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Bioterrorism Free Essay Samples Outline. Are you an under-graduate, in College, Bachelors or under-taking your Post graduate studies and need someone to help write your essay or research? We offer premium quality essay writing help. Journal. All our papers are original, 0% plagiarized uniquely written by our dedicated Masters specialists. My Essay Services is an experienced service with over 9 years experience in research writing of over 97,000 essays over the years. You will receive a plagiarism check certificate that confirms originality for any essay you order with My Essay Services. Fill the calculator on Essay on What Is the Empathy, your right to begin placing your order now! Bioterrorism, for this paper, is defined as the deliberate release of referencing, biological agents or bio agents to cause harm to minos inferno the environment or people. Due to journal referencing technological advancements, the number of biological attacks has skyrocketed globally. The increased attacks culminate from the availability of tools and topics, materials that are engineered in journal, laboratories. Loyalty. Bacteria, viruses, fungi or parasites are some of the biological agents that are used for journal referencing, such intentions.

These bioagents have the power to affect humans in Essay on What Is the Empathy in Nursing, some ways, ranging from allergies to serious effects such as disease or death. It is important to referencing note that most of Enzymatic Reactions, these agents are found in nature but are altered in journal, laboratories to make them more potent on their targets. Bioterrorism is a major worry for most nations as it can be very hard to detect and the roald dahl omnibus, contain once an referencing attack happens. During the recent decades, the improvement in biotechnology and dahl omnibus, genetic engineering has made it easier for journal referencing, scientists to create such agents increasing the Essay on What Impact threat of bioterrorism (Mugavero et al., 2015). Some of journal, these biological agents can be spread quickly through, air, water or even in the food we consume. Essay Is The Empathy. Gwerder et al., (2001), found that bioterrorism is one of the most dangerous events that can occur in modern day society due to its characteristics. According to the author, terrorists may release bio weapons to attack various sites to enable the spread of the virus to journal other individuals. For instance, terrorists may attack a worksite to enable the virus to spread via air or water to the community, or through secondary infections to other workmates. According to Riedel, bioterrorism is not a new phenomenon as it was used in omnibus, the past during warfare, as early as 600 BC infectious diseases were recognised to have adverse effects on people and the military (2004). In the journal early days, cadavers and animal corpses were used to spread diseases in Experimenting With Enzymatic Essay, the enemies territories. Areas that were used for drawing and journal, collecting water were also contaminated weakening the opposition.

A good example of bioterrorism in earlier times is the Caffa siege of 1396 in modern day Ukraine. The Tartars who had experienced a plague used the corpses of their dead colleagues to spread the disease outbreak in the city. This move subsequently led to the death of more than 20 million people in Europe and some parts of North Africa marking one of the greatest instances of bioterrorism documented to date. Equally important, smallpox has also been used by military personnel to wipe out their enemies. For example, in the 15th century, Pizarro delivered contaminated clothing to the South American Natives to eliminate their presence. Moreover, Amherst, who controlled the British forces in North America, decided to use smallpox to eradicate the Indians who were very hostile to the British army; as a result, a considerable number of fomites were evident, and this paved the minos inferno way for the British army to journal execute their mission. In 2001, the US suffered Anthrax attacks, which were later determined to be acts of bioterrorism. This attack came shortly after the 9/11 bombings of the same year.

In this attack, letters containing Bacillus anthraci, the bacterium, which causes anthrax, were mailed to several media stations and two senators. That attack left five people dead and more than 15 others infected with the disease. Further investigations into the issue lead the FBI to declare that Bruce Ivins, who had been a government scientist as the primary culprit in the attack. The studies and method of With Enzymatic, surveillance by the FBI did however not convince everyone that Irvin, who had already committed suicide in 2005, was behind the attacks. Following these attacks, the US Congress hurriedly passed the Public Health Security and Bioterrorism Preparedness and Response Act of 2002. Among the significant changes that the law introduced, is the journal requirement for Nazi Film Essay, organizations involved in the food industry must register with Food and Drug department. Referencing. The law also requires food importers to provide the government with notice whenever a shipment is to arrive. Cases of outbreaks of bioterrorism attacks are still being documented to date. Essay. The latest case of suspected bioterrorism is the Zika virus, which was reported in early 2016.

This virus was found mostly in the tropics where an infected Aedes mosquito, which transmits the disease, was found. The Zika virus can be passed from pregnant women to their unborn child hence a great danger to the health of both. In the international scene, the journal referencing virus interfered with the planning of the recent Rio Olympics in Brazil, making some athletes to withdraw from the games. Many countries have boards, which have the mandate of detecting and responding to With Reactions bioterrorism attacks to prevent or minimise the threat of bioterrorism, especially on the food system. Applied Entomology and Training Programs (AETPS) bodies, work in referencing, close collaboration with health departments in the US to answer to diseases outbreaks, other natural calamities, and bioterrorism. The health department and AETPS are required to ensure that there is an efficient infrastructure for carrying out routine inspections.

According to Sandhu et al., (2003) there were more than 1300 cases related to bioterrorism reported in the US. Although the threat of bioterrorism is mainly in the food industry, hospitals can also be susceptible. The US government, for example, provides funds to local authorities to aid in preparedness. The bulk of this money is intended for topics, hospitals. In addition to funding, the government also came up with other measures to prevent bioterrorism. One of these measures is community involvement.

Community involvement includes educating the public on bioterrorism, its dangers, and prevention and mitigation methods. Journal. It requires the Experimenting whole community to participate in the case of referencing, any emergency of this nature. Hospital staff education is another vital area of focus. Hospital staff education involves training staff on topics in biology, programs such as AETP, how to referencing provide care to bioterrorism patients and drugs to administer. Nazi Film Propaganda. Another step initiated by the government is constant disease surveillance. Perhaps the journal referencing most important step, this helps in The Conflict, early detection of impending bioterrorist attacks and helps in mitigation of these attacks. In dealing with the threat of bioterrorism, it is important for bodies given that task to think along the lines of referencing, what possible targets exist. As seen in the Caffe siege, which killed more than 20 million people, bioterrorism attacks can cause severe damages when the Nazi Film Essay threat is not detected earlier. Journal Referencing. Since, a possible bioterrorism attack would aim to minos inferno cause as much fear, damage and death as possible and would be aimed at journal referencing, a large population, it is, therefore, important for government agencies to put emphasis in such areas. Though not all agents can be altered for bioterrorism, it is important to conduct further research on Experimenting Essay, the remedies for all of the documented bio agents.

The legislation also has to be restrictive on persons who are allowed to be in contact with bio agents as they may also use their knowledge to cause harm, as it was the case with Ivin in 2001. Some of the bio agents that terrorist might be interested in due to their functionality; availability and journal, efficiency of destruction are mentioned below. Anthrax is caused by a bacterium by the name Bacillus anthracis and is exceedingly infectious. Anthrax is found mainly in cattle, specifically herbivores but can be transmitted to when there is contact with humans. As a bioterrorism threat, the first record of anthrax was in the early 20th century. The Japanese also used it in the Second World War by contaminating the water sources in Film Propaganda examples, China. It is not easy to detect as it has similar symptoms to other diseases such as influenza and it has a mortality rate of more than 75%. It is advisable that health authorities be informed as soon as possible when there is suspicion of referencing, anthrax as it kills in an average of 36 hours from the development of symptoms. Smallpox is a viral disease that can also be used be used in bioterrorism. Unlike, anthrax, smallpox can be transmitted by coming into contact with an infected person.

There is a vaccine for smallpox, and the World Health Organization recommends routine immunisation although the disease was eradicated in the 1980s. In the context of a bioterrorism attack, smallpox may be misdiagnosed since health care workers have not been exposed to the disease since its eradication. The terrorist may also use smallpox due to the few numbers of omnibus, laboratories with the capability of detecting the disease; thus, it would take a long time before it is contained. Nordin et al., (2008) recommends three strategies for the surveillance of bioterrorism threats and attacks: classification of certain health information, augmenting institution review boards and the establishment of health information agencies. Following the 2001 attacks, Nordin et al. propose the synchronisation of all medical records and a system that reports real-time information on journal referencing, health issues. A Real-time feed of information they reckon, will help in early detection of bioterrorist attacks and about The Conflict Between Loyalty and Greed, curb the spreading of the same. Classification of individual health information will also contribute during an intentional assault, as the enemy will not be privy to journal the governments activities. In addition to that, privatisation of such information will reduce access to information on topics, bio agents since the terrorists goal to cause harm although issues of ethics and suspicion may arise between the government and its citizens can use such knowledge.

Synchronisation of medical records helps in keeping records of attacks, patients, vaccines and symptoms of diseases caused by such bioagents. This also helps in predicting future trends in bioterrorism. Health information agencies will provide people with symptoms of the diseases and measures to take in case of suspicion or diagnosis. According to Yahav et al., most countries are more susceptible to journal referencing bioterrorism attacks than conventional forms of warfare (2013). The paper also estimates that more than a quarter of the population in the US could be affected if an anthrax attack happened. Minos Inferno. These statistics show the destructive nature of bioterrorism and expose the unpreparedness of the health sector. In the event of an outbreak of a disease such as smallpox, it may be hard to determine whether an outbreak is due to journal referencing natural calamity or an act of terror. We have also seen that diseases such as smallpox and Essay Impact Empathy in Nursing, anthrax may be difficult to diagnose since they have symptoms of other diseases. Bioterrorism can also be spread through air, food, water or in some cases contact with infected persons. It is with this understanding that governments around the world should do more to journal reduce the risk of bioterrorism because the threat has its origins from early years and Film Essay, continues to increase because of higher technological developments.

Centers for treatment should be increased to reduce a possible overflow of patients during an attack. Journal Referencing. Methods for establishing whether an attack is omnibus, natural or premeditated should be put in place to aid in the prevention of further attacks. The public should continue being sensitized on the bioterrorism and other related health issues for them to react quickly in case an attack occurs. Medical practitioners need to be updated on new practices for prevention and treatment of bioterrorism cases. Lastly, funding used for research on biotechnology should be increased to help come up with better solutions in the future.

Gwerder, Laurie Jean, MS,R.N., E.M.T., Beaton, Randal,PhD., E.M.T., Daniell, William,M.D., M.P.H. (2001). Bioterrorism: Implications for journal referencing, the occupational and environmental health nurse. AAOHN Journal, 49(11), 512-518. Mugavero, R., Sabato, V., Basso, M., D'Amico, W., Benolli, F. (2015). Bioterrorism: New technologies for global emergencies and public health. Journal of Information Privacy Security, 11(4), 262-273.

Nordin, James D,M.D., M.P.H., Kasimow, S., B.A., Levitt, M. J., M.B.C., Goodman, M. J., PhD. (2008). Bioterrorism surveillance and minos inferno, privacy: Intersection of HIPAA, the common rule, and public health law. American Journal of Public Health, 98(5), 802-7. Riedel, S. (2004). Biological warfare and bioterrorism: a historical review. Proceedings (Baylor University. Medical Center), 17(4), 400406. Sandhu, H. Referencing. S., Thomas, C., Nsubuga, P., White, M. E. (2003). A global network for early warning and response to infectious diseases and bioterrorism: Applied epidemiology and minos inferno, training programs, 2001. American Journal of Public Health, 93(10), 1640-2. Yahav, I., Barnes, S., Golden, B., Wasil, E. (2013).

Early detection of bioterrorism: Monitoring disease diffusion through a multilayered network. IIE Annual Conference.Proceedings, , 2561-2570. Client: (Berlin, G.K., CA) Topic title: Leadership shortfalls in Blue Chips

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Learning to Read and Write: What Research Reveals. Children learn to use symbols, combining their oral language, pictures, print, and play into a coherent mixed medium and creating and communicating meanings in a variety of ways. From their initial experiences and interactions with adults, children begin to journal referencing, read words, processing letter-sound relations and acquiring substantial knowledge of the in biology, alphabetic system. Journal? As they continue to topics, learn, children increasingly consolidate this information into patterns that allow for automaticity and fluency in reading and writing. Consequently reading and writing acquisition is conceptualized better as a developmental continuum than as an all-or-nothing phenomenon. But the ability to read and write does not develop naturally, without careful planning and instruction. Referencing? Children need regular and in biology active interactions with print. Specific abilities required for reading and writing come from immediate experiences with oral and journal referencing written language.

Experiences in these early years begin to define the minos inferno, assumptions and expectations about becoming literate and give children the journal referencing, motivation to work toward learning to read and write. From these experiences children learn that reading and writing are valuable tools that will help them do many things in life. The beginning years (birth through preschool) Even in the first few months of life, children begin to experiment with language. Nazi Film Essay? Young babies make sounds that imitate the tones and rhythms of adult talk; they read gestures and facial expressions, and they begin to associate sound sequences frequently heard #150; words #150; with their referents (Berk 1996). They delight in listening to familiar jingles and referencing rhymes, play along in about The Conflict Loyalty, games such as peek-a-boo and journal referencing pat-a-cake, and manipulate objects such as board books and alphabet blocks in their play. From these remarkable beginnings children learn to use a variety of Experimenting Enzymatic Essay symbols. In the journal, midst of gaining facility with these symbol systems, children acquire through interactions with others the insight that specific kinds of marks #150; print #150; also can represent meanings. At first children will use the physical and visual cues surrounding print to on What Is the Impact of Showing Practice?, determine what something says. But as they develop an understanding of the alphabetic principle, children begin to process letters, translate them into sounds, and connect this information with a known meaning.

Although it may seem as though some children acquire these understandings magically or on their own, studies suggest that they are the beneficiaries of considerable, though playful and informal, adult guidance and instruction (Durkin 1966; Anbar 1986). What this means is that no one teaching method or approach is likely to be the most effective for all children (Strickland 1994). Rather, good teachers bring into play a variety of teaching strategies that can encompass the journal referencing, great diversity of children in schools. Excellent instruction builds on what children already know, and can do, and Essay on What in Nursing provides knowledge, skills, and dispositions for lifelong learning. Children need to learn not only the technical skills of journal referencing reading and Essay about Between Loyalty writing but also how to use these tools to better their thinking and reasoning (Neuman 1998). The single most important activity for building these understandings and skills essential for reading success appears to referencing, be reading aloud to children (Wells 1985; Bus, Van Ijzendoorn, Pellegrini 1995). High-quality book reading occurs when children feel emotionally secure (Bus Van Ijzendoorn 1995; Bus et al.

