctrine of national socialism [Nazism]’. 35 Why did evolution catch hold in Germany faster, and take a firmer hold there than any other place in the world? Evolution used to justify existing German racism.
Schleunes noted, rather poignantly, that the what culture reason the publication of Darwin’s 1859 work had an immediate impact in what boo radley like, Germany, and behaviorism, their Jewish policy, was because: ‘Darwin’s notion of does look, struggle for survival … legitimized by the latest scientific views, justified the racists’ conception of superior and inferior peoples and who invented the internal engine, nations and what boo radley look, validated the conflict between them.’ 36. The Darwinian revolution and Conceit, the works of its chief German spokesman and boo radley like, most eminent scientist, Professor Haeckel, gave the The Causes Essay racists something that they were confident was powerful verification of does boo radley look like, their race beliefs.37 The support of the science establishment resulted in racist thought having a much wider circulation than otherwise possible, and enormous satisfaction ‘that one’s prejudices were actually expressions of scientific truth’. 36. And what greater authority than science could racists have for who invented engine their views? Konrad Lorenz, one of the most eminent animal-behavior scientists then, and often credited as being the founder of his field, stated that: ‘Just as in cancer the best treatment is to eradicate the parasitic growth as quickly as possible, the eugenic defense against the dysgenic social effects of what does boo radley look like, afflicted subpopulations is of necessity limited to equally drastic measures …. When these inferior elements are not effectively eliminated from a [healthy] population, then—just as when the The Metaphysical cells of what like, a malignant tumor are allowed to proliferate throughout the who invented the internal human body—they destroy the host body as well as themselves.’ 38. Lorenz’s works were important in developing the Nazi program designed to boo radley, eradicate the of Technology on Human Resources ‘parasitic growth’ of inferior races. The government’s programs to insure the ‘German Volk’ maintained their superiority made racism almost unassailable. Although King claimed that ‘the holocaust … pretended to have a scientific genetic basis’, 39 the position of the government and university elite of the time was so entrenched that few contemporary scientists seriously questioned it. The anti-Semitic attitudes of the German people were only partly to blame in causing the like holocaust—only when Darwinism was added to the preexisting attitudes did a lethal combination result.
The first step in an eugenic program was to determine which groups were genetically superior; a judgment that was heavily influenced by culture. The ideal traits were: ‘ … a human type whose appearance had been described by the race theorist Hans F.K. Günther as “blond, tall, long-skulled, with narrow faces, pronounced chins, narrow noses with a high bridge, soft hair, widely spaced pale-coloured eyes, pinky-white skin colour”‘ .40. Although superficial observations enable most people to make a broad classification of race, when explored in depth, race status is by no means easy to determine, as the Nazis soon found out. Many of the groups that they felt were inferior, such as the Slovaks, Jews, Gypsies, and others, were not easily distinguishable from the pure ‘Aryan’ race. In grouping persons into aeneid book 12 summary races to select the ‘best’, the Nazis measured a wide variety of physical traits including brain case sizes. The Nazis relied heavily upon the work of Hans F.K. Günther, professor of ‘racial science’ at the University of Jena. Although Günther’s ‘personal relationships with the party were stormy at what boo radley times, his racial ideas were accepted’ . They received wide support throughout the German government, and were an important influence in German policy.41 Günther recognized that, although ‘a race may not be pure, its members share certain dominant characteristics’, thus paving the way for stereotyping.41.
Günther concluded that all Aryans share an who invented the internal engine, ideal Nordic type which contrasted with the Jews, whom he concluded were a mixture of what does boo radley like, races. Günther stressed a person’s genealogical lineage, anthropological measurement of skulls and evaluations of physical appearance, were all used to determine their race. Even though physical appearance was stressed, ‘the body is the showplace of the soul’ and ‘the soul is primary’ .42 Select females with the necessary superior race traits were even placed in special homes and kept pregnant as long as they remained in the program. Nonetheless, research on the internal combustion engine the offspring of the experiment concluded that, as is now known, IQ regressed toward the look population mean and behaviorism vs cognitivism, the IQs of the offspring were generally lower than that of the parents. Darwinism not only influenced the Nazi attitude toward Jews, but other cultural and ethnic groups as well. Look. Even mental patients were included later, in part because it was then believed that heredity had a major influence on aeneid 12 summary mental illness (or they possibly had some Jewish or other non-Aryan blood in does, them), and consequently had to be destroyed. The Causes Essay. Poliakov notes that many intellectuals in the early 1900s accepted telegony , the idea that ‘bad blood’ would contaminate a race line forever, or that ‘bad blood drives out good, just as bad money displaces good money’. 43 Only extermination would permanently eliminate inferior genetic lines, and thereby further evolution. Darwin even compiled a long list of cases where he concluded bad blood polluted a whole gene line, causing it to bear impure progeny forever.
Numerous respected biologists, including Ernst Ruedin of the University of does boo radley look, Munich and many of his colleagues such as Herbert Spencer, Francis Galton, and Eugene Kahn, later a professor of psychiatry at culture Yale, actively advocated this hereditary argument. These scientists were also the chief architects of the German compulsory sterilization laws designed to prevent those with defective or ‘inferior’ genes from contaminating the Aryan gene pool. Does Boo Radley Look. Later, when the ‘genetically inferior’ were also judged as ‘useless dredges’, massive killings became justified. The groups judged inferior were gradually expanded to The Metaphysical, include a wide variety of races and national groups. Later, it even included less healthy older people, epileptics, both severe and mild mental defectives, deaf-mutes, and even some persons with certain terminal illnesses.1 , 44. The groups judged ‘inferior’ were later expanded to include persons who had negroid or mongoloid features , Gypsies, and those who did not pass a set of ingeniously designed overtly racist phrenology tests now known to be worthless.45 After Jesse Owen won four gold medals at the 1936 Berlin Olympic Games, Hitler chastised the what does look like Americans for even permitting blacks to enter the contests.46. Some evolutionists even advocated the view that women were evolutionarily inferior to men.
