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biogrph 1810 Frderic François Chopin is pros and cons records born in in america, Zelazowa Wola, 54 kilometers from Warsaw, by his own statement on pros and cons of electronic medical March 1, on February 22, according to the entry in the register of births; arguments as to is a the precise date continue. 1816 The six-year old Chopin begins to learn the piano with the Czech teacher, Wojciech Zywny (1756-1842), who used to base his teaching on Bach and Mozart. In spite of Zywny's teachings, Chopin had a will of his own. Whilst practising he amused himself more with improvisation and pros and cons of electronic medical making up pieces, than in the playing of scale or finger exercises (though later, as a teacher, he put great belief in such systematic practice). 1817 First efforts at composition: the Polonaise in B flat major, written down by his father, and other dances, as well as marches and variations now lost.

In November 1817, a short Polonaise in G minor was published. In the same year he so impressed the Grand Duke Constantine that he ordered it be scored for band and performed. No copies seem to have survivied and the original manuscript is also lost. 1818 His first major concert was on February 24th 1818 at the age of seven. He played a Gyrowetz concerto in the aid of charity. Apparently his only worries whilst playing was what the in america public thought of his velvet jacket and collar.

1819 As a so-called child prodigy, Chopin begins to play in and cons of electronic, such aristocratic houses as those of the Czartoryski, Sapieha, Czerwertynski, Radziwill, Lubecki, Skarbek, Tenczynski, Zajaczek, Zamoyski, Mokronowski, Grabowski, and other families. 1822 Completes piano studies with Zywny and begins private composition lessons with Josef Elsner. 1823 During the beginning of process of muscular, autumn, Chopin left Zywny and become a pupil at the Warsaw Lycuem. Here, Chopin began his formal education and and cons of electronic music had to take a side step Latin and Greek, along with other subjects. For all his efforts, his spelling refused to improve, and to the end of puritanism, his life he continued to mis-spell foriegn words. During the long hot summers of Central Europe, Chopin would go for pros records holidays to the country estates of his friends. He observed the dance step and rythms of the mazurka and other regional music - which he learnt to dance with expert fluency. He found time to sketch several pieces which he later developed into a body of memorable piano miniatures. 1825 He is invited to demonstrate a novel kind of piano-organ called with Aeolomelodikon, in the great hall of the Warsaw Conservatoire. For his efforts, he is presented with a diamond ring from the Tsar of Russia, Grand Duke Alexander I. On June 2th, the Warsaw Courier announced the publication of of Learning, Chopins first offical work, the pros and cons of electronic medical records Rondo in C Minor, Op 1. The Rondo was dedicated to his headmasters wife.

The music was regarded as an astonishingly fluent achievement for a fifteen year old, even though he had left his offical studies with music since 1821. 1826 He completes his studies at the Warsaw Lyceum on 18th amend July 27 with commendation. Among his friends there was Julian Fontana. In September, he enrolls at medical records, the Fine Arts Department of the Warsaw University. There he composes his Sonata in C minor op.

4 and the Variations in B flat Major on the theme La ci darem la mano op. 2 from romeo words, Mozarts Don Giovanni. 1828 Chopin headed off to Berlin with a friend of his father, who was attending a zoological conference. Whilst in Berlin, Chopin found himself in the presence of Mendelssohn, but felt shy about introducing himself. Mendelssohn's life and work provided Chopin with more self confidence in pros medical records, what he was hoping to achive with his music, namely a more exciting and rewarding life. On returning to Warsaw, Chopin found the social life of the town, the balls and soiorees and so on. Cognitive Of Learning Essay? In the and cons of electronic medical end, he became very bored with it all and within a year was traveling once again. 1829 First visit to Vienna where he played concerts and received critical acclaim. The audience's response was very favorable and Chopin was impressed with the warm acceptance of his music and pianistic abilities.

1830 Performs the Concerto in F minor with a small orchestra for family and friends. Then gives its premiere in Warsaw's National Theater on March 17. Process Of Muscular Contraction? On October 11, he played the Concerto in E minor at the National Theater. Pros And Cons Records? From this period also came the Rondo a la Krakowiak, Fantasia on Polish Airs, and some of the 18th amend Etudes op. Of Electronic? 10. He is upset about the political situation in Poland and the Warsaw uprising.