1997) and are active participants in reading (Whitehurst et al. 1994). Asking predictive and Nazi Film Propaganda analytic questions in small-group settings appears to affect children's vocabulary and comprehension of stories (Karweit Wasik 1996). Children may talk about the pictures, retell the story, discuss their favorite actions, and request multiple rereadings. Referencing? It is the talk that surrounds the storybook reading that gives it power, helping children to bridge what is in the story and Essay about Between and Greed their own lives (Dickinson Smith 1994; Snow et al. 1995). Snow (1991) has described these types of conversations as decontextualized language in which teachers may induce higher-level thinking by moving experiences in stories from what the children may see in front of them to what they can imagine. Children also need opportunity to practice what they've learned about referencing, print with their peers and on their own. Studies suggest that the Experimenting With Enzymatic, physical arrangement of the classroom can promote time with books (Morrow Weinstein 1986; Neuman Roskos 1997). A key area is the classroom library #150; a collection of attractive stories and informational books that provides children with immediate access to books. Regular visits to the school or public library and library card registration ensure that children's collections remain continually updated and may help children develop the habit of reading as lifelong learning.

In comfortable library settings children often will pretend to read, using visual cues to remember the words of their favorite stories. Although studies have shown that these pretend readings are just that (Ehri Sweet 1991), such visual readings may demonstrate substantial knowledge about the global features of reading and its purposes. Storybooks are not the only means of providing children with exposure to written language. Journal? Children learn a lot about reading from the labels, signs, and other kinds of topics in biology print they see around them (McGee, Lomax, Head 1988; Neuman Roskos 1993). Highly visible print labels on objects, signs, and bulletin boards in classrooms demonstrate the practical uses of written language. In environments rich with print, children incorporate literacy into their dramatic play (Morrow 1990; Vukelich 1994; Neuman Roskos 1997), using these communication tools to enhance the drama and realism of the pretend situation. These everyday, playful experiences by themselves do not make most children readers. Rather they expose children to a variety of print experiences and journal the processes of Experimenting With Enzymatic reading for real purposes. For children whose primary language is other than English, studies have shown that a strong basis in a first language promotes school achievement in a second language (Cummins 1979).

Children who are learning English as a second language are more likely to become readers and writers of English when they are already familiar with the journal referencing, vocabulary and concepts in their primary language. In this respect, oral and written language experiences should be regarded as an additive process, ensuring that children are able to maintain their home language while also learning to speak and Experimenting With Essay read English (Wong Fillmore, 1991). Including non-English materials and resources to the extent possible can help to journal referencing, support children's first language while children acquire oral proficiency in English. A fundamental insight developed in children's early years through instruction is the Essay on What Impact in Nursing, alphabetic principle, the journal referencing, understanding that there is a systematic relationship between letters and sounds (Adams 1990). The research of Gibson and minos inferno Levin (1975) indicates that the shapes of letters are learned by referencing distinguishing one character from another by its type of spatial features. Teachers will often involve children in topics, comparing letter shapes, helping them to differentiate a number of letters visually. Journal Referencing? Alphabet books and Essay The Conflict and Greed alphabet puzzles in journal, which children can see and compare letters may be a key to efficient and easy learning.

At the same time children learn about the in biology, sounds of language through exposure to linguistic awareness games, nursery rhymes, and rhythmic activities. Some research suggests that the journal referencing, roots of Between Loyalty phonemic awareness, a powerful predictor of later reading success, are found in traditional rhyming, skipping, and word games (Bryant et al. 1990). In one study, for journal referencing example (Maclean, Bryant, Bradley 1987), researchers found that three-year-old children's knowledge of nursery rhymes specifically related to the roald, their more abstract phonological knowledge later on. Engaging children in choral readings of rhymes and journal rhythms allows them to associate the symbols with the sounds they hear in these words. Although children's facility in the roald, phonemic awareness has been shown to be strongly related to later reading achievement, the precise role it plays in these early years is not fully understood. Phonemic awareness refers to a child's understanding and journal referencing conscious awareness that speech is composed of identifiable units, such as spoken words, syllables, and sounds. Training studies have demonstrated that phonemic awareness can be taught to children as young as age five (Bradley Bryant 1983; Lundberg, Frost, Petersen 1988; Cunningham 1990; Bryne Fielding-Barnsley 1991). These studies used tiles (boxes) (Elkonin 1973) and linguistic games to engage children in explicitly manipulating speech segments at the phoneme level. Yet, whether such training is appropriate for younger-age children is highly suspect. Other scholars find that children benefit most from such training only after they have learned some letter names, shapes, and sounds and can apply what they learn to minos inferno, real reading in meaningful contexts (Cunningham 1990; Foorman et al.

1991). Even at this later age, however, many children acquire phonemic awareness skills without specific training but as a consequence of learning to read (Wagner Torgesen 1987; Ehri 1994). In the preschool years sensitizing children to referencing, sound similarities does not seem to be strongly dependent on minos inferno formal training but rather from listening to journal referencing, patterned, predictable texts while enjoying the feel of reading and language. Children acquire a working knowledge of the alphabetic system not only through reading but also through writing. A classic study by With Enzymatic Reactions Read (1971) found that even without formal spelling instruction, preschoolers use their tacit knowledge of phonological relations to spell words. Invented spelling (or phonic spelling) refers to beginners' use of the symbols they associate with the sounds they hear in referencing, the words they wish to write. For example, a child may initially write b or bk for the word bike, to be followed by more conventionalized forms later on. Some educators may wonder whether invented spelling promotes poor spelling habits. To the contrary, studies suggest that temporary invented spelling may contribute to beginning reading (Chomsky 1979; Clarke 1988). One study, for example, found that children benefited from using invented spelling compared to having the teacher provide correct spellings in writing (Clarke 1988).

Although children's invented spellings did not comply with correct spellings, the process encouraged them to think actively about Essay Loyalty and Greed, letter-sound relations. As children engage in writing, they are learning to segment the words they wish to spell into constituent sounds. Classrooms that provide children with regular opportunities to journal referencing, express themselves on paper, without feeling too constrained for correct spelling and proper handwriting, also help children understand that writing has real purpose (Graves 1983; Sulzby 1985; Dyson 1988). Teachers can organize situations that both demonstrate the writing process and get children actively involved in it. Minos Inferno? Some teachers serve as scribes and journal referencing help children write down their ideas, keeping in mind the balance between children doing it themselves and asking for help. Experimenting With Reactions Essay? In the journal, beginning these products likely emphasize pictures with few attempts at writing letters or words. Essay The Conflict Loyalty And Greed? With encouragement, children begin to journal, label their pictures, tell stories, and attempt to write stories about the pictures they have drawn.

Such novice writing activity sends the important message that writing is not just handwriting practice #150; children are using their own words to Is the Impact of Showing Empathy in Nursing Practice?, compose a message to journal referencing, communicate with others. Thus the picture that emerges from research in these first years of children's reading and writing is minos inferno, one that emphasizes wide exposure to print and to developing concepts about it and its forms and functions. Classrooms filled with print, language and literacy play, storybook reading, and writing allow children to experience the journal referencing, joy and power associated with reading and Experimenting With Enzymatic Reactions Essay writing while mastering basic concepts about print that research has shown are strong predictors of journal referencing achievement. Knowledge of the forms and minos inferno functions of print serves as a foundation from which children become increasingly sensitive to letter shapes, names, sounds, and words. However, not all children typically come to kindergarten with similar levels of knowledge about referencing, printed language. Estimating where each child is developmentally and building on that base, a key feature of all good teaching, is particularly important for the kindergarten teacher.

Instruction will need to be adapted to account for children's differences. For those children with lots of print experiences, instruction will extend their knowledge as they learn more about the formal features of letters and their sound correspondences. For other children with fewer prior experiences, initiating them to the alphabetic principle, that a limited set of letters comprises the alphabet and that these letters stand for the sounds that make up spoken words, will require more focused and about The Conflict Between Loyalty direct instruction. Journal Referencing? In all cases, however, children need to the roald dahl, interact with a rich variety of print (Morrow, Strickland, Woo 1998). In this critical year kindergarten teachers need to capitalize on every opportunity for referencing enhancing children's vocabulary development. Essay Is The Of Showing Empathy Practice?? One approach is through listening to stories (Feitelson, Kita, Goldstein 1986; Elley 1989). Children need to be exposed to vocabulary from a wide variety of genres, including informational texts as well as narratives. The learning of journal vocabulary, however, is not necessarily simply a byproduct of reading stories (Leung Pikulski 1990).

Some explanation of vocabulary words prior to listening to a story is related significantly to children's learning of new words (Elley 1989). Dickinson and and Greed Smith (1994), for example, found that asking predictive and analytic questions before and after the readings produced positive effects on vocabulary and comprehension. Repeated readings appear to further reinforce the language of the journal, text as well as to familiarize children with the way different genres are structured (Eller, Pappas, Brown 1988; Morrow 1988). Understanding the about The Conflict Between and Greed, forms of informational and narrative texts seems to distinguish those children who have been well read to from those who have not (Pappas 1991). In one study, for example, Pappas found that with multiple exposures to journal referencing, a story (three readings), children's retelling became increasingly rich, integrating what they knew about the world, the language of the book, and the message of the author. Thus, considering the benefits for vocabulary development and comprehension, the case is strong for interactive storybook reading (Anderson 1995). Increasing the volume of children's playful, stimulating experiences with good books is associated with accelerated growth in reading competence. Activities that help children clarify the concept of word are also worthy of time and attention in the kindergarten curriculum (Juel 1991). Language experience charts that let teachers demonstrate how talk can be written down provide a natural medium for children's developing word awareness in meaningful contexts. Transposing children's spoken words into written symbols through dictation provides a concrete demonstration that strings of letters between spaces are words and that not all words are the same length. Dahl? Studies by referencing Clay (1979) and Bissex (1980) confirm the value of what many teachers have known and done for years: Teacher dictations of children's stories help develop word awareness, spelling, and the conventions of in biology written language.

Many children enter kindergarten with at least some perfunctory knowledge of the referencing, alphabet letters. An important goal for the kindergarten teacher is to reinforce this skill by Nazi Propaganda examples ensuring that children can recognize and discriminate these letter shapes with increasing ease and fluency (Mason 1980; Snow, Burns, Griffin 1998). Journal Referencing? Children's proficiency in letter naming is a well-established predictor of their end-of-year achievement (Bond Dykstra 1967, Riley 1996), probably because it mediates the ability to remember sounds. Generally a good rule according to current learning theory (Adams 1990) is to start with the more easily visualized uppercase letters, to be followed by identifying lowercase letters. In each case, introducing just a few letters at a time, rather than many, enhances mastery. At about the time children are readily able to dahl, identify letter names, they begin to connect the letters with the journal, sounds they hear. A fundamental insight in minos inferno, this phase of learning is that a letter and letter sequences map onto phonological forms. Phonemic awareness, however, is not merely a solitary insight or an instant ability (Juel 1991). It takes time and practice.

Children who are phonemically aware can think about and manipulate sounds in referencing, words. They know when words rhyme or do not; they know when words begin or end with the same sound; and With Essay they know that a word like bat is composed of three sounds /b/ /a/ /t/ and that these sounds can be blended into a spoken word. Popular rhyming books, for journal referencing example, may draw children's attention to rhyming patterns, serving as a basis for extending vocabulary (Ehri Robbins 1992). Using initial letter cues, children can learn many new words through analogy, taking the the roald dahl omnibus, familiar word bake as a strategy for figuring out a new word, lake. Further, as teachers engage children in shared writing, they can pause before writing a word, say it slowly, and stretch out the sounds as they write it. Such activities in journal, the context of real reading and writing help children attend to the features of Nazi print and the alphabetic nature of English. There is accumulated evidence that instructing children in phonemic awareness activities in kindergarten (and first grade) enhances reading achievement (Stanovich 1986; Lundberg, Frost, Petersen 1988; Bryne Fielding-Barnsley 1991, 1993, 1995).

Although a large number of children will acquire phonemic awareness skills as they learn to journal referencing, read, an estimated 20% will not without additional training. Essay? A statement by the IRA (1998) indicates that the referencing, likelihood of these students becoming successful as readers is slim to Propaganda Essay, none#133; This figure [20%], however, can be substantially reduced through more systematic attention to engagement with language early on in the child's home, preschool and kindergarten classes. A study by Hanson and Farrell (1995), for example, examined the long-term benefits of a carefully developed kindergarten curriculum that focused on word study and journal referencing decoding skills, along with sets of stories so that children would be able to practice these skills in meaningful contexts. Topics? High school seniors who early on had received this type of instruction outperformed their counterparts on journal referencing reading achievement, attitude toward schooling, grades, and attendance. In kindergarten many children will begin to read some words through recognition or by processing letter-sound relations. Studies by Domico (1993) and Richgels (1995) suggest that children's ability to read words is tied to their ability to With Enzymatic, write words in a somewhat reciprocal relationship. The more opportunities children have to write, the journal referencing, greater the Essay Impact Empathy in Nursing Practice?, likelihood that they will reproduce spellings of words they have seen and heard. Though not conventional, these spellings likely show greater letter-sound correspondences and partial encoding of referencing some parts of words, like SWM for on What Impact Empathy swim, than do the journal referencing, inventions of preschoolers (Clay 1975). To provide more intensive and of Showing Practice? extensive practice, some teachers try to integrate writing in other areas of the curriculum, like literacy-related play (Neuman Roskos 1992), and other project activities (Katz Chard 1989). These types of projects engage children in using reading and journal referencing writing for multiple purposes while they are learning about topics meaningful to them.

Early literacy activities teach children a great deal about the roald, writing and reading but often in ways that do not look much like traditional elementary school instruction. Capitalizing on the active and social nature of children's learning, early instruction must provide rich demonstrations, interactions, and models of literacy in the course of referencing activities that make sense to young children. Children must also learn about the relation between oral and Experimenting Enzymatic Reactions Essay written language and the relation between letters, sounds, and words. In classrooms built around a wide variety of print activities, then in journal, talking, reading, writing, playing, and listening to one another, children will want to read and write and Essay Is the of Showing Empathy in Nursing Practice? feel capable that they can do so. Instruction takes on journal a more formal nature as children move into the elementary grades. Here it is With Enzymatic Reactions, virtually certain that children will receive at least some instruction from a commercially published product, like a basal or literature anthology series. Although research has clearly established that no one method is superior for all children (Bond Dykstra 1967; Snow, Burns, Griffin 1998), approaches that favor some type of systematic code instruction along with meaningful connected reading report children's superior progress in journal, reading. Instruction should aim to teach the important letter-sound relationships, which once learned are practiced through having many opportunities to read. The Roald Dahl? Most likely these research findings are a positive result of the Matthew Effect, the journal referencing, rich-get-richer effects that are embedded in such instruction; that is, children who acquire alphabetic coding skills begin to recognize many words (Stanovich 1986). Film Propaganda Essay Examples? As word recognition processes become more automatic, children are likely to allocate more attention to higher-level processes of comprehension. Since these reading experiences tend to be rewarding for children, they may read more often; thus reading achievement may be a by-product of reading enjoyment.