Dr Robert Wartenberg, later a prominent neurology professor in California, tried to prove women’s inferiority by arguing that they could not survive unless they were ‘protected by men’. He concluded that because the weaker women were not eliminated as rapidly due to this protection, a slower rate of book 12 summary, evolution resulted and for this reason natural selection was less operative on what women than men. How the weak were to be ‘selected’ for elimination was not clear, nor were the is american culture criteria used to determine ‘weak’. Women in Nazi Germany were openly prohibited from entering certain professions and were required by law to what does like, conform to a traditional female role.47. Evolution and war in Nazi Germany.
Darwinism not only offered the The Impact Resources Germans a meaningful interpretation of their recent military past, but also a justification for future aggression: ‘German military success in the Bismarkian wars fit neatly into Darwin categories … in the struggle for what does survival, [demonstrating] the fitness of what culture, Germany.’ 48 War was a positive force not only because it eliminated ‘weaker’ races, but also because it weeded out the does look like weaker members of the ‘superior’ races. Hitler not only is american political unabashedly intended to produce a superior race, but he openly relied heavily upon Darwinian thought in both his extermination and war policies.25 Nazi Germany, partly for this reason, openly glorified war because it was an what does like, important means of eliminating the less fit of the highest race, a step necessary to book, ‘upgrade the race’. Clark concludes, quoting extensively from Mein Kampf , that: ‘Hitler’s attitude to what does boo radley look like, the League of Nations and to peace and war were based upon the same principles. “A world court … would be a joke … the The Impact Resources Management Essay whole world of Nature is a mighty struggle between strength and weakness — an eternal victory of the strong over the weak. There would be nothing but decay in the whole of nature if this were not so. States which [violate] … this elementary law would fall into decay. … He who would live must fight. He who does not wish to does like, fight in this world where permanent struggle is the law of life, has not the right to aeneid, exist.” To think otherwise is to “insult” nature. “Distress, misery and disease are her rejoinders”.’49. German greatness, Hitler stressed, came about primarily because they were jingoists, and thereby had been eliminating their weaker members for centuries.50 Although Germans were no stranger to war, this new justification gave powerful support to what boo radley, their policies.
The view that eradication of the weaker races was a major source of evolution was well expressed by Wiggam: ‘ … at one time man had scarcely more brains than his anthropoid cousins, the apes. But, by kicking, biting, fighting … and outwitting his enemies and by the fact that the ones who had not sense and strength enough to do this were killed off, man’s brain became enormous and he waxed both in wisdom and agility if not in size ….’ 51. In other words, war is positive in the long run because only by of Stereotypes, lethal conflicts can humans evolve. Hitler even claimed as truth the what does boo radley look contradiction that human civilization as we know it would not exist if it were not for constant war. And many of the leading scientists of his day openly advocated this view: Haeckel was especially fond of praising the what is american political ancient Spartans, whom he saw as a successful and superior people as a consequence of their socially approved biological selection. By killing all but the ‘perfectly healthy and strong children’ the Spartans were ‘continually in excellent strength and vigor’. Does Boo Radley. 52 Germany should follow this Spartan custom, as infanticide of the deformed and aeneid, sickly was ‘a practice of advantage to both the infants destroyed and to the community’ . Does Boo Radley Like. It was, after all, only Essay ‘traditional dogma’ and hardly scientific truth that all lives were of does boo radley look like, equal worth or should be preserved.18 , 53.
However, the common assumption that European civilization evolved far more than others, primarily because of its constant warmongering in contrast to other nations, is false. War is actually typical of virtually all peoples, except certain small island groups who have abundant food, or peoples in very cold areas.54 Historically, many tribes in Africa were continually involved in wars, as were most countries in The Impact Resources Management, Asia and America. Much of the opposition to the eugenic movement came from German Christians. What Boo Radley. Although Hitler was baptized a Catholic, he was never excommunicated, and evidently ‘considered himself a good Roman Catholic’ as a young man, and at times used religious language. Is American. He clearly had strong, even vociferous, anti-Christian feelings as an adult, as did probably most Nazi party leaders. As a consummate politician, though, he openly tried to exploit the church.55 Hitler once revealed his attitude toward Christianity when he bluntly stated that religion is an: ‘ … organized lie [that] must be smashed. The State must remain the absolute master. What Boo Radley Like. When I was younger, I thought it was necessary to set about [destroying religion] … with dynamite. I’ve since realized there’s room for The Causes a little subtlety …. The final state must be … in St. Peter’s Chair, a senile officiant; facing him a few sinister old women … The young and healthy are on what look our side … it’s impossible to eternally hold humanity in The Metaphysical Conceit, bondage and lies …. Does Boo Radley. [It] was only between the vs cognitivism sixth and eighth centuries that Christianity was imposed upon our peoples …. Our peoples had previously succeeded in living all right without this religion. I have six divisions of SS men absolutely indifferent in matters of religion.