1831 While in The Role of Ethics Back Essay, Vienna he continues to compose some Mazurkas and Etudes, attends the opera and immerses himself in the local musical life. Pros Medical? According to Cognitive of Learning Essay some unconfirmed sources, the first sketches of the 1st Scherzo and Ballade originated in Vienna. He leaves Vienna in the summer, traveling via Linz to and cons of electronic medical Salzburg, Munich, Stuttgart and Paris, where he settles in process, an appartment at Boulevard Poissonniere 27. And Cons Of Electronic? More unconfirmed sources indicate that sketches of the Revolutionary Etude op. 10, No. 12 and the Prelude op.

28, No. 24 were composed in Stuttgart. First reports of his ailing health begin. 1832 On February 26, he gives his first performance in Paris at the Salle Pleyel playing the Concerto in E minor, and joined by Extinct to Life other artists including Hiller, Osborne and Stamaty. In the audience were Franz Liszt and Felix Mendelssohn. In the summer, the poet Adam Mickiewicz arrives in pros medical records, Paris. The Role Extinct Back Essay? Chopin becomes a well known teacher and frequents the best Parisian aristocratic, social and political circles. He dedicates his entire set of Etudes op.

10 to Liszt, whose way of playing them quite impressed Chopin. His relationships with the Paris' artistic and and cons medical records literary elite intensify. 1833-1834 Very productive time; a period in which the number of Chopin's editions greatly increases, published by the following: M. Schlesinger in Paris, F. Kistner in Berlin and Breitkopf and Hartel in Leipzig. Among the is a plant eukaryotic works are the pros and cons Variations Brillantes, the Rondo op. 16, and the Waltz op. 18. Enters the soirees among Vincenzo Bellini's circle. 1835 Completes the Andante Spianato , Grande Polonaise Brillante , and the Scherzo No. 1 . Prepares the Mazurkas Op. 24 and the Polonaises Op. 26 for publication.

He later meets the poet Adam Mickiewicz. He travels to meet his parents and continues on to Dresden and process contraction Leipzig where he has a series of meetings with Robert Schumann, Mendelssohn. Chopin is very ill during the winter months and drafts a will and testament. 1836 His illness returns in pros of electronic medical records, the Spring, but in September he makes an offer for the hand of 17-year-old Maria Wodzinska. The engagement is kept secret. Process Contraction? Later he travels to Leipzig and meets Schumann, playing for him fragments of the Ballade No. 2 , some studies, nocturnes, and mazurkas. This is the and cons of electronic records year when the following works appear in print for the first time: Concerto in F minor , Polonaise Op. 22 , Ballade Op. Is A Plant Cell Eukaryotic Or Prokaryotic? 23 , Mazurkas Op. 24 , Polonaises Op.

26 , and Nocturnes Op. 27 . In late October he meets George Sand at a soiree of Countess Marie dAgoult. He did not like Sand on the first meeting. Pros And Cons Records? 1837 Continues to work on the Etudes Op. 25 , Mazurkas Op. 30 and 33 , Scherzo Op. 31 and the Nocturnes Op. 32 . He travels to London in the summer with Camile Pleyel.

Upon his return, his relationship with Madame Sand intensifies. In October, he publishes his Etudes Op. 25 dedicating them to Countess Marie dAgoult. In November he writes the Trio from the of muscular Funeral March Sonata on the eve of the anniversary of the 1830's November uprising in Poland. 1838 The rave reviews continue in Paris. Chopin gives a concert in the Tuileries at of electronic records, the court of Louis Philippe I, then at a concert given by Valentin Alkan at the Pape salons. He also plays at the apartment of the Duc dOrleans.

More impressive names cross Chopin's path: Victor Hugo, Eugene Delacroix, all attending the musical soirees where performances of Chopin's music took place, but also of his many welcomed improvisations. Sand, her children and Chopin leave for Majorca via Barcelona on the ship El Mallorquin. 1839 As he awaits for 18th amend his Pleyel piano from Paris, Chopin works on his Preludes Op. 28 . Also from this period is Scherzo in C sharp minor and the Polonaises Op. 40 . On February 13, he leaves Majorca as his health continued to deteriorate. And Cons Of Electronic Medical Records? After a week in Barcelona at the doctor, Madame Sand and Chopin arrive in romeo words, Paris. He continues to work on records those works, the Nocturne Op. 37, No.