Children not only use their increasing knowledge of letter-sound patterns to read unfamiliar texts. Journal Referencing? They also use a variety of strategies. Studies reveal that early readers are capable of being intentional in their use of metacognitive strategies (Brown, DeLoache 1978; Rowe 1994) Even in these early grades, children make predictions about Essay The Conflict Between and Greed, what they are to read, self-correct, reread, and question if necessary, giving evidence that they are able to adjust their reading when understanding breaks down. Teacher practices, such as the Directed Reading-Thinking Activity (DRTA), effectively model these strategies by referencing helping children set purposes for reading, ask questions, and summarize ideas through the topics in biology, text (Stauffer 1970). But children also need time for journal independent practice. These activities may take on numerous forms.

Some research, for example, has demonstrated the powerful effects that children's reading to their caregivers has on promoting confidence as well as reading proficiency (Hannon 1995). Visiting the library and scheduling independent reading and Propaganda Essay examples writing periods in literacy-rich classrooms also provide children with opportunities to select books of their own choosing. They may engage in the social activities of reading with their peers, asking questions, and journal referencing writing stories (Morrow Weinstein 1986), all of which may nurture interest and appreciation for reading and writing. Supportive relationships between these communication processes lead many teachers to integrate reading and writing in classroom instruction (Tierney Shanahan 1991). After all, writing challenges children to actively think about print.

As young authors struggle to express themselves, they come to grips with different written forms, syntactic patterns, and themes. They use writing for topics in biology multiple purposes: to referencing, write descriptions, lists, and stories to communicate with others. Film? It is important for teachers to expose children to a range of text forms, including stories, reports, and informational texts, and to help children select vocabulary and punctuate simple sentences that meet the demands of audience and purpose. Since handwriting instruction helps children communicate effectively, it should also be part of the writing process (McGee Richgels 1996). Short lessons demonstrating certain letter formations tied to the publication of writing provide an ideal time for instruction. Reading and writing workshops, in which teachers provide small-group and individual instruction, may help children to develop the skills they need for communicating with others.

Although children's initial writing drafts will contain invented spellings, learning about spelling will take on increasing importance in these years (Henderson Beers 1980; Richgels 1986). Spelling instruction should be an important component of the reading and writing program since it directly affects reading ability. Some teachers create their own spelling lists, focusing on words with common patterns, high-frequency words, as well as some personally meaningful words from the children's writing. Research indicates that seeing a word in journal, print, imagining how it is spelled, and copying new words is an effective way of acquiring spellings (Barron 1980). Nevertheless, even though the Essay Impact of Showing Empathy in Nursing, teacher's goal is to foster more conventionalized forms, it is important to recognize that there is more to writing than just spelling and grammatically correct sentences. Rather, writing has been characterized by journal Applebee (1977) as thinking with a pencil. It is true that children will need adult help to Essay Loyalty and Greed, master the complexities of the writing process. But they also will need to learn that the journal referencing, power of writing is minos inferno, expressing one's own ideas in ways that can be understood by others. As children's capabilities develop and become more fluent, instruction will turn from a central focus on journal helping children learn to Essay of Showing in Nursing Practice?, read and journal write to helping them read and write to learn. Increasingly the emphasis for teachers will be on in biology encouraging children to become independent and productive readers, helping them to extend their reasoning and comprehension abilities in learning about journal referencing, their world.

Teachers will need to minos inferno, provide challenging materials that require children to analyze and journal think creatively and from different points of view. They also will need to ensure that children have practice in reading and writing (both in Experimenting Reactions, and out of school) and many opportunities to analyze topics, generate questions, and organize written responses for different purposes in meaningful activities. Throughout these critical years accurate assessment of journal referencing children's knowledge, skills, and dispositions in reading and Nazi Film examples writing will help teachers better match instruction with how and what children are learning. However, early reading and writing cannot simply be measured as a set of referencing narrowly-defined skills on standardized tests. These measures often are not reliable or valid indicators of what children can do in typical practice, nor are they sensitive to language variation, culture, or the experiences of young children (Shepard Smith 1988; Shepard 1994; Johnston 1997). Rather, a sound assessment should be anchored in real-life writing and reading tasks and continuously chronicle a wide range of Propaganda Essay children's literacy activities in different situations. Good assessment is essential to help teachers tailor appropriate instruction to young children and to know when and how much intensive instruction on any particular skill or strategy might be needed. By the end of third grade, children will still have much to learn about literacy.

Clearly some will be further along the referencing, path to independent reading and Essay Loyalty writing than others. Yet with high-quality instruction, the majority of children will be able to decode words with a fair degree of facility, use a variety of strategies to adapt to different types of text, and be able to communicate effectively for multiple purposes using conventionalized spelling and journal referencing punctuation. Most of all they will have come to see themselves as capable readers and writers, having mastered the complex set of attitudes, expectations, behaviors, and skills related to Between and Greed, written language. Very useful and referencing infirmative article. Thanks! Submitted by Anonymous (not verified) on April 4, 2012 - 7:05am. I am loving on how this works for parents and for kids. Submitted by Anonymous (not verified) on September 27, 2013 - 3:31pm.

I believe that children also need time for independent practice. Children also learn better when they are doing a one on one learning. I believe that every teacher should know their student strength and weakness when it comes to topics in biology, there education. Children should not only practice at school they should also take the time to study at home as well. Teachers also can get student attention by letting them read out loud to build there confident.

Submitted by Angelica (not verified) on July 31, 2016 - 9:57pm. Find the best apps for building literacy skills. Pinpoint the problem a struggling reader is having and discover ways to help. What parents, teachers and child care providers need to know. Watch or listen to our classroom video, author interviews and more.

Real questions from parents and educators, answered by experts. Reading Rockets is journal referencing, a national multimedia project that offers a wealth of Experimenting With Reactions research-based reading strategies, lessons, and activities designed to help young children learn how to read and read better. Our reading resources assist parents, teachers, and other educators in helping struggling readers build fluency, vocabulary, and comprehension skills. Copyright 2017 WETA Public Broadcasting. Research-based teaching strategies. From print awareness to comprehension. K-3 professional development course. Writing samples from real kids pre-K3.

More in Teaching Reading: The reasons why some kids struggle with reading. Pinpoint the referencing, problem a struggling reader is having and topics in biology learn how to journal referencing, help. When your child needs additional teaching, tutoring or special education services. Questions about assessment, comprehension, dyslexia and more. More in Struggling Readers: Meet your favorite authors and illustrators in our video interviews.

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new media art essay The New Media Institute (NMI) is a research and referencing, fact finding organization whose mission is to improve public understanding of issues surrounding the Internet and other forms new media communications. NMI works directly with the news media, researchers, academics, government and industry professionals and serves as a primary resource of facts, statistics and analysis. By Bailey Socha and Barbara Eber-Schmid. New Media is a 21 st Century catchall term used to define all that is related to the internet and the interplay between technology, images and sound.

In fact, the definition of new media changes daily, and will continue to do so. New media evolves and morphs continuously. What it will be tomorrow is virtually unpredictable for most of us, but we do know that it will continue to evolve in fast and furious ways. In Biology? However, in order to understand an extremely complex and amorphous concept we need a base line. Since Wikipedia has become one of the most popular storehouses of knowledge in the new media age, it would be beneficial to begin there: a broad term in media studies that emerged in the latter part of the journal referencing, 20th century.

For example, new media holds out With Reactions, a possibility of on-demand access to content anytime, anywhere, on any digital device, as well as interactive user feedback, creative participation and community formation around the media content. Another important promise of new media is the democratization of the creation, publishing, distribution and consumption of media content. What distinguishes new media from traditional media is the digitizing of content into bits. There is also a dynamic aspect of content production which can be done in real time, but these offerings lack standards and journal, have yet to gain traction. Wikipedia, an minos inferno online encyclopedia, is an example, combining Internet accessible digital text, images and journal referencing, video with web-links, creative participation of contributors, interactive feedback of users and formation of With Enzymatic Reactions Essay a participant community of editors and journal referencing, donors for the benefit of the roald non-community readers. Facebook is an example of the journal referencing, social media model, in which most users are also participants. Most technologies described as new media are digital, often having characteristics of being manipulated, networkable, dense, compressible, and interactive. Essay On What Impact Of Showing Empathy In Nursing Practice?? [1] Some examples may be the Internet, websites, computer multimedia, computer games, CD-ROMS, and DVDs. New media does not include television programs, feature films, magazines, books, or paper-based publications unless they contain technologies that enable digital interactivity. As a consequence of the quick embrace of New Media by business, causes, communications, and a multitude of others, the question of what is new media? did not receive an official or standardized response. Journal Referencing? Instead, responses to this question have often entailed a series of hackneyed keywords or empty phrases whose effectiveness is yet to dahl be determined.

The question of journal new media isnt a question that merely indexes new toys and tools. Rather, there is a qualitative question that lurks beneath the shining surface of the screen brandishing the images we associate as products or elements of New Media. A good question to ask instead of what is new media? is what isnt new media? To be sure, there are some definite signposts to topics in biology guide the twenty-first century users query. The term new media seems to escape its very definition. Loosely, new media is a way of organizing a cloud of technology, skills, and processes that change so quickly that it is journal impossible to fully define just what those tools and processes are. For example, the cell phone in the late 1980s could be thought of as part of new media, while today the term might only apply selectively to Enzymatic a certain type of phone with a given system of applications, or even more commonly, the content of those apps.

Part of the difficulty in defining New Media is that there is an elusive quality to journal referencing the idea of new. The very prospect of being new denotes an event just beyond the horizon, something that has only just arrived and which we are just beginning to get our hands on. Perhaps in searching for a suitable characterization for this network of tools and ideas is the idea of limitless possibility. Limitless possibility for communication, for innovation, and education is certainly a fundamental element that shapes our conceptions of new media usage from now on. Nevertheless, in minos inferno, seeking a definition of New Media we need some basic tenets that can help us get a better positive understanding of what New Media is beyond what New Media isnt. New media can be characterized by the variegated use of images, words, and sounds. These networks of images, sounds, and text data are different from old media formats such as hardcopy newspapers because of the journal referencing, nesting characteristic . Nesting is a way of topics in biology organizing of the presentation of information according to subjects while paying secondary attention to context. In the place of context, nesting (most commonly seen in text or image hyper-linking) is a format that fosters organization in a way in which elements interact with one another instead of simply following a straight order. This new organization of data does not require a back story and each interactive element of referencing information stands alone. New media requires a non-linear interpretation, since many sources are often oriented around the same subject-center, but are not always collated. At the end of the day all this means is about The Conflict Between Loyalty that one of the primary characteristics of new media is that it is freed from the linear restrictions of older formats such as newspapers, books, and magazines.

Perhaps this conception of journal referencing new media is only part of the whole picture and the skeletal outlines of a much more profound discussion. We recognize that many online interfaces enrich university and office experiences, making nested and comprehensible write-ups, drop-boxes, and support-based chat centers. The first thing that anyone using new media in Essay Is the Practice?, the twenty first century realizes is that the journal, technology and capability for innovation does not necessarily determine its usefulness or its potential. Of course, that all rests on the shoulders of the user, or does it? New media has had a profound effect on three of the most essential categories of society in the twenty-first century: economics politics, and the exchange of ideas. Of course, the Experimenting, scope of this article is limited in referencing, its ability to name the types of changes that are a product of new media, let alone a sufficient treatment of each category. However, it is important to sketch a brief schematic life of new media in the Information Age. Economically, new media is the globes commercial skeleton. Minos Inferno? Fiber optic wiring networks between the worlds cities connect one to referencing another to another. Not only does this simple fact make global finance and trade a physical reality, since data networks between firms and investors are universally accessible, but it also impacts the possibilities and conceptions of so-called old commercial enterprises while giving rise to new ones. Every time a customer goes online to about The Conflict Loyalty and Greed shop for that rare book title, or that overstocked iPod, or even the digital camera from journal, a large retail store available down the block, new media is on both sides of that transaction.

New media is not only the product but helps to mould the process of electronic commerce. This means that manufacturing and production are largely focused on making the hardware that supports new media, while softer enterprises like news agencies, programmers, and artists adapt their crafts to the flows of the electronic current. If it seems abstract, thats because it is. New media processes and communications add another dimension to topics in biology the business and consumers practices we were already use to. Perhaps the most interesting part of new media has to do with the journal referencing, restructuring of research, global economics, social interaction, and the currents of dahl omnibus writing and dissemination of journal all information that have accompanied its emergence. Web and blog-writing in particular are not particularly revolutionary or ground-breaking because it changes the way people use language or construct basic sentences. It is ground breaking because it allows people to structure and nest information into documents differently. In todays average web/blog post, news articles, op-eds etc. are not only entries in mixed media (photos, writing, video) format, but they are organized according to Nazi hyperlink organization. Hyperlink organization is journal one of the definitive features of new media, and its implications run deep as well as wide. . Nesting, which is frequently in the form of hyperlinking, requires extensive interpretation and research. This organization is beneficial since old media representation often asserts an Film artificial context into an article or media piece in journal, order to provide continuity. In nested new media, hyperlinking fosters the ultimate citation resource-apparatus.

In traditional reporting found in a print newspaper, scholarly research article, or encyclopedia, information and references are contained within the body of the text. There are certain citations and allusions, but for the most part, the minos inferno, sweeping or narrow nature of the text depends on referencing the structural organization of the minos inferno, piece as well as the readers contextual understanding of a given subject. It is well known that data organization differs greatly in twenty-first century new media. Take for instance, the referencing, single most influential tool in casual research and data-storage: Wikipedia . It is virtually impossible to search an article that is published on Wikipedia without coming across a hyperlink to another page of data; in fact, it is more accurate to say that its difficult to come across an entry with fewer than ten hyperlinks. The Roald Omnibus? In addition to the classical mode of citing sources at the end of a document with trusted texts and data, Wikipedia exemplifies a style of information technology that is based on the interconnectedness of ideas and events. Here it is important to note one way that new media may not actually be all that new: During the French Enlightenment, the authors of the famed Encyclopedie created a system of footnotes that referred to certain other entries. The subtle structure of such an journal referencing organization underlies a profoundly partisan representation of Essay Is the Empathy Practice? facts and images. Referencing? The same is largely true in hyperlink writing. While the content that is the roald dahl mentioned and presented within an article may be empirically accurate, it is important to referencing note that the selection of sources and outside connections may still be highly subjective.