It doesn’t prevent them from going to their death with serenity in their souls.’ 56. His beliefs as revealed in this quote are abundantly clear: the younger people who were the hope of Germany were ‘absolutely indifferent in matters of religion’ . As Keith noted, the Nazi party viewed Darwinism and Christianity as polar opposites. Milner said of does boo radley, Germany’s father of evolution, Ernst Haeckel, that in book 12 summary, his Natural History of Creation he argued that ‘the church with its morality of love and charity is an effete fraud, a perversion of the natural order’.57 A major reason why Haeckel concluded this was because Christianity: ‘ … makes no distinction of race or of color; it seeks to break down all racial barriers. What Does Look. In this respect the hand of The Metaphysical Conceit, Christianity is against what does look, that of Nature, for The Metaphysical Conceit Essay are not the races of mankind the evolutionary harvest which Nature has toiled through long ages to produce? May we not say, then, that Christianity is anti-evolutionary in its aim?’ 58. The opposition to religion was a prominent feature of German science, and what does look, thus later German political theory, from The Metaphysical Conceit Essay, its very beginning. As Stein summarized Haeckel in a lecture titled On evolution: Darwin’s Theory : ‘ … [Haeckel] argued that Darwin was correct … humankind had unquestionably evolved from the animal kingdom.
Thus, and what does look like, here the fatal step was taken in Haeckel’s first major exposition of Darwinism in Germany, humankind’s social and political existence is governed by the laws of evolution, natural selection, and biology, as clearly shown by behaviorism vs cognitivism, Darwin. To argue otherwise was backward superstition. And, of what, course, it was organized religion which did this and of Stereotypes Essay, thus stood in the way of look like, scientific and social progress.’ 59. Martin Bormann, Hitler’s closest associate for years and one of the combustion engine most powerful men in Nazi Germany, was equally blunt: the church was opposed to evolution and for this reason must be condemned, but the Nazis were on the side of science and look like, evolution. Of Technology Resources Management Essay. Furthermore, Nazi and Christian concepts are incompatible because Christianity is built: ‘ … upon the ignorance of men and strive[s] to keep large portions of the people in ignorance …. On the other hand, National Socialism is based on scientific foundations.
Christianity’s immutable principles, which were laid down almost two thousands years ago, have increasingly stiffened into life-alien dogmas. What Boo Radley. National Socialism, however, if it wants to The Metaphysical Essay, fulfil its task further, must always guide itself according to the newest data of scientific researches.’ 60. Bormann also claimed that the Christian churches have long been aware that: ‘ … scientific knowledge poses a threat to what does look, their existence. Therefore, by means of such pseudo-sciences as theology, they take great pains to suppress or falsify scientific research. Our National Socialist world view stands on 12 summary a much higher level than the concepts of Christianity, which in their essentials were taken over look, from Judaism. For this reason, too, we can do without Christianity.’ 60. As Humber notes, Hitler believed that Blacks were ‘ monstrosities halfway between man and ape ’ and 12 summary, therefore he disapproved of German Christians: ‘ … going to does boo radley look like, “Central Africa” to set up “Negro missions,” resulting in the turning of “healthy … human beings into a rotten brood of bastards.” In his chapter entitled “Nation and Race,” he said, “The stronger must dominate and not blend with the weaker, thus sacrificing his own greatness. Only the born weakling can view this as cruel, but he, after all, is The Metaphysical Conceit Essay only a weak and limited man; for if this law did not prevail, any conceivable higher development (Hoherentwicklung) of organic living beings would be unthinkable.” A few pages later, he said, “Those who want to live, let them fight, and those who do not want to fight in this world of eternal struggle do not deserve to live”.’ 61. A literature review shows that German racism would have had a difficult time existing if the historical creation position, void of race curse theories, had been widely accepted. What Look Like. One of these biblical theories was the claim that Genesis teaches that ‘two types of men’ were originally created; Adam and Eve, the superior race line, and the ‘beasts of the earth’, the inferior black race line.62 , 63 Few people, though, accepted this idea. Relatively few scientific studies exist which directly deal with Darwinism and Nazism—and many evolutionists avoid the subject because evolution is inescapably selectionist.
One of the best reviews of Darwinism and Nazism documents clearly that Nazism felt confident that their programs of extermination was firmly based on evolution science.64 Recently, a number of popular articles have covered this topic in who invented, a surprisingly candid and honest way.65 The source of the worst of Nazism was in Darwinism and we must first understand history to boo radley look like, prevent its repeat. Paraphrasing the words of Hitler, those who ignore the The Causes Essay lessons of what does like, history are condemned to repeat it.66 Admittedly, some persons who did not accept evolution espoused non-evolution theories which accommodated or even espoused racism. Nonetheless, these persons were few and the theories that were developed seem to be mostly in response to preconceived ideas or to justify existing social systems. From our modern perspective, many persons have concluded that World War II and its results ensued from the ideology of an evil madman and his equally evil administration. Essay. Hitler, though, did not see himself as evil, but as humanity’s benefactor. He felt that many years hence, the what boo radley world would be extremely grateful to behaviorism vs cognitivism, him and his programs which lifted the human race to genetically higher levels of evolution by stopping race pollution by preventing mixed marriages with inferior races. ‘Hitler was influenced above all by the theories of the nineteenth-century social Darwinist school, whose conception of man as biological material was bound up with impulses towards a planned society. He was convinced that the race was disintegrating, deteriorating through faulty breeding as a result of boo radley look like, a liberally tinged promiscuity that was vitiating the nation’s blood. And this led to book, the establishment of a catalogue of ‘positive’ curative measures: racial hygiene, eugenic choice of marriage partners, the breeding of human beings by what look, the methods of selection on the one hand and extirpation on the other.’ 67. Hitler’s efforts to put members of these inferior races in concentration camps was not so much an effort to punish but, as his apologists repeatedly stated, was a protective safeguard similar to quarantining sick people to prevent contamination of the rest of the community.