2 , more Mazurkas from Op. 41 and the Funeral March Sonata . In America? Chopin teaching methodology included works by Bach, Beethoven, Clementi, Hummel, Moscheles, Cramer, Liszt, Hiller, Thalberg, as well as some of his own Etudes and Preludes. 1840 His illness progresses as he continues to give piano lessons to members of the aristocracy. It was the fashion among the ladies and girls of Paris society to be known as a pupil of Chopin. The following works were published during the summer: Sonata Op. 35 , I mpromptu Op.

36 , Nocturne Op. 37 , Ballade Op. 38 , Scherzo Op. 39 , Polonaises Op. 40 , Mazurkas Op. 41 , and the Waltz Op. 42. 1841 He continues to compose, among others: Polonaise Op. 44, Prelude Op. 45, Allegro de concert Op. 46, Ballade Op.

47 , and Nocturnes op. 48 . He later completes the Fantasie in f minor and begins working on the Mazurkas Op. 50 . Pros Of Electronic Medical? 1842 Chopins performances are regular and lucrative for him. He works on Social Essay the Ballade Op. Pros And Cons Of Electronic Records? 52, Polonaise Op. 53, Scherzo Op. 54 , the Impromptu , and the Mazurkas Op.

50 . His popularity reaches Poland, where rave reviews and articles about him are written frequently. Puritanism? 1843 As his health worsens, his reputation increases. Wrote Heinrich Heine in Lutece : Chopin is a great poet of music, an artist of genius who can only be mentioned beside Mozart, Beethoven, Rossini or Berlioz. Chopin and Sand go to Nohant in the summer where he works on the Nocturnes Op. 55 and the Mazurkas Op. 56 . Composes the Sonata Op. 58 and perhaps the Berceuse in the summer and autum. 1845 His health continues to deteriorate as he composes and corresponds with friends and family. He also attends concerts in Paris and and cons records receives visits from the likes of Delacroix and romeo Mickiewicz. He composes the Mazurkas Op. 59, completes the Sonata for cello , the Barcarolle and the Polonaise-Fantasie . 1846 This was the last summer at Nohant, a long and stormy one.

He worked hard on of electronic medical the Nocturnes Op. 62, Mazurkas Op. 63 , and the Sonata for cello Op. 65 . 1848 February 16, at 18th amend, the Pleyel salon, he plays his last concert in Paris, which included some preludes, mazurkas, waltzes, the Berceuse , the Barcarolle , and with Auguste Franchomme his own cello sonata. A few days later the February revolution breaks out in Paris, reducing the number of lessons, and and cons records thus affecting his livelihood. He travels to England and stays there for 7 months. He gives concerts in salons and public halls and lessons to the aristocracy; meets Queen Victoria, Charles Dickens and Lady Byron.

From England he goes to Scotland, where he performs and 18th amend also composes ( Waltz in b minor ). Returns to Paris via London in November. He is very ill. Pros? 1849 He stops teaching, visits the sick Mickiewicz, plays and improvises there. Puritanism In America? He receives numerous visits from friends, pupils and society ladies. Also Delacroix is a regular visitor. Sketches of his last work, the Mazurka in f minor , dates from this summer. His sister Ludwika with her daughter and husband arrive in Paris in August to visit the and cons of electronic medical ailing Chopin. Many people visit him at his new apartment at Place Vendome 12.

He orders all his unpublished and of Learning uncompleted works to be thrown on the fire. He said to Wojciech Grzymala: You will find many works, more or less worth of me; in the name of the affection which you hold for me, please burn them all apart from the beginning of my method for pros and cons of electronic medical records piano. The rest, without any exception, must be consumed by fire, for I have too much respect for plant eukaryotic or prokaryotic my public and pros and cons medical records I do not want all the pieces unworthy of my public to puritanism be distributed on my responsibility under my name. In his last hours, as Pauline Viardot recounts, he still found the strength to say a warm word to everyone. At two oclock on October 17, after midnight, Chopin is dead. Cyprian Kamil Norwid wrote in his obituary: A member of the family of medical records, Warsaw by nationality, a Pole in his heart. and a citizen of the world by his talent has passed from this world. On October 30, funeral in Social Cognitive of Learning Essay, the Church of St. Magdalene.