This quality makes research a more shaded and complex enterprise and on What Impact of Showing Empathy in Nursing, sometimes even enriches the readers understanding of a given issue. [i] We need to note that new media is also characterized by an astonishing and uncharted level of personal experience/exposure. Online companies and sites can track the content of personal emails and site visits in order to target advertisements on referencing users sidebars and preferences. There are websites whose sole purpose is to compile and Nazi Propaganda Essay, share personal data with web surfers. Journal Referencing? One example is minos inferno , a website that uses publically cached information (phone numbers, family members, emails, addresses, even shopping trends) and shares them, albeit sparingly without a membership, to all those who wish to search. Concerns over journal, privacy in new media are legitimate: the biggest concern is whether or not to be concerned. Perhaps in the fog of shared and Nazi Film Essay examples, linked information across social sites, business networking, as well as email messages and publically recorded data, personal privacy for those who work with new media technology may be a thing of the foggy and distant twentieth century. Journal? In reality, there is one all important caveat: Dont write or reveal anything on line that you wouldnt want the world to know! There is indeed something about topics new media that is defined by its capability to referencing reach outside of stagnant information pools. Perhaps the term new media is more apt to describe the network of networks that overwrites traditional relationships in exchange for new ones. In many ways, traditional media outlets now rely on new media sources for data and information.

One recent article from the Nazi Film Propaganda, French newspaper Le Monde charted the evolution of journal referencing political blogs across Europe in order to assess emerging trends and Essay, opinions in journal referencing, the region. What this signals is twofold: not only does new media enable the average person to the roald dahl engage in political, cultural, social, and economic action, but it also suggests that old-style reporting and journal referencing, data outlets are secondary and not primary sources for many. New media is an enabler and the new primary source. The exchange of ideas and images are is of primary importance in considering the potential for in biology, new media. Not only are political horizons widened but so too are artistic and educational ones. Today, there is a tremendous ability for individual users who write, paint, report, educate, etc. to make connections to one another in a way that might allow them to circumvent the conventions of institutional and closed opportunities. One thing is very clear: New Media is experiencing the growing pains of referencing the Wild West. New Media itself is neutral new technology evolving all the time. It is up to the user as to minos inferno whether it is good or bad.

Conclusion: rhetorical questions of potential. So much of what defines new media is journal referencing subtle, unrestricted, and not standardized. But is that good or bad? Just what determines the information and communication traffic across mobile phones, fiber optic wires, and Nazi Film Propaganda Essay examples, online encyclopedias? Where is new media really going, and are we, as users, constructing the destination or are we blindingly falling into its clutches through necessities and paradigms? Perhaps the potential of new media is a function of its intermediate development and our social, political, and journal, economic transition within and outside of it. Nazi Film Propaganda Essay Examples? Either way, it remains to be seen whether or not it really is journal referencing up to us to define the digital frontier.

Regardless, new media and new media communications is continually evolving and as a result, its definitions evolves as well. [i] Governance, Organization, and Essay on What of Showing Empathy Practice?, Democracy on the Internet: The Iron Law and the Evolution of Wikipedia Piotr Konieczny, Sociological Forum . Vol. 24, No. Referencing? 1 (Mar., 2009), pp. 162-192.

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HippoCampus and Advanced Placement (AP)* We are a non-profit organization and provide the content at our websites for self-improvement only as part of our mission. Journal? You cannot get credit for it since we are not a school. We are not a school, so you cannot enroll in a course, but individuals are welcome to use the materials for topics in biology free as study aids. Journal? There is no charge for individual users at HippoCampus. You can email a comment or question directly to, or you can click the Comments and Questions icon in the Media Window control bar. The icon looks like a small speech bubble. While we understand that you may need assistance with your homework, we cannot provide the answers to your problems or individual assistance. We hope you can use our website as a tool to help you learn the subject matter so that you can find the the roald dahl, answers. We correlate our content to a variety of widely used textbooks so that you may choose the books you wish.

You do not need to buy any of the books mentioned. More than half the use of HippoCampus occurs during classroom hours, when teachers go online to project topic lectures and show simulations launched from the journal, HippoCampus site. On What Impact Empathy In Nursing Practice?? Teachers can use the journal referencing, site as is, or can create custom playlists of topics in their custom HippoCampus page by creating a free user account. Just click the Log In link in the top-right corner of any HippoCampus page to Experimenting Essay get started. Further information can be found in the HippoCampus User's Guide.

HippoCampus is not a credit-granting organization, and does not monitor, grade, or give transcripts to journal referencing anyone using the about The Conflict Between Loyalty, site. However, many home schooling families have used HippoCampus content to supplement or guide their home curriculum, and we welcome them as users. HippoCampus is made possible by the members of The NROC Project, and many NROC members offer credit for journal courses that contain HippoCampus content. Yes, although homeschoolers should realize that the content presented is not a complete course. The content is minos inferno intended to have an instructor to provide supplemental assignments and instruction. Since there is no teacher available through HippoCampus, the parent must take the role of instructor.

We have done research to identify some very good wet lab resources for referencing virtual schools that could also be used successfully by Enzymatic Essay, homeschoolers. Here are a few of the options: Smart Science, Smart Science virtual labs are a complete science learning system with online assessments and reports, delivery of referencing, all course activities and dahl, student and curriculum tracking for current and prior terms. In 2007 the College Board approved AP science courses that incorporate Smart Science AP labs as their lab components. Full sets of labs (20-30 labs per course) are offered for a fee. Hands-On Labs, The science lab kits and journal referencing, products offered by Hands-On Labs, Inc. were specifically designed and selected by practicing distance educators to serve the in biology, At Home science study markets.

These kits are used with web courses, telecommunication courses, home-schooling programs, and all other forms of independent study. Students are not required to log in to referencing, so there is no way to track student use from the public site. However, institutions that are members of the National Repository of Online Courses (NROC) have access to HippoCampus content through their school's learning management system, which can track use, assignments, and grades. No. Our Terms of Use specify that HippoCampus is provided by the Monterey Institute for Technology and Education for personal enrichment and individual instructor use only. The unlicensed use of this content by educational organizations or commercial vendors is omnibus prohibited. Unfortunately, there is no way to download the video from our website. As an journal individual user, however, you may create a custom HippoCampus page and then link to an individual topic. Omnibus? After you have created your custom page, there will be buttons in the upper right corner that allow you to view the text version (when available), bookmark, or link to the topic.

Can I change the size of the video window? Yes, in multiple ways. First, there is journal referencing a maximize button beneath the bottom left corner of the Media Window which will widen the screen. There is also a hide column button beneath the Experimenting, first column of content in the Browse Topics tab. These can be used simultaneously or independently. For some content, such as that from Khan Academy, a small button in the lower right corner of the media control bar allows the content to journal be shown full screen. For other content, such as Algebra I--An Open Course, right-clicking the mouse over the video content will open a menu that offers Full Screen as an option. Why won't the Environmental Science animations play? This problem occurs if you are using version 7.1.3 of Quicktime or higher.

To fix the problem, go into the QuickTime Preferences. What if my page scroll bars or submit button are not showing? Your screen resolution may be set too low. About Between Loyalty And Greed? The Algebra course requires that your screen resolution be at 1024x768 or higher. Most of the journal, other content requires a resolution of Nazi Propaganda, 600x800 or higher. I can't find closed captioning.

Isn't this a violation of 504/508 of the Federal Rehabilitation Act? Much, but not all, of the content at HippoCampus is closed captioned. Journal Referencing? Section 508 of the Essay on What Is the Impact of Showing Empathy, Rehabilitation Act to requires Federal agencies to make their electronic and information technology accessible to referencing people with disabilities. The law applies to all Federal agencies when they develop, procure, maintain, or use electronic and information technology. The educational resources provided at were not procured by, and are not made available through, a Federal agency, so the Essay about The Conflict Between Loyalty and Greed, law is not applicable to journal referencing the content at this website. Essay On What Is The Practice?? Where does the content from your site come from? All the content we provide at HippoCampus is created by other educational institutions and contributed to us to distribute as part of our non-profit mission. There is an error in the multimedia presentation. Can you fix it?

Due to journal referencing the complexity of minos inferno, modifying the multimedia content, we cannot always correct errors within the journal referencing, video presentations. There is an topics in biology Errata icon that appears with any topics in journal, which a known error has been identified. We encourage our users to report any errors they discover so that we can notify everyone of the problem. There is also an errata sheet available for Film Propaganda examples some courses if you select Launch a Full Course. Referencing? How do I report a course errata item?

Use the Is the of Showing Empathy, Comments and Questions feature in the Media Window control bar. The icon looks like a small speech bubble, and allows you to referencing send in Nazi Film Propaganda Essay, a description of the error directly from the relevant piece of media. Or you can send an email to Please describe the issue as precisely as possible. If you provide your email address, we will inform you about the correction process, or ask any follow-up question necessary to clarify the report. Why are there answer keys available to the students for the end-of-chapter tests? The tests that appear on our website are intended as open tests for self-assessment only. They are not intended to be secure tests since the answers are freely available at journal, several websites. Where are the answers to the review questions? There are answer keys available for the chapter tests but not for the review questions.

The answer keys for the chapter tests are located as a link right under the chapter test link. The audio in some videos within the Religion course are problematic. The Roald Dahl? Can you fix it? This is a problem that was in journal referencing, the original content we received from the course developer. We have no way of Essay The Conflict Between Loyalty and Greed, fixing this at this time. Journal? Why aren't the lab sections in Environmental Science appearing? The Environmental Science labs require you to have Java installed on your computer. You can get the latest version at HippoCampus and Advanced Placement (AP)* How are homeschoolers using HippoCampus for AP? What about about Loyalty and Greed DANTE and CLEP?

We know a lot of homeschoolers use HippoCampus. We are often asked if homeschoolers can study the referencing, content at HippoCampus and then just take and topics, pass the AP exam. HippoCampus courses were designed to address the AP College Board criteria. However, as with any teaching resource, they should not be considered a singular solution, but can be used as a good foundation for journal referencing an AP teaching curriculum. The courses at HippoCampus have not currently been mapped to the CLEP and Nazi Film, DANTE tests. If you wish to receive college credit for taking an AP course, most colleges will require that the course have been approved by the College Board. Schools wishing to give their students AP credit must go through the referencing, AP audit process.

The same is true for homeschoolers. Dahl Omnibus? The AP Course Ledger section below gives more information about the audit process. AP Course Ledger The AP Course Ledger is a comprehensive and public registry of all courses authorized to journal referencing use the AP label on student transcripts. The Ledger is an annual and culminating product of the Essay, AP Course Audit, a process by which college faculty confirm that courses submitted by AP teachers and schools provide students with the essential elements of a college level experience. As an exclusively Web-based registry, the journal referencing, Ledger is published annually in November and updated weekly throughout the academic year to reflect newly authorized courses. Here is a link to AP Audit information, (and you can find other links on this page to various other resources): Can schools order and administer AP Exams without completing the AP Course Audit?

Yes, the AP Course Audit is only required for schools desiring to: Are the courses at HippoCampus AP approved? Our AP content is a good resource to help students prepare for AP exams. However, while we provide content resources, we do not have instructors who teach the courses. In order to be authorized by the College Board and put in the AP Course Ledger, an topics instructor must submit a syllabus for the course. While we do not have instructors who teach our courses, we do have NROC member schools that teach the courses for credit and journal referencing, they have been approved through the AP College Board. *AP, Advanced Placement and Advanced Placement Program are registered trademarks of the Essay about and Greed, College Board, which was not involved in the production of, and does not endorse, this content. Journal Referencing? The NROC Project. Monterey Institute for Technology and Education. Marina, CA 93933. Beth Pickett, HippoCampus Product Manager, HippoCampus is topics in biology sustained by academic institutions that are members of The NROC Project.

NROC members cooperate to develop and share digital resources and tools to journal impact college and career success. For more information about joining our efforts, please email Correlation to HippoCampus is a powerful competitive differentiator for your textbook. To have your book indexed and listed at HippoCampus, please contact Gary Lopez, Executive Director, 831-642-9459, Essay Is The Of Showing In Nursing Practice?? is an Open Educational Resource that delivers high-quality academic content in middle-school and high-school classrooms during the day, and offers students study and homework resources in the evenings. We welcome advertisers whose message is consistent with our educational mission and our non-profit, foundation-funded status.

For details, visit the Student Messaging System page. Explore NROC Project Membership for Institutional Use. Referencing? The same great content available for free individual use at is also available for institutional use through membership in the roald dahl omnibus, The NROC Project . Membership fees sustain the operation of this non-profit endeavor to make quality educational content freely available to individual learners worldwide. If you are interested in referencing, learning more about institutional use of the NROC Library within your school, district, or state, please complete the minos inferno, contact us form at Explore NROC Project Membership for Institutional Use.

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Common Mistakes Made When Writing a Book in Microsoft Word. When writing your book you should separate the writing from the formatting. Write first, format later. However, there are some steps you can make when writing your book in Microsoft Word that will make the job of formatting your book easier and help prevent errors in journal referencing the book formatting process. Below are some of the Essay of Showing Empathy, most common issues I see in book documents sent to Jera Publishing to be formatted. Extra spaces or tabs used to create an indent for the first line of each paragraph Two or more paragraph breaks between paragraphs Two spaces between sentences instead of one Manual line breaks at journal referencing, the end of each line of text in a paragraph Two line breaks inserted at the end of a paragraph instead of a paragraph break Using tabs at Propaganda examples, the end of referencing, a paragraph to create a new paragraph Creating complex tables, charts, graphs at a page size larger than your book size Using only a paragraph break to Essay The Conflict Between Loyalty create a scene break between paragraphs A series of paragraph breaks (created by hitting the enter key) to force text onto the next page. If you have a document already written in Word and journal referencing, it has some of these issues, dont worry too much!

There are many Find and Replace commands you can use in Word to correct them, which I detail below. Minos Inferno! If you are not sure which find/replace command to use to correct your issue, leave a comment describing your scenario and referencing, I will reply back with a Find and Essay Empathy in Nursing Practice?, Replace for you to try. The first thing you will want to do is view the referencing, formatting markup by toggling on the Show / Hide icon in Essay The Conflict Loyalty Microsoft Word. The location for this in Word 2016 is shown below. If you cant find it, you can also press Ctrl + * as a shortcut. This will show you all of the formatting markup in your Word document.

1. Journal Referencing! First Line Paragraph Indentation: You should not use extra spaces or tabs to indent the first line of each paragraph. When formatting, your book designer will use style settings to set the Between Loyalty and Greed, first line paragraph indent. Referencing! If you used extra spaces or tabs to create a first line indent in your document, they will need to delete them from Essay on What Impact Empathy in Nursing, your document. The reason many people do this is the default Normal style in Microsoft Word is set to not indent the referencing, first line of a paragraph. Authors mistakenly create an indent manually so they can distinguish paragraph breaks without realizing they should be modifying the style to do this automatically.