In Haas’s words, the Nazis believed that ‘killing Jews and others was in The Impact on Human Management, fact a scientific and rational way of serving an objectively greater good’. 68 Or, as Rudolf Hoess, the boo radley look commandant of combustion, Auschwitz, adds, ‘such a struggle, legitimized by what does boo radley, the latest scientific views, justifies the racists’ conceptions of superior and what is american political, inferior people and nations and validated the conflict between them’. 69 Many in Germany recognized the harm of look like, Darwinism, and The Impact of Technology Resources Management Essay, Nordenskiöld claimed the Prussian Minister of Education, even for a time in 1875 banned, its teaching: ‘ … the Prussian Minister of Education sent round a circular strictly forbidding the schoolmasters in the country to boo radley look like, have anything to do with Darwinism … with a view to protecting schoolchildren from the dangers of the new doctrines.’ 70. An interesting question is, would the Nazi holocaust have occurred if this ban had remained in effect? Haeckel was at the center of this fight and garnered much support from: ‘ … free-thinkers and it is The Causes of Stereotypes easy to realize the eagerness with which the friends of the freedom of does boo radley look like, thought and word must have gathered around him in spite of his many delusions, when such measures as the school regulations mentioned above were adopted … All the more so as the outcome proved Haeckel’s justification; Darwinism might be prohibited in the schools, but the idea of evolution and its method penetrated everywhere … And to this result Haeckel has undeniably contributed more than most; everything of value in aeneid book 12 summary, his utterances has become permanent, while his blunders have been forgotten, as they deserve.’ 70. A biologist writing the above today would certainly drop ‘as they deserve’ because Haeckel is does boo radley look today acknowledged as an unscrupulous forger who played no small role in the horrible events that occurred in the 1930s and 1940s. The well documented influence of Darwinism on the Holocaust has been greatly downplayed by the mass media. Current writers often gloss over, totally ignore, or even distort the close connection between Darwinism and book, the Nazi race theory and what look like, the policies it produced, but as Stein admonishes: ‘There is little doubt that the history of ethnocentrism, racism, nationalism, and xenophobia has been also a history of the use of science and the actions of scientists in vs cognitivism, support of these ideas and social movements. In many cases it is clear that science was used merely as raw material or evidence by ideologically interested political actors as proof of preconceived notions.
Most contemporary sociobiologists and students of what does, biopolitics would argue that all attempts to use science in this manner are, in fact, mere pseudoscience ….’ 71. He adds that there is also little doubt that this contemporary self-protecting attitude is aeneid book 12 summary based on a: ‘ … somewhat wilful misreading of history. The history of ethnocentrism and the like has also been the history of many well-respected scientists of the day being quite active in using their own authority as scientists to does like, advance and support racist and xenophobic political and social doctrines in the name of science. Thus, if the scientists of the day used the science of the The Causes of Stereotypes Essay day to what does, advance racism, it is simply a form of Kuhnian amnesia or historical whitewash to dismiss concern with a possible contemporary abuse of science by a claim that the past abuse was mere pseudoscience.’ 71. Darwin was not just responding to his culture as often alleged. In Hull’s words ‘we have all heard, time and aeneid, time again, that the reason Darwin’s theory was so … sexist, and racist is that Darwin’s society exhibited these same characteristics’. Does Look Like. Hull answers this change by noting that Darwin was not ‘so callow that he simply read the characteristics of his society into nature’. 72.
Nazism is often used as a warning example of the danger of religious zeal, yet only occasionally is the key role of the eugenics of Francis Galton, based on the theory of natural selection espoused by his cousin, Charles Darwin, mentioned. Eugenics is still alive in the world today. As late as 1955, a Canadian professor of zoology, notes that ‘possibly the Conceit most significant fact is that he [Darwin] finally freed humanity from a great measure of … church proscription and won his fellow men a freedom of thought that had been unknown for centuries’. 73 He then argues that reducing the churches’ influence in society allowed the discovery of, not only the what does means of evolution, but the knowledge that man had the means and aeneid book 12 summary, that we can either direct evolution or let it take place on what does its own or, worse, stop it by counteracting the forces which propel it, causing devolution. Rowan argued that man has, tragically, chosen the latter ‘selection is what is american political culture still as vital to human progress as it has ever been. What Does Look Like. The great Darwinian principle remains…’. Then he added, ‘When man acquired intellect, he started on an entirely new path without precedent in the animal world, the course of which now depends, not on further physical changes, but on intellectual and equally intellectual selection.’ 74 Unfortunately, he concludes, humans are ‘saving’ the intellectually inferior and have failed to order their affairs according to the laws of on Human Resources Essay, biology.74 This discussion, although tactful, is does clear: those whom evolutionists judge as less fit need to be eliminated, or at the least our efforts in saving them, should be limited and we should let nature do its work. Not to do so will result in the eventual doom of the human race. Firmly convinced that Darwinian evolution was true, Hitler saw himself as the modern saviour of mankind. Society, he felt, would some day regard him as a great ‘scientific socialist’, the The Impact on Human Resources Essay benefactor of all humankind.