Preludes in E minor and of electronic B minor as well as Mozart's Requiem were performed in accordance with his wishes. The Role Species To Life Essay? At the Pere-Lachaise cementary the Funeral March from the of electronic medical Sonata Op. In America? 35 was played in Napoleon-Henri Reber's instrumentation. Also in accordance to his wishes, his heart was taken to Warsaw and placed in the Holy Cross Church in Warsaw.

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Pros and cons of electronic medical records

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Martin Luther King Jr. biography essay: The Life and Times Of Dr. Martin Luther King Jr. The Martin Luther King Jr. Pros Of Electronic Records! biography essay provides an insight into the thinking of this man who was considered as a genius of is a cell eukaryotic or prokaryotic his time. In order to understand Dr. King, we will be required to look through the life and the times he had to and cons medical, learn about how he came to be considered as a person who was different from the rest. A number of essays have been written about Dr.

King some of which look like thesis topics and could very well confuse a newcomer about the subject being spoken about. Of Ethics In Bringing Back To Life Essay! However, it must be understood this is just the way of and cons medical writing a writing a persuasive essay and must not be confused with some other subject. It was on January 15, 1929 when Michael King Sr. and Alberta Williams King had a baby, who was their middle child and decided to Christian him as Michael King Jr. The families of contraction King and Williams had a firm foothold in rural Georgia where the grandfather of Martin Jr., A.D. Williams was a rural minister before moving to pros of electronic records, Atlanta in 1893. He had taken over 18th amend, the tiny but struggling Baptist church of Ebenezer along with 13 members to convert it into a congregation that was strong. AD married Jennie Celeste Parks with whom he had one surviving child who was christened as Alberta. The union between the families took place in 1926 after a courtship of eight years with the newlyweds moving into the A. D. Williams home in Atlanta. Martin Luther King Jr. biography essay: What Led To the of electronic medical Birth of The American Dream? Martin Luther King Jr. biography essay looks into the reasons why Dr. King believed in the American dream and the reasons why a movement was established to show the way forward for people to believe that indeed it is an American dream.

It can be said that this is one of the best case study examples to have been seen in a long time. Contraction! History is evidence to pros and cons of electronic records, the fact that a number of people have been coming to America in search of a better life because of a perception this is the land of opportunities. The Role Of Ethics Back To Life Essay! When Dr. King said, I Have a Dream he believed all humans were created equal and should be allowed to pursue their dreams by utilizing the opportunities available in the country for education and work. During those times, these opportunities were restricted to some races, be it the Japanese or even the African-Americans. Pros And Cons Of Electronic! There was a difference of opinion about romeo and juliet who could write anengineering paper and who couldn't because of the restrictions placed by the law. It was these differences that led Dr. King to pros and cons of electronic records, make the proclamation that African-Americans did not have the freedom and therefore, led to the Declaration of Independence. Dr. Martin Luther King Jr. biography essay attempts to give an understanding of the man and the reasons why he decided to take the actions needed.

It was the segregated bus policy of Montgomery, which initially gave rise to in america, the movement in pros of electronic medical, 1955 when a girl just aged 15 refused to offer her seat to a white man on a city bus, which was then considered as a violation of the law. The incident saw the arrest of the girl who was taken to jail. In America! Another incident in December 1955 fueled further sparks to the incident when again a colored woman refused to give up her seat and was arrested to be found guilty of medical violating the court and also had to pay a fine. It was these incidents and at the prompting of the head of the local NAACP leader who had a meeting with Dr. King Jr. and other leaders of the civil rights movement that a plan to boycott the citywide bus was put in place. As a young and well-trained individual with good family connections, Dr. Social Theory! King was considered as a great leader of professional standing. What made things even better was that he was new to the community and did not have adversities of any kind. The opportunity allowed Dr. King to use the dissertation methodology and explain to people why he was fit to records, lead them. Therefore, it was believed he would be credible enough with the community of Blacks.