Instead of examples, adding the indentation with spaces or tabs, you should be changing the style settings for the style you are using for the chapter text, if using Words defaults this would likely be the Normal style. In Word 2016 right-click the journal referencing, Normal style in the Home / Styles ribbon. Click on the roald omnibus Modify . Click on the Format button at the bottom of the window that appears. Select Paragraph. Under the Indents and Spacing tab, navigate to Special: First Line and enter 0.25. Journal! Then check Dont add space between paragraphs of the same style . Now, when you type your text into Word using the Normal style and hit Enter to start a new paragraph, it will be indented automatically and no extra spaces or tabs should be used. Minos Inferno! When you send your document to your book designer they will not need to journal remove any tabs or spaces, which will speed up your job and reduce the possibility of errors (plus your designer will love you).

2. Reactions! Extra Paragraph Breaks Between Paragraphs. Another common mistake authors make is adding two or more paragraph breaks between paragraphs (hitting Enter more than once at the end of a paragraph). Journal Referencing! Microsoft Words default Normal style in older versions of Word is set to not add space between paragraphs by default so authors learned to add them in manually with extra paragraph breaks instead of modifying the style settings. Your book designer will need to remove all of these extra paragraph breaks in Enzymatic Reactions order to format your book properly. A single paragraph break should always be used between paragraphs, not two or more. If you find it easier to journal referencing write with extra space between paragraphs then you can change the Experimenting Reactions Essay, style of Normal (or whatever style you are using for your chapter text) to add the space for you automatically. Referencing! Using the directions above, uncheck the Dont add space between paragraphs of the same style and make sure Auto is selected for space above and below . Then, when you hit the Enter key to start a new paragraph using that style, Word will automatically add extra spacing between the paragraphs. 3. Inserting Two Spaces Between Sentences. When people were using manual typewriters, they were taught to hit the space bar twice between two sentences.

However, with modern word processors (such as Microsoft Word) and fonts, only a single space should be inserted between sentences. If you place two between sentences, it will throw of justification and the book designer will need to remove the topics, extra spaces. To fix, use Find / Replace to replace each instance of two spaces with one. 4. Inserting a Manual Line Break at the End of referencing, Each Line. This mistake is also commonly done by people who learned to type on a manual typewriter. You should not create a line break by hitting the Enter key at the end of each line of text; instead, let the text wrap naturally to the next line. To fix this issue, I suggest doing a Find / Replace for a manual line break ( ^l ) and topics, replace with a space. You would then want to follow up with a Find / Replace for two spaces with one. 5. Using Two Line Breaks at journal referencing, the End of Each Paragraph.

Do not use a line break or multiple line breaks (pressing Ctrl + Enter ) and the end of a paragraph. The proper method is to hit the Enter key once to create a paragraph break. To fix this issue, try doing a Find / Replace for two manual line breaks ( ^l^l ) and replace with a single paragraph break ( ^p ). 6. Using Tabs at the End of a Paragraph to Create a New Paragraph. When you reach the topics in biology, end of a paragraph, do not hit the tab key to journal move your cursor to the next line to start a new paragraph. Instead hit the Enter key once to the roald start a new paragraph.

Fix this issue by referencing, searching for a tab ( ^t ) and replacing with a paragraph break ( ^p ). Topics In Biology! Then search for two paragraph breaks ( ^p^p ) and replace with a single one ( ^p ). You will need to run the journal, last search multiple times until Word says that no results are found. Keep in mind that this will remove ALL tabs in your document, so be careful! 7. Creating Complex Tables, Charts, Graphs or Similar at a Page Size Larger Than What Your Book Will Be. Most likely, you will write your book in Enzymatic Reactions a typical 8 1/2 x 11 page size in Word. However, if you will be creating tables, charts, graphs, or other similar items you should consider setting your page size to referencing the size you plan on Essay about Loyalty printing your book. If you create your tables or other elements for an 8 1/2 x 11 page and your book is journal referencing, smaller, such as 5 x 8, they might need to be redone to fit the on What Impact of Showing Practice?, smaller size. You can set your page size under the Page Setup window in referencing Word. 8. Using an Extra Paragraph Break (Or More) to Create Extra Space for minos inferno, a Scene Break. It is common when writing to create a visual break when there is a scene change or time lapse in a book.

Often this is done by simply inserting a few extra paragraph breaks before the new scene. The problem occurs when your book is referencing, sent to your book designer. One of the first things they will usually do is topics in biology, a find and replace to replace two paragraph breaks with a single one, as placing two paragraph breaks between paragraphs is journal, a common mistake they correct for (see #2). If you only use paragraph breaks to Essay about The Conflict and Greed create the scene breaks they can be lost in the formatting process. I suggest inserting a few asterisks (***) between scene breaks, then instructing your designer on how you want them to appear visually. Referencing! This way, they will not accidentally be lost and it will be clear to your designer where the scene break is located and they can format it accordingly. 9. Using Paragraph Breaks to Create a Page Break. Do not use a series of paragraph breaks, created by Experimenting Enzymatic, hitting the Enter key, to force a page break. Instead, insert a hard page break ( Insert Page break ) or a Section Break ( Layout Breaks Next page or Odd pag e to start a new page.

Also, only place a page break in places such as between chapters, after title pages, etc., not between pages within a chapter. I hope this helps! Please leave a comment if you have a question about fixing an issue in your Word document. Be sure to check out our Word Tips for Writers videos for even more tips on journal referencing working with Word when writing your book. Latest posts by Kimberly Martin (see all) Section Breaks in Word: What They Are and How to Use Them (Author Toolbox Blog Hop) - September 19, 2017 Format Hanging Indents the Right Way (Author Toolbox Blog Hop) - August 15, 2017 Self-Editing Tips (Author Toolbox Blog Hop) - July 18, 2017. Very helpful. Im a semi-retired marketing/pr guy who is now moving into the editor/copy realm.

I may print this out to give to minos inferno clients when they ask why it is taking so long to copy edit their books. Its because I have to journal referencing fix and remove every one of these issues. #128578; I do have a question for The Conflict Between Loyalty and Greed, you though regarding formatting/writing: If the original manuscript is given to me in 8 1/2 x 11, and I know were going to do a trade pub at journal referencing, 6 x 9, shouldnt I just go ahead and at least create the doc at 6 x 9? Im going to have to make all these corrections anyway; I might as well do it in the doc size and make the styles as I go along. Your thoughts? Thanks in advance. Gary. Hi Kimberly, Im being driven insane with section breaks and hope you can help. Im attempting to put an odd page section break on the page prior to each chapter change to make sure the new chapter appears on an odd page. I have around 50 chapters to handle. I insert one of Is the Impact in Nursing, these breaks and all seems fine until I go through and check the journal, complete layout of the book on Print Preview. Some of these breaks stay whilst many of them disappear and give me a regular next page break, causing the page to appear on the left. I have now gone through the minos inferno, entire book three times and referencing, some of these breaks are still disappearing!

Im using Word 2007. Do you have a tip to prevent this happening before I pull all of my hair out? lol. Essay About The Conflict Between Loyalty! Many thanks. Can you send a copy of the Word doc to me at I will need to take a look to see what is going on. Kimberley Ive only just seen your response because my screen has been showing awaiting moderation and I didnt think to refresh it (Duh!) Thanks so much for your offer to look at the document but I have now sorted it (I hope!) It seems to work if I put the break at referencing, the beginning of the minos inferno, page I want to journal be an minos inferno, odd page rather than at the end of the previous page. So far, the Print Preview is journal, showing the minos inferno, pages correctly. Should the problem recur, then I hope I can get back to you. Thanks again!

Wikipedia has an entry for journal referencing, Standard Manuscript Format. Should this format be used regardless of whether the document will be submitted to a publisher or self-published? There are some minor inconsistencies between what you say here and on What Impact of Showing Empathy Practice?, what SMF would seem to require. Examples are 0.25? paragraph indentation vs. 0.50?, and flexibility to use something other than (ugly) monospaced typefaces.

Would it be correct to say that adhering to SMF works for journal referencing, both publishing approaches, but if I am certain to self-publish, that there might be greater flexibility? I want to get it right, from the outset, to minimize downstream reformatting. Thanks. Typically the format a publisher wants to see your manuscript in is very different than how a printed book looks. If you are self-publishing you should write the minos inferno, book in the font, font size, margins, etc., that you are most comfortable writing in while keeping in mind the tips mentioned in this article. Write first, format later. When it is journal referencing, time to format the Essay Is the of Showing Empathy, book for journal, print, it will need to be set to the right specs for printing.

That will include the right trim size, margins, gutters, line spacing, fonts selected, font size, running heads, title page, copyright page, page numbers, etc. All of those can vary depending on the printer used, the genre of book, reading age, etc. question do you insert a page break when going into backstory and out of dahl omnibus, backstory? Do you mean a scene break? I would not suggest a page break, as that is more for a new chapter.

A few blank spaces above and below the scene break would be more appropriate, perhaps with a small graphic or symbol of some kind, such as the journal referencing, following (but the The Conflict and Greed, symbol would be centered, which it wont allow me to referencing do in a comment): Lorem ipsum dolor sit amet, consectetuer adipiscing elit. Aenean commodo ligula eget dolor. Aenean massa. In Biology! Cum sociis natoque penatibus et magnis dis parturient montes, nascetur ridiculus mus. Donec quam felis, ultricies nec, pellentesque eu, pretium quis, sem. Nulla consequat massa quis enim.

Donec pede justo, fringilla vel, aliquet nec, vulputate eget, arcu. Referencing! In enim justo, rhoncus ut, imperdiet a, venenatis vitae, justo. Nullam dictum felis eu pede mollis pretium. Integer tincidunt. Essay About The Conflict Loyalty! Cras dapibus. Journal! Vivamus elementum semper nisi. Aenean vulputate eleifend tellus. Aenean leo ligula, porttitor eu, consequat vitae, eleifend ac, enim. Aliquam lorem ante, dapibus in, viverra quis, feugiat a, tellus. Phasellus viverra nulla ut metus varius laoreet.

Quisque rutrum. Aenean imperdiet. Etiam ultricies nisi vel augue. Curabitur ullamcorper ultricies nisi. Nam eget dui. Dahl Omnibus! Etiam rhoncus. Maecenas tempus, tellus eget condimentum rhoncus, sem quam semper libero, sit amet adipiscing sem neque sed ipsum. Nam quam nunc, blandit vel, luctus pulvinar, hendrerit id, lorem. Maecenas nec odio et ante tincidunt tempus. Donec vitae sapien ut libero venenatis faucibus.

Nullam quis ante. Etiam sit amet orci eget eros faucibus tincidunt. Duis leo. Sed fringilla mauris sit amet nibh. Journal! Donec sodales sagittis magna.

Sed consequat, leo eget bibendum sodales, augue velit cursus nunc. In enim justo, rhoncus ut, imperdiet a, venenatis vitae, justo. Nullam dictum felis eu pede mollis pretium. Integer tincidunt. Cras dapibus. Vivamus elementum semper nisi. Aenean vulputate eleifend tellus. Aenean leo ligula, porttitor eu, consequat vitae, eleifend ac, enim. I dont use a template with first line paragraph indentation when writing a rough draft, because I continually have to delete and Experimenting With, undo tabs when re-working text.

The problem I am running into referencing, is when creating a master document for Propaganda examples, my manuscript. Your article taught me how to journal eliminate improper tabs and create that first line paragraph indentation, but it leaves me with a huge headache problem. Every single centered line is now misaligned, because the first line paragraph indentation has indented them in addition to them being centered. The only way I can figure out to fix this is to manually go through the document and use the back space button and re-center each and every line. Needless to say, I am not eager to have to go through my manuscript and do this for every centered linethat would kind of defeat the minos inferno, purpose of fixing tabs all at once. Is there a way to journal referencing do this without ruining the alignment of the centered lines?

Or at least a way of fixing all the minos inferno, centered lines in the document at journal, once? I really dont want to have to work with manually indented first lines when writing rough drafts, because its irksome to my process, but I also dont want to have to change all centered lines when I create the full manuscript file. Is there a fix for me, or am I kind of Film Essay, damned if I do, damned if I dont? Thanks in advance for any advice you can share! This is a little tricky! Ideally, a style would be created ahead of journal referencing, time for those centered lines and the style applied when needed instead of hitting the center button. Since it has already been done that way, you should be able to do the following. First, create a style for centered text. Next, click within one of the lines with the Essay Between, centered text that also has the first line indent.

Choose Select Select Text With Similiar Formatting. It should highlight all centered text with a first line indent in journal the document that is styled the same. Then, click on the new style you created for centered lines to apply that style to all centered text. Hope that helps! This did indeed help, and solved the issue. THAT issue. Glancing through the rest of the advice here, Ive gone about re-formatting my old novel, and ran into another problem. I hadnt used page breaks, and Nazi Film Propaganda examples, had simply hit enter a bunch of times to begin a new chapter. Now, I cant see a way of putting the referencing, chapter beginning 12 lines down on the page without hitting enter 12 times, but the page breaks make total sense. So now, after fixing the tabs issue and centering issue, Im having to go back through, put a new page break in after each chapter, and re-format the chapter titles on the page.

Wowzer! At least I know how to Experimenting With Enzymatic Reactions do it RIGHT the next time #128578; Thanks again for all your help. If you are using a style for your chapter titles (which you should be!), then you can set the Spacing: Before setting for that style to journal bring it down from the top of the page in the amount you desire. While it makes sense to use a style for chapter title pages, I cant seem to get it to work. Im putting the requisite number of dahl, spaces, highlighting them and the chapter title, and creating the referencing, style.

When I then go to use the the roald, style, it only puts one space in journal instead of the twelve I said to. In Biology! What am I doing wrong there? By the way, this is incredible help youre giving out referencing so kindly. Thank you again! This is a little hard to Essay of Showing explain without screenshots, so I made a quick blog post to show you, and everyone else with the same question, how this is done. You can read it here:

Is it better to not even write a manuscript in referencing Word? It seems if Im not careful, there would be alot of editing to do with format. Do you recommend another commonly available program to write a manuscript in that is minos inferno, format friendly for a book? Thank you. Word is the best word processor to write your book in. Journal! For the Propaganda examples, layout, a professional book designer would take your Word document and format it in Adobe InDesign, but the book should not be written in InDesign, which is a page layout program. Any word processor like Word will have the same issues shown in the article. Blessings Kimberly.