By breeding a superior race, the what does look world would look upon him as the man who pulled humanity up to a higher level of evolutionary development. Aeneid 12 Summary. If Darwinism is true, Hitler was our saviour and we have crucified him. As a result, the human race will grievously suffer. If Darwinism is not true, what Hitler attempted to do must be ranked with the what does look most heinous crimes of history and Darwin as the father of one of the most destructive philosophies of what culture, history. An assessment by Youngson concluded that the application of Darwinism to what like, society, called eugenics, produced one of the the internal engine most tragic scientific blunders of all time: ‘The culmination of this darker side of eugenics was, of course, Adolf Hitler’s attempt to like, produce a “‘master race’ by encouraging mating between pure ‘Aryans’” and by the murder of six million people whom he claimed to have inferior genes. It is hardly fair to Galton to blame him for The Causes of Stereotypes Essay the Holocaust or even for his failure to what does like, anticipate the consequences of his advocacy of the matter. But he was certainly the Management Essay principal architect of eugenics, and Hitler was certainly obsessed with the idea. So, in does boo radley look like, terms of its consequences, this must qualify as one of the greatest scientific blunders of all time.’ 75. I wish to thank Wayne Frair, Ph.D., John Woodmorappe, M.A. and Paul Humber, M.A. for combustion engine their insight and comments on an earlier draft of this paper. Chase, A., The Legacy of Malthus; The Social Costs of the New Scientific Racism, Alfred Knopf, New York, 1980. Haeckel, E., The History of Creation: Or the Development of the Earth and Its Inhabitants by the Action of Natural Causes, Appleton, New York, 1876.
Haeckel, E., The Riddle of the Universe, Harper, New York, 1900. Haeckel, E., The Wonders of Life; A Popular Study of Biological Philosophy, Harper, New York, 1905. Does Boo Radley. Haeckel, E., Eternity: World War Thoughts on Life and Death, Religion, and the Theory of Essay, Evolution, Truth Seeker, New York, 1916. Haeckel, E., The Evolution of Man, Appleton, New York, 1920. Chamberlain, H., The Foundations of the Nineteenth Century, 2nd Vol. , (1st Vol. 1899), Lane, London, 1911. Aycoberry, P., The Nazi Question: An Essay on the Interpretations of National Socialism, 1922–1975, Pantheon, New York. 1981.
Beyerchen, A.D., Scientists Under Hitler , Yale University Press, New Haven, CT, 1977. What Does Boo Radley Look. Stein, G., Biological science and the roots of Nazism, American Scientist 76 (1):50–58, 1988. Tobach, E., Gianusos, J., Topoff, H. and Gross, C.G., The Four Horsemen; Racism, Sexism, Militarism, and 12 summary, Social Darwinism , Behavioral Publications, New York, 1974. Clark, Robert, Darwin: Before and what does boo radley look like, After, Grand Rapids International Press, Grand Rapids, MI, 1958. Ludmerer, K., Eugenics, In: Encyclopedia of The Impact Management, Bioethics , Edited by what like, Mark Lappe, The Free Press, New York, p. 457, 1978. Keith, A., Evolution and Ethics, G.P. Is American. Putnam’s Sons, New York, p. 230, 1946. Tenenbaum, J., Race and Reich , Twayne Pub., New York, p. 211, 1956. Stein, Ref. 10, p. 53.
The Nuremberg Trials, Vol. Does Look Like. 14, U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, D.C., p. 279. Vs Cognitivism. Stein, Ref. 10, p. 56. Poliakov, L., The Aryan Myth, Basic Books, New York, 1974. Clark, Ref. 12, p. What Does Boo Radley Look. 115. Hickman, R., Biocreation , Science Press, Worthington, OH, pp.
51–52, 1983. Tenenbaum, Ref. 15, p. vii. Wilder-Smith , B ., The Day Nazi Germany Died , Master Books, San Diego, CA, p. 27, 1982. Stein, Ref. 10, p. 51. Jackel, E., Hitler’s Weltanschauung, Wesleyan University Press, Middletown, CT, 1972. Rauschning, H., The Revolution of Nihilism, Alliance Book Corp., New York, 1939. Keith, Ref. 14, p. Conceit. 230. Keith, Ref.
14, p. 105. Schleunes, K., The Twisted Road to Auschwitz, University of Illinois Press, Urbana, IL, 1970. Schleunes, Ref. Boo Radley Like. 29, p. 33. Jones, G., Social Darwinism and English Thought; The Interaction Between Biological and Social Theory , The Humanities Press, Atlantic Highlands, NJ, p. 168, 1980. Hitler, A., Hitler’s Secret Conversations 1941–1944, With an introductory essay on The Mind of Adolf Hitler by behaviorism, H.R. Trevor-Roper , Farrar, Straus and Young, New York, p. 116, 1953. Hitler, A., Ref. What Boo Radley Like. 32, p. Essay. 116. Whitehead, J, The Stealing of America , Crossway Books, Westchester, IL, p. 15, 1983.
Gasman, D., The Scientific Origin of National Socialism, American Elsevier, New York, p. xiv, 1971. Schluenes, Ref. 29, p. 30–32. Poliakov, L., The Aryan Myth (translated by E Howard), Basic Books, New York, 1974. Chase, Ref.
1, p. 349. King, J., The Biology of does boo radley look, Race, University of California Press, 2nd ed., Berkeley, CA, p. The Causes Of Stereotypes. 156, 1981. Fest, J.C., The Face of the Third Reich, Pantheon, NY, pp. 99–100, 1970. Mosse, G.L., Nazi Culture; Intellectual, Cultural, and Social Life in does boo radley look like, the Third Reich , Schocken Books, New York, p. 57, 1981.
Mosse, Ref. 41, p. 58. Paliakov, Ref. 37, p. 282. Wertham, F., A Sign for Cain, The Macmillan Co., New York, 1966. Davies, J.D., Phrenology: Fad and Science, Yale University Press, New Haven, CT, 1955. Stanton, W., The Leopard’s Spots; Scientific Attitudes Towards Race in America, 1815–1859, University of Chicago Press, Chicago, IL, 1960. The Impact On Human. Weindling, P., Health, Race and German Politics Between National Unification and Nazism 1870–1945, Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, MA, 1989. Schleunes, Ref. 29, p. 31.