Alabama's civil rights struggle received fresh energy from the skillful rhetoric of Dr. King Jr. leading to a bus boycott that lasted 382 days causing plenty of difficulties for the African-American community. After a period of puritanism litigation going through several courts, the Supreme Court decided to lift the segregated public transportation mandate, which had been put, in pros medical, place by the law. The leaders of the civil rights movement recognized the need for 18th amend coordinating their efforts under the leadership of Dr. King Jr. and other ministers leading to the formation of the Southern Christian leadership conference to harness the authority along with the organizing power of churches within the pros and cons medical community of Blacks. It also served as a national platform because it had the participation of King Jr. and this was the The Role of Ethics in Bringing Extinct Species Back Essay place, which gave African-Americans the voice to enfranchise themselves in the process of pros of electronic medical voting. A number of of Ethics Extinct to Life protests organized by the SCLC were held in February 1958 with Dr. King meeting civil rights and of electronic medical, religious leaders and talking about race -related issues throughout the country. It was a struggle, which continued until August 1963 and the historic March on Washington, which led Dr. Martin Luther King Jr. to make the speech, which is now famous as the I have a dream speech. Dr.

Martin Luther King Jr. essay is an explanation of how Dr. King made it possible for African-Americans to Cognitive Essay, overcome the second-class treatment they were getting from the infamous Jim Crow laws, which had been enforced nearly a century ago. The civil rights movement finally resulted in the passage of the Civil Rights Act in 1964 and authorized the federal government to do away with desegregation of all kinds. Dr. Martin Luther King was awarded the Nobel Peace Prize for his acts in 1964. The various struggles he was involved in finally had an impact on Martin Luther King Jr. after a number of confrontations and by living under the threat of and cons of electronic medical death constantly. The slow progress of the civil rights movement was also proving to be a discouragement for Dr. King and a number of African-American leaders. It was finally in 1968 that Dr. King was assassinated in his motel room balcony when he was struck by a sniper's bullet. The assassin was finally apprehended and sentenced to 99 years in prison.

Martin Luther King Junior biography essay is not an eukaryotic or prokaryotic attempt to give people an pros medical records understanding who Dr. King was but just to is a eukaryotic, make clear, he had certain qualities, which prompted many leaders from the African-American community to choose him as their leader. The qualities to pros and cons of electronic medical records, describe them best are as follows: Dr. King was exposed to racism from an early age.

He had an education and a solid background to be classified as a leader for African-Americans. He had a belief and the conviction to in america, say all Americans must be treated equally regardless of their race. Most importantly he had a dream, which most others had not thought about. The dream Dr. King made it possible for them to bring about and cons of electronic records permanent changes in the American way of life, which until this day believes that it is a land of opportunities where all humans are created equal. The movement created by Dr. King established the fact that America is a land of limitless opportunities and is open to all people who wish to Cognitive Theory Essay, make it a goal to get there.

The Martin Luther King Jr. biography essay provides an insight into pros and cons records, the thinking of this man who was considered as a genius of 18th amend his time. In order to and cons, understand Dr. King, we will be required to look through the Social Cognitive Theory Essay life and the times he had to learn about how he came to be considered as a person who was different from the rest. A number of essays have been written about Dr. King some of which look like thesis topics and could very well confuse a newcomer about the subject being spoken about. However, it must be understood this is just the way of writing a writing a persuasive essay and must not be confused with some other subject. It was on pros records, January 15, 1929 when Michael King Sr. and Alberta Williams King had a baby, who was their middle child and decided to Christian him as Michael King Jr.

The families of King and Williams had a firm foothold in rural Georgia where the grandfather of Martin Jr., A.D. Williams was a rural minister before moving to in america, Atlanta in 1893. He had taken over the tiny but struggling Baptist church of Ebenezer along with 13 members to of electronic, convert it into a congregation that was strong. AD married Jennie Celeste Parks with whom he had one surviving child who was christened as Alberta. The union between the families took place in 1926 after a courtship of eight years with the Essay newlyweds moving into the A. D. Williams home in Atlanta. Martin Luther King Jr. Pros Of Electronic Medical! biography essay: What Led To the Birth of 18th amend The American Dream?

Martin Luther King Jr. And Cons Medical! biography essay looks into the reasons why Dr. King believed in the American dream and the reasons why a movement was established to show the way forward for people to believe that indeed it is an American dream. It can be said that this is one of the best case study examples to have been seen in a long time. History is evidence to the fact that a number of people have been coming to America in of muscular, search of a better life because of a perception this is the pros and cons medical land of opportunities. When Dr. The Role In Bringing Species Back To Life! King said, I Have a Dream he believed all humans were created equal and should be allowed to pros and cons medical records, pursue their dreams by utilizing the romeo words opportunities available in the country for medical education and in america, work. Pros And Cons! During those times, these opportunities were restricted to Social Essay, some races, be it the Japanese or even the African-Americans.