I am in the process of referencing, writing my first book, a book that has been in my head for oh about twenty years. The information you provide above is great and I think I actually understand it. I have difficulty in minos inferno taking things in and understanding them when it comes to technical things. plus it doesnt help that Im dyslexic (which is probably why the actual writing of referencing, my 1st book has taken me two years so far). I am looking into about The Conflict Loyalty, self-publishing as been disabled I just can not afford to journal referencing get it published but Im hoping that self-publishing is a way for me. any more tips would be an absolute godsend. I have an incorrectly formatted manuscript. If I copy and paste it into a properly formatted blank (on word 2003) will it be able to reformat the minos inferno, document and cancel the old formatting? Or is referencing, there something else I have to do? (please dont say I have to type it all again!) I have experimented with auto format and it does weird things.

I note this blog is years old but am about to write my book and Experimenting Essay, want to format properly in advance. This advice looks fab. I am about to purchase Home and Student 365 will this do the journal referencing, trick and topics, is all this advice still appropriate. Sorry just realised blog is bang up to referencing date. Is 365 Home and the roald omnibus, Student appropriate to write a non fiction book which will include graphics. Thanks. Any version of Word is appropriate to referencing write your book in. For formatting, do-it-yourself authors often use Microsoft Word but professional formatted would take the topics, Word document of the manuscript and bring it into Adobe InDesign for the book layout.

I feel it is very important for me to referencing thank you from minos inferno, my heart for the wonderful information you placed in journal this article, Kimberly. I have no problem writing a book but using the Word formatting terrifies me so I have never tried it in case I mess everything up. That you also used diagrams to show how things are done has been such a great help and given me confidence. I have now LEARNED more from you from one article about Nazi Film examples, Word than I have in over 12 years of owning the journal, programme. Minos Inferno! I cannot possibly tell you how excited I now am to have become more proficiant with my computer, and referencing, my manuscript now looks so exciting. I have also read the questions here from your readers and you have helped me further with your replies to topics them. A hundred thanks, Kimberly. Thank you for your kind comments! Hearing that really made my day and has motivated me to do more articles. This is extremely helpful in general, but I have a specific problem.

I dont know what I did, but I cannot get word to paginate my novel properly. It all started when I didnt want the tile page, the epigraph and Part One page to be numbered. I wanted to start paginating with first page of first chapter. Now I cant get paginate properly at all. I go to journal numbering, click on top right for numbers, and it either overrides my header, or it prints the on What Is the Impact Practice?, same number over journal referencing and over again on the left inside. I suspect I made some kind of formatting error and dahl omnibus, dont know how to fix it. I hope you can help. Ahh.. Journal! page numbering in Film examples Word. So much fun! (sarcasm) Okay, from journal, what I understand, you are trying to minos inferno get page numbers at the top, outside edges of your book, with page 1 starting at Chapter one. First, you need to make sure you have a section break (odd) before Chapter 1.

Next, make sure you have headers and footers set to be Different Odd and Even and Different first page under Page Setup Layout. Then, you need to journal set the Experimenting With Reactions, first page, even page, and odd page headers (and perhaps footers) to referencing NOT be linked to the previous section. Once that is done you need to go into your header area and Film Essay examples, create a center tab and a right aligned tab in Word. I suggest using the Heading style and journal, setting the tabs there, then using the Headings style for Experimenting With Essay, your heading text. Then you need to go into the even page header, make sure you are left aligned, then go to Insert Page Number Current Position Plain Number.

Click Tab on your keyboard, then enter what you want your header text to be for the even pages in your book (author name, book title, etc.). Go to journal your odd page header, make sure you are left aligned, click Tab, enter the header text you want on the odd page headers in your book, click Tab, then go to Insert Page Number Current Position Plain Number. To make sure that the numbering is starting at page 1 in Chapter One, go to on What Is the Impact Insert Page Number Page Number Format and select Start at and enter 1. PS. You should not place a page number in the header for the first page of the chapter. Referencing! That header should not have anything in on What Is the it. You can choose to referencing place a page number on the bottom of that page, but nothing should be in topics the header.

Comment again with your results or if you ned further help. My novel is actually my thesis, so I have to header on referencing each page with my name, class info etc. I fiddled around yesterday, not quite sure what I did, think I put in a break, and then somehow managed to the roald dahl put page numbers at the bottom outside corner. Journal Referencing! Try as I might, I could not get Chapter One to start on page 1 (I got it to The Conflict Loyalty and Greed start on page 2), and could not put the page numbers in top right. They kept posting top right, over my header info. I dont get why pagination should be so difficult! I will follow your suggestionsas soon as I make sure I understand them. Journal! Thank you for doing this, the help is much appreciated.


THE PUBLISHER I HAVE NO TROUBLE WITH HE DOESNT GET THE NOVEL UNTIL ITS FINISHED. IT DOESNT MATTER WHO IS PUBLISHING I SET UP MY RULES AND THEY MAKE THEIRS, I HAVE HAD MORE THAN ONE PUBLISHER AND THEY ARE THE LEAST OF MY WORRIES. ANYONE KNOW HOW TO ORGANIZE THINGS IN WORD AND HOW TO E-MAIL IT OUT FROM WORD?? OF COURSE THE COPY FOR PUBLICATION HAS USUALLY TO BE SENT OUT AS HARD COPY. THE MAKING OF A CHIEF. PRISMS OF THE MIND. This tutorial is very usefull.. If I have written a long document with tabs, do I manually have to remove each tab, or will the process described over journal referencing ride them? If you do a search for ^t and replace with just a space (just hit the shift bar in the replace box) it will remove all tabs and replace them with a space. Minos Inferno! You may then need to do a search for two spaces and replace with one, and also a search for a paragraph break ( ^p )followed by a space to remove paragraphs that start with a space.

Thanks for this helpful article. When writing a novel, the first sentence of the referencing, first paragraph in a new chapter or scene is minos inferno, not indented. I followed your instructions for indents but it automatically indents every paragraph and I cant force that initial sentence back to the margin. Also, you suggest checking the journal referencing, box Dont add space between paragraphs of the the roald dahl, same style. I can see it but it is light colored and am unable to check it. I am using Word 2003. Thanks. Carole P. I suggest creating a new style for the first paragraph of every chapter that does not have the first line indent setting.

Then apply that style to each of the first paragraphs. I am not certain about the Dont add space between paragraphs of the same style. being grayed out. Thanks Kimberly, I wish Id found your blog long ago. I have a question about First Line Paragraph Indentation. Your instructions were very clear and easy to follow, and journal referencing, Ive now made the necessary changes to my Normal style in Word 2007. My problem is, I have three old short stories, (no 1st line para indents) and I would like to somehow apply the Experimenting With Enzymatic Reactions Essay, Indents automatically, without manually indenting each paragraph. Is that possible? Are those paragraphs in the older short stories set to the same style?

If so, you can modify the style that they are set to and add the first line indent setting. If other areas of journal, your document are set to that same style, then they will also get the indentation though. You may want to Essay Is the create a new style just for the paragraphs, then apply that style to the paragraphs. I have read that the body of the journal referencing, text should be double spaced for a manuscript. Should quotes included within a text, that are taken from an outside source, be double spaced as well when submitting a book to a publisher? I am quoting from a public domain source and Film Propaganda Essay, the info source of the quote is contained within the quote, as I am quoting verses from the Bible. In this case a footnote would not be needed in that the source is already shown within the text of what Bible version is being used. Journal Referencing! Thank you for your help. If you are submitting to a publisher, then you will want to ask them how they want those set up before submitting the manuscript to Essay Impact in Nursing them.

If you are sending the manuscript to a formatter, then you dont need to worry about the spacing as the formatter will style those quotes properly for you. Typically, if the journal referencing, quote is inline with a paragraph, then the dahl omnibus, quotes have the journal, same spacing as the paragraph. I really appreciate the time in writing this article. It was very informative!! I have been unable to insert a hard page break at the end of about Between Loyalty and Greed, a chapter. Right now I have enter down as many lines as I need. How do I get rid of these enters and insert a hard page break. Referencing! Ideally, the Essay on What Is the Impact of Showing, page break would include how many lines down to start the new chapter.

Ive tried Ctrl + enter which hasnt worked. Also how can I get rid of a hard page break? I have one somehow in the wrong place. Thank you very much. To make a new page on your document, after your text on the page, click on journal referencing page layout tab at minos inferno, top, then click on breaks, insert a section break for journal referencing, the next page.

This should cause you to make a new page. This is for 2007 version and may be slightly different in Essay another version. You should be able to use delete key for getting rid of unwanted paragraph tabs or format Word as stated in article. Hope this helps. I dont know if you can help me or not. I dont know if I can help me.

We have a church constitution book already set up. However I need to add a small section to the front of the journal referencing, book. The page numbers are already on the book. When I try to Experimenting With Enzymatic Reactions add this section all of the pages go crazy. It is a letter size page, set up as landscape, with so that the book is 8.5 x 5.5 when folded.

Is there a book style setting somewhere in Word? Can you clarify what you mean by the pages going crazy? Are you using the book fold setting in journal Word? Thanks for Reactions Essay, this valuable info. I enjoyed reading!Looks like I will need to referencing become a MS Word wizard. I have a basic questionAs I sit to put my first words into MS Word( I plan to use the Dragon Software). What is your recommendation for separating Chapters??I plan to have 8-10 in my non fiction how to guideDo I make each a separate MS Word doc file??or keep them all in one file? I suggest keeping everything in the roald omnibus one Word document, unless you have tons of graphic files, then separate them so the individual document file size is not too large. Separate the chapters within the document with either a page break or a section break. Thanks for your response!.I have limited graphicsbut should I enter them in the flow of the writing?or wait until done with the text!and add during editing?

You should be fine adding them in while you do the writing. Journal Referencing! Make sure you are using high resolution graphics though, low resolution ones will not print well. I am trying to format my manuscript. Examples! I used tabs for paragraph breaks. Please provide a step by step instruction for how to correct this. Sorry if it is already answered, I could not find it. Thank you so much for your help. I suggest replacing all tabs ^t with paragraph breaks ^p. Journal! You will likely end up with a bunch of paragraph breaks between paragraphs after that, so then do a find replace for ^p^p (two paragraph breaks) and With Enzymatic Essay, replace with ^p (one paragraph break). Repeat that find and replace until no more double paragraph breaks are found. Many thanks for your help.

I have completed my story in word 2007 and now need to insert a page break between chapters in journal referencing the entire document to submit to an agent. Is there a simple way to do this other than manually doing each chapter 63! There really is Nazi examples, not a way to do this other than manually inserting a page break at the end of each chapter. The only way to do that would be if you set a style for the chapter titles, like Heading One. Referencing! Then you can set the setting in the style to place a page break before that style. However, they agent may not accept the manuscript with the page breaks done that way, they probably really want an actual page break or section break between chapters. To do that, place your cursor at the end of each of the chapters and press Ctrl + Enter. I am writing fiction and found the above advise helpful. My problem is to have exactly 25 lines per page and minos inferno, approx 250 words per page. How can I achieve this using Times New Roman font of 12.

I tried using the paragraph Tab, Indents and Spacing and Set Line Spacing at Exactly 24 pts. But sometimes the number of lines goes over 25. It is journal, very difficult to get the number of lines to on What Is the Impact of Showing Empathy be exactly the journal, same on each page using Word. It is just not meant for page layout, just word processing. This is one reason professional book designers use InDesign instead of Word.

Regardless, one reason the lines may be coming out uneven is the roald omnibus, due to Widow and Orphan control in Word. Journal! That makes it so there is never a single line of a paragraph either at the end, or the top, of a page in Word. So if that would happen, Word pushes lines from the roald dahl, one page to the next. You do WANT that turned on, having widows or orphans is a worse offense than not having the same number of lines on a page. The only way to correct would be to adjust some of the paragraphs on a page to either end a line earlier, or extend out another line.

This is tedious work! Most authors/designers do not bother doing this. Journal Referencing! Even in InDesign this happens and manually needs to be corrected (but is easier to do so). If you pick up a book off the shelf, you will see that many do not have even lines on Propaganda examples all pages either. My advice it to not worry about the number of lines being the same on each page, that will just drive you crazy. Thank you for journal referencing, the great advice. I only wanted to topics know about paragraphs in a new chapter. Referencing! Id changed all mine to Experimenting Reactions be flush left then when I re-opened the document I got concerned Id made a mistake. However, I did learn some valuable ways of correcting older documents. Thanks again.

It is common practice to remove the first line indent of the first paragraph of chapters. No mistake made! Hello, uh, Id just like to ask about something. Do I need official Microsoft Office Word if I want to publish a book? Just to make sure and avoid some serious problems. There are many text processors out there that are competitors with MS Word, some of which are open to almost anyone to use for free. Basically, as long as you use a standard doctype, such as .doc, .docx, .odt, .odf, .rtf, then they should have little to no issue opening and journal, publishing your book. Good luck on your book. Thank you so much for minos inferno, this article.

I am in the process of writing a book and referencing, with it being my 1st one, Im completely clueless. The only things I know and remember are from high school. Your experience and knowledge is minos inferno, definitely appreciated. I am trying to format my fiction book in MS Word 2013 using left alignment. For no reason apparent to me, there will be a sequence of lines of type at random locations on journal a random page which DO NOT align left but align where the paragraph indent is located.

Thank you very much for in biology, any help in referencing resolving this if possible. Bob, I would need to see the Nazi Propaganda Essay examples, document in order to figure out what is happening there. Feel free to send it to journal me at km@jerapublishing to sort it out. I am publishing a book and have created my manuscript using Word 2003 (its been an ongoing project for years). I have End Notes at the end of my book. The Publisher requires that the very last page of the book be BLANK. However, Word will not allow me to add a new Section Break after the end of the End Notes section (which would otherwise allow me to Between remove the page number and the footer that appears on that final page that is suppose to remain blank).

Ah! A tricky (and good) question, but I know the answer. First, change your Note Options to Endnotes: End of Section . Journal! Do this by minos inferno, right clicking on and endnote an choosing Note Options . This will make all endnotes appear at the end of each section instead of at the end of the book. Next, Go to journal referencing each of your sections (or highlight to select all of them) and go into Page Setup options. Under PLayout/em check the box that says Suppress Endnotes . This tells Word to not show the endnotes in this section, but to put them in the next section. Do that for topics, all sections except for one at the end that you can create for the endnotes. You can now add a new section and referencing, blank page at the end of the in biology, book after the endnote section. Hello, love the journal referencing, article. Maybe I could add a few more. Spaces before punctuation, left aligned text with manual hyphenation, tables inside text boxes, images inside text boxes, double commas or apostrophes instead of double quotes.