Clark, Ref. 12, pp. What Does Boo Radley Look. 115–116. Rich, N., Hitler’s War Aim, Norton, New York, 1973. Wiggam, A. E., The New Dialogue of Science , Garden Publishing Co., Garden City, NY, p. 102, 1922. Haeckel, Ref. 2, p. 170. Haeckel, Ref.
4, p. 116. Posner, G.L. and Ware, J., Mengele, McGraw Hill Book Company, New York, 1986. Phillips, K., Post-Conservative America: People, Politics, and Ideology in aeneid book, a Time of Crisis, Random House, New York, p. 164, 1981. Hitler, A., Ref. 32, p. 117. Milner, R., The Encyclopedia of Evolution, Facts on File, New York, p. Does Boo Radley Look Like. 206, 1990.
Keith, Ref. 14, p. 72. The Impact Of Technology On Human Essay. Stein, Ref. 10, p. 54. Mosse, Ref. 41, p. Does Boo Radley Like. 244. Humber, P., The Ascent of Racism , Impact, February, p. 2, 1987. Hawtin, G., The Living Creature; The Origin of the vs cognitivism Negro , Geo. R. Does Look. Hawtin, Battleford, Sask. 1980.
Magne, C.L., The Negro and book, the World Crisis, New Christian Crusade Church, Holywood, CA, 1972. Mueller-Hill, B., Murderous Science: Elimination by Scientific Selection of Jews, Gypsies, and others, Germany 1933–1945, Oxford University Press, Oxford, p. 23, 1988. Gray, P., Cursed by Eugenics, Time , January 11, pp. 84–85, 1999. What Does Boo Radley Like. Jones, E.M. (ed.), Darwin and the Vampire: Evolution’s contribution to the Holocaust, Culture Wars 17 :11, 1998.
Fest, Ref. The Causes Of Stereotypes Essay. 40, p. Like. 99. Haas, P.J., Nineteenth century science and the formation of Nazi policy, Journal of Theology, 1995. Hoess, R., Commandment of Auschwitz, World Publishing Company, Cleveland, IL, p. Conceit. 110, 1960. Nordenskiöld, E., The History of Biology, Tudor Publishing Company, New York, p. What Boo Radley. 522, 1935. Stein, Ref. 10, p. 50. Hull, D., Uncle Sam Wants You; a review of the book Mystery of Mysteries: Is Evolution a Social Construction? by Michael Ruse. Science 284 :1131–1132, 1999. Rowan, W., ‘Charles Darwin’, in Architects of Modern Thought, Canadian Broadcasting Corp., Toronto, p. 12, 1955. Rowan, Ref.
73, p. 13. Youngson, R., Scientific Blunders; A Brief History of How Wrong Scientists Can Sometimes Be , Carroll and Graf Pub., New York, 1998. Get the latest answers emailed to you or sign up for our free print newsletter. Thank you for signing up to receive email newsletters from The Metaphysical, Answers in Genesis. You're almost done! Please follow the instructions we emailed you in order to what does boo radley like, finish subscribing. Your newsletter signup did not work out.
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ethics coursework Welcome to the Online Research Ethics Course developed through the Practical Ethics Center at the University of does, Montana with Office of Research Integrity (ORI) support during the 2002-03 academic year. This course is behaviorism vs cognitivism intended to provide a foundation for institutions that are working to promote Responsible Conduct of Research. Our hope is that web-based instruction like this will expose investigators and graduate students to the kinds of ethical issues and what does boo radley, federal requirements they encounter throughout their careers and vs cognitivism, prepare them to deal with those issues and what does boo radley look, requirements. The six sections represented by the buttons to what is american the left each provide information on does major issues and contain at least one case study that allow exploration of different options, as well as an assessment tool so you can test your knowledge of the The Impact of Technology Management, area. Click on a section button at the left and what boo radley, read each section's Introduction and Major Issues for Discussion. You may also want to explore the many additional resources provided for each section. Next, select the Case Study link.
Each Case Study provides different alternatives for you to The Metaphysical Conceit explore. When you have finished all of the alternatives, click on the Section Assessment link to test your understanding of the boo radley look like, covered material. Once you have successfully completed the Section Assessment, you may print out a certificate of completion for the section. To proceed to another section, simply click on a link provided at behaviorism the top left. Federal funding agencies and research institutions are increasingly pro-active in insuring that researchers and graduate students in research disciplines learn about the does like, ethics related to their work. In December 2000, the Office of Research Integrity (ORI) issued the Public Health Service (PHS) Policy on Instruction in the Responsible Conduct of Research (RCR). If the policy had been approved, ORI would require research institutions that are recipients of aeneid book 12 summary, PHS funds to develop and require training in ethics for all research staff who have direct and substantive involvement in proposing, performing, reviewing, or reporting research, or who receive research training, supported by PHS funds or who otherwise work on the PHS-supported research project even if the individual does not receive PHS support. /1 PHS research funding is provided by the Administration for what does look, Children and Families, Centers for Disease Control and Conceit Essay, Prevention, Indian Health Service, and what does boo radley like, National Institutes of Health. The PHS policy requiring RCR training was suspended in February 2000, pending review of its substance and whether the document should have been issued as a regulation rather than a policy, and, in more than three years has not been instituted. Nevertheless, ORI has continued to develop resources and to fund development to assist in educational planning for research institutions that are creating materials and culture, processes for RCR.
In December 2000, the Office of Science and Technology Policy offered new definitions and procedures to standardize responses by federal funding agencies to what does like allegations of research misconduct. The new definitions and procedures were meant to apply to all federal departments and agencies. Vs Cognitivism? That proposal defines misconduct as fabrication, falsification, or plagiarism in proposing, performing, or reviewing research, or in boo radley look, reporting research results. Under this proposal, research institutions would be responsible for on Human Resources, the protection of those who make an accusation of misconduct and what does like, protection of those accused. Research institutions would also be required to separate investigations of misconduct into four different phases: inquiry, investigation, adjudication, and appeal. As of early 2002, this proposal has still not been fully implemented, but federal agencies were seeking, individually, to adopt the standard definitions and procedures. For example, on January 25, 2002, The National Science Foundation (NSF) placed a notice in the Federal Register of its intention to revise its misconduct regulations to conform with the aeneid book 12 summary, new federal policy. What Look Like? /3. As will be explained more fully in the section on animals in research, there is an on-going battle at the federal level over whether birds, mice, and rats should be protected under the Federal Animal Welfare Act. There are also some areas of agreement among federal agencies regarding research ethics. All researchers who use human participants in their research are required to have training on the topic, and research institutions must have committees to oversee the use of animals and The Causes Essay, human participation in research and documentation to show that the oversight is accomplished. It is in this context that research institutions are working to develop research ethics education for investigators, students and lab personnel.
This asynchronous online course provides such education. In anticipation of expected federal requirements, this online course covers the topics listed by PHS as core curriculum: 1). What Boo Radley Look Like? Data acquisition, management, sharing, and ownership; 2). Mentor/trainee responsibilities; 3).
Publication practices and responsible authorship; 5). Collaborative science; 6). Human subjects; 7). Research involving animals; 8). Essay? Research misconduct; and. 9).
Conflict of interest and commitment. /4 In addition, the course uses the partially implemented standardized federal definitions and procedures. This course also encourages investigators, and requires students enrolled in the course for credit, to think critically about what it means to be an ethical researcher. One may be in what does boo radley look, compliance, without being an ethical researcher. Being in compliance means following the of Technology Management Essay, rules; ethical research requires an like, understanding of the ethical imperatives behind the rules. The fundamental ethical imperative behind the rules is that researchers seek to do their jobs in a manner that will not cause unjustified harm to anyone. But, most researchers work toward acting in an ethically ideal way -- through their work and professional conduct, they seek to prevent harm and to promote the good. Throughout the course, investigators and The Causes, students will be asked to think about the range of actions that count as responsible conduct for the ethical researcher as well as identifying the rules that researchers are expected to follow. Some of the content for what boo radley look, this course comes from work sponsored by NSF /5 and the Fund for the Improvement of Postsecondary Education (FIPSE) /6 , conducted at Dartmouth College and the University of Montana from 1992-1995.
Those projects resulted in three publications, Stern, Judy E. and Elliott, Deni, The Ethics of Scientific Research: A Guidebook for Course Development and Elliott, Deni and Stern, Judy E. (eds), Research Ethics: A Reader and a special issue of Professional Ethics Journal, Volume 4, Numbers 3 4. Both books were published by the University Press of New England in 1997 and material from both books is incorporated into this course. Copies of the journal may be ordered from Professional Ethics Journal at the Center for Applied Philosophy, University of Florida, Gainesville, Florida. This course was also enriched through a conversation the course authors had with Dartmouth, NSF and FIPSE in aeneid book, December 2000 and by does look, the pilot testing of sections by colleagues around the country in March, 2002. This course is divided into vs cognitivism six sections that cover the what boo radley look, major topics in research ethics. Each section includes an what political, introduction that identifies learning goals, major issues for discussion, at least one case study, external links, and like, an examination on Conceit Essay the concepts covered. What Does Look Like? The case studies are intended to be explored through an The Causes Essay, investigation of all the offered choices.
Each of the six sections may be examined independently. Each section, not counting explorations into external links, will take between 30 and look like, 45 minutes to complete. I. Ethical Issues in Research: A Framework. A. Compliance and Ethics. B. Compliance Concepts. C. The Causes Of Stereotypes? Ethics Concepts. II. Interpersonal Responsibility.
A. Mentor/Trainee Responsibilities. B. What Boo Radley Look? Determining Publication Practices and Responsible Authorship. C. Collaborative Science/Competitive Science. III. Institutional Responsibility. A. The Institutional Process Regarding Allegations. B. Conflicts of Interest and Conflicts of Commitment. IV. Professional Responsibility. A. Proposing Research.
B. Dissemination of Findings. V. Animals in Research. VI. Human Participation in Research. A Brief History of the of Stereotypes, Development of Research Ethics. Questions relating to the ethical practice of research have been around as long as research itself.
However, until the late 20th Century, it was assumed that scientists were naturally conducting their research in a responsible way or that the does boo radley look, profession could identify and weed out the few bad actors. One of the is american culture, hallmarks of does like, research in the hard sciences and social science is trust in its self-correcting nature. Instances of intentional fraud were thought to be few. It was erroneously believed that well-intentioned researchers did not need clear statements of expectations or conventional norms. It was assumed that novice researchers learned the of Stereotypes Essay, conventions and does like, expectations of high quality research in The Impact Resources, the labs of their equally well-intentioned mentors. The individual nature of the what does boo radley look like, instruction meant that what were perceived as norms were more often the individual mentor's own perspectives. The absence of The Causes of Stereotypes Essay, norms. was symptomatic of the neglect of research ethics in the decades leading to the 1980s, according to does like Caroline Whitbeck in her introduction to a collection of papers on Trustworthy Research. /7 During this period, hardly any universities or other research institutions established policies for investigating charges of wrongdoing. The U.S. federal government, with its responsibility for overseeing the use of public funds, became actively involved in identifying and describing less-than-adequate research practices in the 1980s. Between 1980 and 1985, the federal focus and language changed from Conceit Essay research fraud to research misconduct. In Congressional subcommittee hearings in 1981 on biomedical fraud, led by boo radley look, Albert Gore, Jr., it became clear that the misdeeds being discussed were broader than what was previously thought to count as fraud.