Open parenthesis and double quotes not closed anywhere, manually added footnotes, randomly added page breaks, each with different page layout settings. Manually added pagination that gets messed up several times through the book. I get really irritated when I find books messed up like that, but then I take a look at the person, and I see theyve poured their soul into that thing and no matter how difficult I still try to get it right in a way they like it and Film Propaganda Essay, also looks good. (clients get really, really strange about journal, some things) PS English is not my first language, or second, which does really strange things to Nazi my grammar and referencing, vocabulary. PPS My personal horror, very low quality pictures either low res or enhanced. Just a Huge thank you; this was, in a few simple paragraphs, exactly what I was looking for. I wanted to let you know this, And that I was Able to Understand it, lol. Im using Windows 7. My recently completed manuscript for a novel contains two spaces between sentences. Ive tried multiple find/replace searches and have had no luck trying to go to one space. Please advise me.

Thank you. One thing you can do is go to File Options Proofing When correcting spelling and grammar in Word and do two things: + Select Grammar and Style in the Writing Style dropdown. + Click Settings and on What Impact Practice?, under the journal, require section will be a question how many spaces youd like after each sentence; you can select, 1, 2, or dont check. Select 1. Then Recheck Document to run the spelling and grammar check. I want to know about the minos inferno, main heading as well as sub heading treatment while writing a book in ms word. Referencing! What is exactly paragraph brake. Setting Heading levels in your document would be very helpful to your formatter. The first level heading should be set to the style of Heading 1, the next level, Heading 2, and so on. Some set the Chapter titles to Heading 1, then Heading 2 for the first level of topics in biology, a subheading. These styles are default styles in Word.

You can modify the journal, way they look by examples, right clicking on the Style in journal referencing the Word Style ribbon and minos inferno, choosing Modify. A paragraph break is journal referencing, where the paragraph in your manuscript ends, and the next one begins. Is The Impact Of Showing Practice?! These are done in Word by journal referencing, hitting the Enter key. The formatting mark for them looks like: . I am in the process of editing a novel of over Experimenting With Enzymatic Reactions 600 pages.

I have been reading advice on not having too many italics in referencing a book being used in the first person, as character thought processes, when the main body of the book is written in the third person. These italics usually follow the dialogue, but are mainly not included within the dialogues inverted commas. These italics are either at the beginning or at minos inferno, the end of referencing, a dialogue stream. Do you have any advice as to reducing the italics, but not to the disadvantage of the dialogue prose. I feel I have got into the habit of using too much italics in the thought processes of minos inferno, my characters. Are these insertions normal in a novel or do they make it harder to read? Thank you so much! I would like to know how to set dialogue within a paragraph in a novel. Referencing! Some of With Essay, my dialogue is in speech form and journal, some in about The Conflict Between and Greed italic thought form, when the person is thinking to journal referencing themself. If you have dialogue within a long discriptive paragraph, do you place the dialogue on a new line as an indented paragraph in its own right?

If you have italic thought dialogue in a long discriptive paragraph, do you also place that on a new line as an indented paragraph in Essay on What of Showing in Nursing Practice? its own right? At the moment I have long paragraphs, which seem a little hard to read because of speech and thought dialogue buried in referencing a long paragraph? I know when diologue is spoken between two people, it is With Enzymatic Essay, set down as dialogue each in journal its own line. But sometimes it does not work out like that Somebody suggested to buy an already published novel by a successful author and omnibus, learn from journal, thatevery author seems to have their own preferences though. Enzymatic Reactions! What do you suggest. Journal Referencing! John. Hi Kimberly. Nazi Film Essay Examples! I know this is a self publish site, but I have a question about the scene break. And you are by far the most helpful site I have seen.

I plan to send my manuscript to an agent, but I wanted to know if in the scene break should I still add the *** to journal referencing indicate a change or allow them to inform me if it is needed? It is so mind boggling. Some say dont add, and some say do add them. Im a little lost, I appreciate any feedback. Thank you for help. If you are sending it to an agent, you should ask them what they prefer.

Each agent may be different in how they want the manuscripts formatted for Film Propaganda Essay, submission. If you can not get an answer from them, I would suggest leaving in the *** to indicate a scene break. That is how we always requests document sent to us for journal referencing, formatting. Thanks for info. Have formatted my doc with para indent. With this in mind is there anyway to have the first line of each chapter without this indent which I believe is the minos inferno, normal case. The best practice would be to create a new style for the first paragraph that has the first line indent setting set to journal referencing None (or 0) and then apply this style to Nazi each of the journal, first chapter paragraphs. Hi Kim. Enzymatic! I too am from the referencing, old school and double space between words.

Its a habit I find difficult to break. Experimenting Enzymatic Essay! I have Word starter on my puter. Referencing! My problem is when I cut and topics, paste a chapter of my novel into Microsoft One Drive which is journal, a cloud service or into an e-mail when an agent asks for the first chapteer the Essay The Conflict, formatting gets all screwed up, ie: the referencing, chapter numbers and on What Is the, names are not longer centered on journal the page. Ive even seen where the type face/size changes. This is topics, quite annoying since I then have to go in and fix the formatting. Journal! Any suggestions? Thanks. When pasting from topics in biology, one Word document into another, you should be given some paste options. One of them is journal referencing, Keep Original Formatting. The others will wipe out the formatting that was applied to the text you are pasting. See:

Well if anything of what you posted here would actually work, would be be awesome. I have been at it for topics in biology, hours on the first page now. Trying to start my book, using word 2007. Followed the referencing, instructions to start, with the the roald dahl, indenting and no space between same paragraphs. Journal Referencing! Does nothing but mess up everything on Reactions the page when applied. Been all over the net, and referencing, cant find anything anywhere that actually helps someone start typing a book, without all this setting up nonsense etc. I had better luck using wordpad to type out shorter stories, or poems. Frustrated doesnt even cut how mad I actually am. Unfortunately, if you want to have a properly formatted book, you need to Essay about Between do some initial setup and learn how to use styles and section breaks, etc.

You may find is easier to journal start with a template. See: Hello Kimberly Martin, I stumbled upon your site and found it quite interesting. Nazi Film Essay Examples! I am a scientist and am about to start writing a book. It is a daunting task for me, as I have written many internal progess reports over the past two decades, but anything beyond that dates way back to graduate school (no, Im not going to journal referencing date myself!). I want to write it the right way from the get-go, and was wondering if you could point me towards a resource that goes over Film Propaganda examples all the journal referencing, important physical and organizational aspects of writing nonfiction in Word. Im not even sure how to get started. Is it best to subdivide the Experimenting With Enzymatic Essay, document into separate chapters, stored as separate files, to be merged later, or keep it all in one document?

To answer your question about storing chapters in seperate files, if that works best for you, you can do that. However, before you send your files off to a formatter, it would be best to journal referencing have everything together in one file so they know what order to put them all in. Thanks Kimberley, although the of Showing Practice?, mss has been edited and checked carefully for referencing, that sort of thing by a professional editor. Indeed the POD paperback version is fine. Is The Impact Of Showing! I wondered if there is an easy way to journal fix it with the ebook?

Hi Kimberley Martin, thanks very much for a great post. Dahl! Point 8 happened to me. The gaps to signify scene changes had been closed up in the formatting process. So I did what you said with the asterisks and my publisher has now done it. However, the journal referencing, paragraph indentations are now all awry. Some are much fruther in Experimenting Reactions Essay than others. Referencing! They are very erratic. Any suggestions why this might have happened? You may have extra spaces in front of minos inferno, some paragraphs or tabs, but not others. If a style is used to journal referencing indent the first line of a paragraph, and Nazi Film Essay examples, some of the journal referencing, paragraphs also have spaces or tabs in front of them, some will end up indented more than the Essay about Between, others as the style indentation PLUS the spaces or tabs will be used. Thank you!

I was really frustrated with 365s layout and referencing, couldnt find the paragraph options. You helped me to topics get my fiction manuscript in perfect shape for referencing, submission to agents. Im so relieved! Some very helpful comments. In general I follow them. The idea that I will find hardest though is the lack of in biology, two spaces between sentences. Referencing! This, as maybe you can see from my message, has been engrained in me. Dahl Omnibus! In fact if I look at referencing, a book that has only one space between sentences I find it very off-putting. This will take some getting used to!

What is the Experimenting, space between the chapter number and the first paragraph of the chapter typically? There is not a typical amount of referencing, spacing. You do not want the text to start more than about With, 1/4 or 1/2 of the way down the page however. Referencing! If your book is a smaller size, say 5 x 8 versus 6 x 9, start the text up a little higher on the page or it may look a little odd. I have found your article and replies to comments enlightening and most useful in Experimenting Enzymatic Essay the preparation of legal documents. Thank you. I have been using the format painter in conjunction with Find and Replace to make corrections. Journal! Is that a good or bad idea? Youve now made me want to write a book. #128578; Reply from Experimenting With Enzymatic Reactions, a previous comment. I was planning on submitting the manuscript for consideration to an agent when finished.

However, I do not wish to have my manuscript denied due to improper formatting, and I lack the understanding to submit my manuscript to referencing Amazon when finished. This is beginning to concern me due to the fact I have found a way to the roald indent on Google Docs, but when I attempt to indent a paragraph with one of the options, to journal referencing me it appears unprofessional, sloppy, and the roald, perhaps causes a strain to read. I found a second app, Polaris Office 5, has the same paragraph indentation options, but with a variety of journal, ways to customize the documents. Maybe I am stressing things too much and Nazi Propaganda Essay, should focus on completing the manuscript. I cant help but stress this though, as I wish to know what to do ahead of time instead of scrambling around in journal referencing a mad hurry to polish it off perfectly before submission. Do you think it is better leaving the paragraphs unindented with an explaination in the query letter, or to indent and submit what I believe, appears funky? If you are submitting to and Greed an agent they most likely have their own specific requirements, and you will want to follow them before submitting so your manuscript is not rejected automatically. You need to do some research to see how the agent wants manuscripts formatted for submission. Referencing! You may want to get a copy of Microsoft Word as they will probably want the minos inferno, manuscript submitted as a Word document.

I am currently in the midst of a predicament with a YA manuscript I am working on. I am using google docs app for referencing, android and was previously under the impression that I needed to manually indent each paragraph with the space key and break paragraphs with the enter key. I know this is more for on What Is the of Showing Empathy Practice?, users of journal referencing, Microsoft word, but I was hoping you could point me in the right direction. Any help is welcome. Essay Impact Of Showing Practice?! My current device is journal, a Samsung Galaxy S5. It is literally all I have to work with.

You can email me directly at for the quickest way for a response. I am not familiar with the Google Docs app for Android. Are you only writing the the roald, book this way or do you intend to referencing use this for the final formatting of your manuscript as well? If you will be sending it to someone else to format, or using a different program to Essay format after you are done writing the book, then dont worry about journal, that for now and minos inferno, just correct any issues in formatting. My apologies. I just noticed the Reply option here. Spacing is as much up the the artistry of the author as the words themselves. Same goes for incorrect grammar used intentionally.

I wrote 300 pages and used the tab button on journal referencing my keyboard Now when I try to publish it, its looking for the rule in first line tab. I highlighted everything, went to tab and cleared out all of the tabs; however, that only Film Propaganda examples removes it cosmetically. My manual pushing of the tab button is still there, so when I go to upload my book, the tab is taken into consideration (twice, now that I set the journal, rule via First Line Tab). I tried copy and paste with no formatting, but I cant get rid of the tabs. How can I delete each tab stroke I hit?? Please help. 300 pages stinks.

If I understand it correctly, you did not actually remove the tab, but reduced the the roald omnibus, tab indent to zero. To remove the tabs using Find/Replace you would enter ^t into Find and leave the Replace empty. That would remove all of the tabs in the document. Keep in journal mind that that will remove all tabs in the document, not just the ones you used ot indent the first line of paragraphs. What is the up karat to look for paragraphs indented with Tab key? I think I tried Shift/T and it did not work. I have about 300 pages to minos inferno do. To look for tabs search for ^t. To look for paragraphs that begin with a tab, I suggest searching for ^p^t which will search for a paragraph break followed by a tab.

Hope that helps! the up caret, in case you did not figure it out, is SHIFT 6. So, I guess its called a manual line break in my casethe writer pressed enter twice for new paragraphs, to create a space between each paragraph. Journal! Im not sure what to enter for Find/Replace to fix that (to get rid of the extra, unnecessary space between the paragraphs). Thanks. Your article has been bookmarked. #128578; You should be able to do a search for the roald, two paragraph breaks and referencing, replace with one. In Find, enter ^p^p and in Is the Impact of Showing in Nursing Practice? Replace enter ^p. Thanks for sharing this great information.

I had the same problem as the previous comment and, using your advice, removed the journal referencing, extra spacing. Now is there a way to apply styles after doing this so that each new paragraph is automatically indented as per the selected style? Jeremiah, first, do you have all chapter text paragraphs set to Essay Is the in Nursing Practice? the same style? That would be the referencing, first step. If they are, then you can set the First Line Indent setting in the paragraph style to automatically indent the paragraphs first lines.

Find the style name under Styles that the chapter text is set to, then click on Modify. Click on The Conflict Loyalty the Format button at the bottom then choose Paragraph. Under Special select First line and journal referencing, set the amount of indentation you want under By. Setting it to .25? is usually the best choice. If you have a large book size (8.5 x 11 for example) then a larger first line indent can be used.

If the chapter text is set to different styles, it is a lot harder. You can select all of the paragraphs and then manually set the first line indent setting, but setting all of the chapter text to a style would be a better option. Whats the rule when you change point of view between paragraphs? You know, when you see multiple spaces between two paragraphs within the same chapter? Do you manually enter those spaces? That is called a scene break. It is also used when there is a change in scenery (location) or a jump in Is the Impact of Showing Empathy in Nursing Practice? time. Journal Referencing! There are a few methods you can use. One method is to Film Essay use a blank space as you mentioned, another is to have a symbol of journal, some sort centered in the line between the two paragraphs, such as: After dinner, the two parted ways and headed home. Two weeks later, Gregor woke from troubled dreams and he found himself transformed in his bed into a horrible vermin.

If you are sending your book to minos inferno a designer they may request (we do) that you place three asterisks (***) between the scene breaks. This helps them easily find the referencing, scene breaks and in biology, apply the proper styling, which may be just a blank space or a symbol depending on your preference. Journal Referencing! If you send your manuscript to a designer with scene breaks that are not marked in Between and Greed some way other than an extra paragraph break, they could easily get overlooked and accidentally dropped from the journal, final format. However, if you are using the blank space method and designing the book yourself, you should not simply hit enter twice or more to insert that blank space. Omnibus! You should instead use Words Space After style setting and apply that style to the paragraph before a scene break. Referencing! That will place extra space following that paragraph without having an extra paragraph mark floating around just waiting to Propaganda cause issues. Personally, I prefer a symbol of some sort to indicate a scene break. It causes less issues when formatting your book and makes it clear to your reader that there is a change in POV, scene, or time. Journal! If using a blank space and Nazi, the scene break falls at the bottom or top of referencing, a page, there is no longer a clear indicator of the scene break as it will not be very noticeable where a symbol will be. Im calling bs in topics this entire thing. Not all of us have Microsoft word.Not all of us are writing a book to be serious, maybe were doing it for the hell of it.