Through the work of this committee and subsequent work, the definition of misconduct evolved to include intentional acts of fabrication, falsification and plagiarism (FFP). The inclusion of what has been referred to as FFP is generally not controversial, but FFP is not inclusive of all that can go wrong in research. Along with FFP, there are other practices that seriously deviate from those that are commonly accepted within the scientific community for proposing, conducting or reporting research. Deviations from commonly accepted practices were thought by some to The Metaphysical Conceit include behavior specific to the substance of the research, such as failing to report results that contradict one's hypothesis, and thought by others to include a wide range of what does boo radley like, unconventional behaviors on the part of the researcher, including sexual harassment or drug abuse. Due to uncertainty as to what should count in the category of practices that seriously deviate, that language was dropped out of the The Impact, federal requirements proposed in what does look like, December 2000. The Causes Of Stereotypes Essay? However, this category of problematic practices (in addition to FFP) has remained an important area for teaching responsible conduct of research. Responsible conduct of research includes avoidance of practices that seriously deviate from commonly accepted procedures as well as refraining from intentional fabrication, falsification, and plagiarism.
Since the 1980s, professional societies and federal agencies moved to what boo radley look describe research norms and to look for vs cognitivism, ways to educate young scientists. While not disputing the importance of informal mentoring in the teaching of what does boo radley like, students, the National Academy of Conceit Essay, Sciences explained that [S]cience has become so complex and so closely intertwined with society's needs that a more formal introduction to research ethics and the responsibilities that these commitments imply is also needed - an introduction that can supplement the informal lessons provided by research supervisors and mentors. The Academy, in 1989, produced the first edition of On Being A Scientist, to describe, for beginning scientists, the ethical foundations of scientific practice. What Does Boo Radley Like? More than 200,000 copies were distributed to graduate and undergraduate students. /8. By the end of the 1980s, the Institute of Medicine recommended that students be provided formal instruction in research practice and PHS moved to make institutions of higher education more accountable for the conduct of their researchers. The 1989 misconduct regulations from the Public Health Service (PHS) (which includes some federal funding agencies) stated Institutions should foster a research environment that discourages misconduct in all research and that deals forthrightly with possible misconduct associated with research for which PHS funds have been provided or requested. /9. Beginning in behaviorism vs cognitivism, the mid 1980s the US Department of Education, the National Science Foundation (NSF), as well as the National Institutes of Health (NIH) began providing resources to encourage study and curricular development in research ethics itself.
Among the important results of does boo radley, those efforts are the development of courses in research ethics that range from high school through senior investigator levels, /10 development of guidelines for practice, /11 study of the pressures that work against ethical research, /12 and the creation of an Online Ethics Center for Engineering and Science. /13. The question remains about whether increased federal attention on standardizing definitions, procedures and training will encourage or inhibit the development of more ethical research behavior. The Internal Combustion? Research institutions are increasingly encouraged to create and maintain an environment that supports the most ethical work. This supports the likelihood that researchers will become increasingly clear on their role-related responsibilities. However, the federal standards can alternatively be seen as encouraging a very minimalistic approach to ethics -- institutional attention to the development of minimal compliance. One is what does like ethically responsible for far more than for what one can be held legally accountable. This is of Technology on Human Management Essay true in general morality, just as it is what does look like true in research. It is wrong to is american lie in many more instances that the lies for which one can be prosecuted. In an analogous fashion, it is what does look like important that institutions and investigators keep in mind that requirements for compliance prescribe a minimal standard for research practice. It is important to know how to what is american political culture be compliant, just as it is important to know the laws for what does boo radley look like, which one can be held accountable by behaviorism vs cognitivism, society. But it is equally important that individuals think about how to best meet their role-related responsibilities in what does look, ways that go beyond mere compliance with rules and regulations.
Institutions should consider how best to encourage research that is praiseworthy, rather than how to simply discourage research that is blameworthy. 3/ Federal Register, pp. 76260-76264. 4/ PHS Policy on book 12 summary Instruction in the Responsible Conduct of what does boo radley look, Research, December 1, 2000; www.ori.hhs.gov/html/programs/announcement.asp. 6/ FIPSE #P116 B960045.
A comprehensive list of RCR resources to behaviorism vs cognitivism assist institutions in developing RCR programs and to facilitate the sharing of resources among institutions. The Ethics of Scientific Research A Guidebook for Course Development: A 75-page PDF (Adobe Acrobat) book by Judy Stern and what does look, Deni Elliott. Whether scientific ethics is who invented the internal combustion engine approached through a single course or a series of courses or seminars throughout the graduate curriculum, it has become obvious that students need exposure to ethics in a number of contexts. Research ethics can and must be taught in a formalized manner. It is our belief that courses in research ethics that incorporate a solid philosophical framework have the greatest potential for long-term usefulness to students. While other methodologies may reinforce this material, a course of the type described in this monograph has the potential to help a student develop the tools to see ethical problems from a new vantage point. It is in this context and for these reasons that we designed our course in research ethics. Resources For Instruction In Responsible Conduct Of Research: Examples of programs and tools for instruction in the responsible conduct of research. Maintained by Michael Kalichman, Ph.D.
Director, Research Ethics Program, University of California, San Diego. The site also contains a link to Online Resources For RCR Instruction, a comprehensive web site supported by ORI. Please Note: The course authors acknowledge that this course content is built on what does boo radley look the shoulders of great thinkers, both classical and contemporary, and have striven to assign appropriate credit for of Technology Essay, the ideas and words of others. If you believe that appropriate credit has not been assigned, please contact the course authors so that corrections can be made, or additional credit can be given.