And maybe we dont have published so we have to press tab and enter and those line breaks are also called periods which are pretty necessary. If you are not using Microsoft Word then this article does not apply to you as it is an article about mistakes made when using Microsoft Word. You do not have to referencing use tab to indent the first line of your paragraphs, the article explains a better method using styles that works regardless if you are publishing or not. Line breaks are not periods, which are necessary. Line breaks are when you press Shift + Enter to minos inferno break to journal a new paragraph (wrong and unnecessary) instead of just Enter (correct and necessary). Line breaks do not create a true paragraph break which can cause issues. I seem to have used the Experimenting With, wrong box to convey my utmost surprise and thanks. I am doubtless one of many who have used indentation manually for paragraphs,, breaks and change of scene. Hundreds of them. In order to correct these mistakes , do I have to undo all that effort before I follow your.

guide? I noticed the 05 Normal I did in fact indent 5 spaces each time. What. a waste of effort. With many thanks, BB Shane.

You can use Words Find and Replace to search for journal, two spaces and topics in biology, replace with one, and repeat until it returns a 0 found message. Referencing! Then do a find and replace for a paragraph break followed by a space and replace with just a paragraph break. The Conflict Loyalty! That will remove the last space in front of all of the paragraphs. I recommend saving a backup copy of your document before you do this as it may have unintentional results. Do not fret too much over using spaces to indent your paragraphs if sending it off to a formatter.

Most formatters should be very use to getting documents like this and be able to clean them up quickly. Most of the documents we receive from referencing, clients are done that way and we fix them as part of our normal formatting process. Get Your FREE Game Plan to Self-Publishing! Thinking about Essay about Between Loyalty and Greed, self-publishing? Then our free Game Plan to Self-Publishing guide is for you.

This 6-play book will help bring your manuscript to life, taking you from journal, a document of about The Conflict Between Loyalty, words to a printed and bound book, or an eBook, in just 6 easy steps. Sign up for our newsletter to receive the Game Plan to Self-Publishing: 6 Plays to journal referencing bring Your Book to Life for free today.

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essays on apathy All online transactions are done using all major Credit Cards or Electronic Check through either PayPal or Moneybookers. These are safe, secure, and efficient ways to make payment online. The bystander effect is a social psychological occurrence that refers to scenarios where individuals do not provide help during emergency cases to the victim in the presence of other people. Conventionally, there is an journal inverse relationship between the number of bystanders and the probability of help. This implies that the likelihood of receiving help reduces with an increase in the number of bystanders (Graham 102). The sheer presence of bystanders serves to reduce the Nazi Essay chances of intervention. This is because an increase in bystanders reduces the likelihood of a bystander interpreting the emergency as a problem, which reduces the probability of a bystander assuming responsibility for initiating action to help. Similarly, observers in an emergency case are highly likely to intervene in the absence of other witnesses.

In a chain of classical research studies, John Darley and Bibb Latane revealed that the amount of time a participant takes to initiate action and seek aid varies in accordance to the number of journal referencing observers present in the room (Hudson and Bruckman 175). There are numerous explanations for on What Is the Impact Empathy the bystander effect, although social psychologists have placed emphasis on two leading explanations: social influence and referencing diffusion of responsibility. This paper discusses the psychology behind the bystander effects and its impacts on society and outlines the Darley and Latanes theory and the experiments relating to the bystander effect. Darley and Latanes Theory and Experiments about the the roald Bystander Effect. John Darley and Bibb Latane were the first to demonstrate the bystander effects in 1968 after the referencing murder case of Kitty Genovese in 1964 caught their attention. Essay! Darley and Latane conducted numerous experiments in an attempt to explain the psychology behind the journal referencing bystander effect. The four dozen experiments conducted within 12 years yielded similar results. The experiments entailed placing a participant either alone or amidst other participants and then staging an topics in biology emergency scenario (Miles, Klaus and Wolfgang 78). Darley and referencing Latane measured the of Showing in Nursing Practice? time it took the participants to respond to the emergency situation, and whether they or not they took intervention measures. The prevalent outcome of all the experiments was the presence of other participants inhibited the referencing participants from helping, usually by a considerable margin. In one experiment by Darley and Latane, subjects were positioned in Nazi, three different treatment conditions: alone in the room, with two confederates acting as if to be normal participants, and with other two participants.

An emergency situation was staged by filling smoke in the room while participants were filling out questionnaires. When the participants were alone in the room, 75 percent reported the smoke. Journal! On the Experimenting Enzymatic contrary, only 38 percent of participants in the room with two other individuals reported the emergency. In the case of the journal final group, the two confederates noted the smoke but ignored, leading to only 10 percent of the participants reporting the emergency (Miles, Klaus and Wolfgang 96). Numerous studies have attempted to the roald dahl explain the bystander effect, a 2008 study by Simon Crowther and Mark Levine reported that increasing the size of bystanders prevented intervention during situations of street violence, especially when the bystanders were strangers and encouraged help in cases where the bystanders were friends (Levine and Crowther 1440). The study concluded that when bystanders shared group-level psychological associations, the group size can either promote or prevent helping.

There are numerous reasons associated with the failure of bystanders acting in emergency scenarios; however, social psychologists place emphasis on two primary factors: social influence and journal referencing diffusion of responsibility. Graham (125) argues that the fundamental principle of social influence asserts that bystanders usually assess the reactions of other individuals during an emergency scenario in order to determine whether intervention is required or not. Since other individuals present in topics in biology, the scene are doing nothing, they all maintain the journal referencing view that inaction from other people implies that help is not needed. In addition, social influence perspective holds the view that there is the necessity to behave in dahl omnibus, an appropriate and socially acceptable manner. Journal Referencing! Therefore, when other witnesses fail to intervene, people usually perceive this as a signal that there is no need for help or that help is inappropriate (Meyers 104). Studies have reported that witnesses are less likely to respond if the scenario is ambiguous.

For instance, in Essay on What Is the of Showing, the murder case of Genovese Kitty, most of the 38 onlookers thought that the incident was a case involving lovers quarrel, and did not comprehend that the journal referencing victim was being killed. Social influence is Essay on What Impact Empathy in Nursing Practice? analogous to the aspect of conformity, which refers to individuals acting in accordance to attitudes, behaviors and beliefs of group norms. According to the social proof phenomenon, individuals usually assume that the actions undertaken by others correspond to the correct behavior in a particular scenario. Meyers (85) points out journal, that social proof is a common occurrence in in biology, ambiguous circumstances where individuals are not capable of determining the appropriate behavior, and is mostly driven by journal the predisposition that surrounding individuals are more informed concerning the situation than the the roald individual. The bystander effect is best explained in terms of the effects of journal referencing social influence, which involves the tendency of individuals conforming to minos inferno either mistaken or correct choices, a psychological phenomenon also known as herd behavior (Levine and Crowther 1435). Despite the fact that social proof illustrates a rational motive to take into consideration the knowledge of journal others, formal analysis reveals that it leads to in biology convergence of people towards a single choice in a manner that decisions made by large groups of people are based on limited information, which is the actual case of the bystander effect. In explaining bystander effect, social proof is viewed in the perspective of conformity, wherein an individual in an emergency situation is likely to be unsure of the appropriate course of action; as a result, they often embark on other individuals for cues regarding the journal referencing correct behavior. People usually conform because they believe that their understanding of the incident is less accurate than other individuals understanding of the same situation; therefore, they consider the actions of Experimenting With Reactions Essay others as the most suitable course of action (Levine and Thompson 245). Darley and Latane use the diffusion of responsibility theory to explain the bystander effect, which asserts that the presence of other observers reduces the pressure on individuals to respond to an emergency because of the thought of shared responsibility.

Fundamentally, a large group of people leads to the perception of reduces the sense of individual responsibility to respond because it is shared by all the referencing bystanders present. Diffusion of topics responsibility theory is used in the explanation of the bystander effect, wherein an increased presence of onlookers leads to reduced probability of a victim receiving help during emergency situations. Journal Referencing! For instance, placing oneself in the contest of a large city in a rather busy street and Is the of Showing a strange person falls to journal referencing the ground and With start suffering from convulsion and seizure (Miles, Klaus and Wolfgang 145). It is journal evident that many observers will turn and look at the person, but no single person opts to help or call for medical aid. The primary explanation for this occurrence is because of the presence of many witnesses, which leads to no person feeling the pressure of individual responsibility. On What Is The Impact Of Showing In Nursing Practice?! It is highly likely that other onlookers will think that their peers have already called for aid, or that their peers are not initiating any action implying that the emergency is not serious after all. The phenomenon of diffusion of responsibility tends to take place among group sizes above a particular critical size and in situations lacking the explicit assignment of responsibility. It seldom occurs when an individual is alone and usually increases with increases in group size (Graham 85). Darley and Latanes theory of diffusion of journal responsibility is well applicable in outsized groups under antisocial and minos inferno pro-social conditions. Under pro-social contexts, the willingness of the individual to respond or provide assistance to a person in need is repressed by the occurrence of other spectators.

The individual usually holds the referencing belief that other witnesses present will offer assistance; therefore, an minos inferno individual in journal referencing, an emergency situation does not recognize that he or she has the responsibility to respond. Topics! The case of the Murder of Kitty Genovese is journal a model exemplar of diffusion of responsibility in a pro-social context. It has been proved that the probability of an individual providing help reduces with the increase in the number of witnesses present. Further, there is a high probability that diffusion of responsibility is likely to take place in anonymous situations. Under pro-social circumstances, people are not likely to respond if they do not have some personal relationship with the victim; rather, they hold the perception that someone having a personal relationship with the victim will come to about his/her aid. Under antisocial conditions, diffusion of responsibility increases the likelihood of a person engaging in negative behaviors when the individual is the journal referencing context of a group comprising of similarly motivated people. Negative behavior is motivated by the deindividuating impacts, diffusion of feelings regarding personal responsibility for outcomes (Hudson and Bruckman 147).

The helping behavior of individuals is accurately explained using the aspect of diffusion of responsibility. This is because social psychological research have revealed that individuals failure to provide assistance to others in emergency situations is not grounded by Is the Impact of Showing in Nursing Practice? apathy and indifference, but inhibited because of the presence of onlookers. Subsequent experiments by John Darley and Bibb Latane pointed out the decision to assist or respond relies on the number of present bystanders. The size of the group had considerable influence on journal referencing the probability of helping in cases of staged emergencies: 85 percent of The Conflict Between Loyalty and Greed participants intervened in the absence of other bystanders, whereas 62 percent responded when with another bystander, and only 31 percent responded in the presence of four other onlookers. Other research studies have reported similar results including reports obtained from actual emergency scenarios like calling ambulance. In ambiguous scenarios, the appraisal of the scenario by the individual and corresponding inaction or action relies on the reactions of onlookers present. The interpretation of an emergency situation by other onlookers has a significant influence on the individuals helping behavior and perception of the emergency scenario. One of the most significant aspects that Darlene and Latane did not take into account in their experiments was the referencing presence of bystanders who lack the capability of helping. However, other studies have affirmed that diffusion of responsibility does not take place in cases where a bystander is perceived as lacking the capability to help. Diffusion of responsibility is also helpful when viewed from the perspective of group psychology and can be helpful in imposing positive behavior.

For instance, when one bystander decides to take responsibility during emergency situations and on What Is the of Showing Empathy Practice? undertakes an assistive action, there is the likelihood that other bystanders will follow suit. Therefore, the presence of other bystanders usually has an effect on the helping behavior of an individual through diffusion of responsibility and social influence (Graham 147). There are other reasons that Darley and Latane do not take into account when explaining the bystander effect. Other reasons why people may not react in emergency situations include the assumption that other onlookers are extremely qualified to provide assistance in emergency conditions such as law enforcement officers and medical doctors; as a result, their assistance would not be required. Individuals are also faced with issues of experience evaluation apprehension and the fear of appearing as a loser among other onlookers. In addition, people do not like being superseded by other superior assistants, which creates a perception that they may be providing unnecessary assistance. Journal Referencing! Other factors that inhibit individuals from providing help include the fear of facing the legal outcomes and providing substandard and perhaps dangerous aid. A limitation of Darley and Latanes explanation of the topics bystander effect is that it only focuses on journal referencing informational social influence and ignores other forms of conformity such as normative social influence.

Normative social influence usually takes place when an individual conforms in order to be accepted by a social group. According to the social impact theory, normative social influence increases with an enlargement in the group size. Nazi! This can be used to challenge the concept of bystander effect, wherein an journal individual can opt to provide assistance in order to be accepted. Similar, people may opt to follow the actions undertaken by an individual who is providing assistance in order to achieve social acceptance. Another aspect of conformity not explained by Essay Empathy in Nursing Practice? Darley and journal referencing Latane is minority influence, wherein an individual in a minority group aims at influencing the majority group to accept the beliefs and behavior of the minority group (Hudson and Bruckman 100). Experiments conducted by Darley and examples Latane provided precise explanations for journal the bystander effect, a social psychological occurrence that refers to scenarios where individuals do not provide help during emergency cases to the victim in the presence of other people. This paper has illustrated that the bystander effect takes place through social influence and diffusion of responsibility, with the murder case of minos inferno Genovese Kitty serving as a classical example of the journal referencing bystander effect.

Graham, Richards. Psychology: The Key Concepts. New York: Taylor Francis, 2009. Print. Hudson, James and Amy Bruckman. The Bystander Effect: A Lens for Experimenting Enzymatic Understanding Patterns of journal Participation. Journal of the Learning Sciences 13.2 (2004): 165-195.

Print. Levine, Mark and Thompson, Kirstien. Identity, Place, and Bystander Intervention: Social Categories and minos inferno Helping After Natural Disasters. Journal of Social Psychology 144.3 (2004): 229245. Print. Levine, Mark and journal Simon Crowther. The Responsive Bystander: How Social Group Membership and Group Size Can Encourage as Well as Inhibit Bystander Intervention. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology 95.6 (2008): 14291439. Print.

Meyers, David. Social Psychology. New York: McGraw- Hill, 2010. Print. Miles, Hewstone, Jonas Klaus and Stroebe Wolfgang. An Introduction to Social Psychology. Topics! New York: John Wiley Sons, 2012. Print. Nairne, James. Psychology. New York: Cengage Learning, 2010.