There was a difference of opinion about who could write anengineering paper and who couldn't because of the of electronic records restrictions placed by the law. Social! It was these differences that led Dr. King to make the proclamation that African-Americans did not have the and cons of electronic records freedom and therefore, led to the Declaration of Independence. Dr. Martin Luther King Jr. biography essay attempts to give an 18th amend understanding of the pros and cons medical man and the reasons why he decided to take the Cognitive Theory of Learning actions needed. It was the medical segregated bus policy of Montgomery, which initially gave rise to of Ethics Extinct Species to Life Essay, the movement in pros of electronic medical records, 1955 when a girl just aged 15 refused to offer her seat to a white man on a city bus, which was then considered as a violation of the law. The incident saw the arrest of the girl who was taken to jail. Another incident in December 1955 fueled further sparks to the incident when again a colored woman refused to give up her seat and was arrested to puritanism, be found guilty of violating the court and also had to pay a fine. It was these incidents and at the prompting of the and cons head of the local NAACP leader who had a meeting with Dr. King Jr. and other leaders of the civil rights movement that a plan to boycott the citywide bus was put in place. 18th Amend! As a young and well-trained individual with good family connections, Dr.

King was considered as a great leader of professional standing. What made things even better was that he was new to the community and did not have adversities of pros and cons any kind. The opportunity allowed Dr. King to use the dissertation methodology and The Role Extinct to Life Essay, explain to people why he was fit to lead them. Therefore, it was believed he would be credible enough with the community of Blacks. Alabama's civil rights struggle received fresh energy from the skillful rhetoric of pros of electronic Dr.

King Jr. 18th Amend! leading to and cons records, a bus boycott that lasted 382 days causing plenty of in america difficulties for the African-American community. After a period of litigation going through several courts, the Supreme Court decided to lift the segregated public transportation mandate, which had been put, in place by the law. The leaders of the civil rights movement recognized the need for coordinating their efforts under the and cons of electronic leadership of Dr. Process Contraction! King Jr. and pros records, other ministers leading to the formation of the Southern Christian leadership conference to harness the The Role of Ethics Extinct Species to Life authority along with the organizing power of churches within the community of and cons medical records Blacks. It also served as a national platform because it had the participation of King Jr. and this was the place, which gave African-Americans the voice to enfranchise themselves in the process of voting. A number of protests organized by the SCLC were held in February 1958 with Dr. King meeting civil rights and 18th amend, religious leaders and talking about and cons medical race -related issues throughout the country. It was a struggle, which continued until August 1963 and the historic March on Washington, which led Dr.

Martin Luther King Jr. to make the speech, which is now famous as the I have a dream speech. Dr. Martin Luther King Jr. essay is an explanation of how Dr. Words! King made it possible for African-Americans to overcome the second-class treatment they were getting from the infamous Jim Crow laws, which had been enforced nearly a century ago. The civil rights movement finally resulted in the passage of the Civil Rights Act in 1964 and authorized the federal government to do away with desegregation of all kinds.

Dr. Martin Luther King was awarded the Nobel Peace Prize for his acts in 1964. The various struggles he was involved in finally had an impact on of electronic medical, Martin Luther King Jr. after a number of confrontations and by living under the threat of death constantly. The slow progress of the romeo and juliet words civil rights movement was also proving to be a discouragement for Dr. King and a number of African-American leaders. It was finally in 1968 that Dr. King was assassinated in his motel room balcony when he was struck by a sniper's bullet. The assassin was finally apprehended and sentenced to 99 years in prison. Martin Luther King Junior biography essay is medical, not an attempt to give people an understanding who Dr.

King was but just to make clear, he had certain qualities, which prompted many leaders from the African-American community to choose him as their leader. The qualities to describe them best are as follows: Dr. King was exposed to racism from an early age. Process! He had an education and a solid background to be classified as a leader for African-Americans. He had a belief and the conviction to say all Americans must be treated equally regardless of their race. Most importantly he had a dream, which most others had not thought about.

The dream Dr. King made it possible for them to bring about permanent changes in the American way of life, which until this day believes that it is a land of opportunities where all humans are created equal. The movement created by Dr. King established the fact that America is a land of limitless opportunities and is open to all people who wish to make it a goal to get there. The Martin Luther King Jr. biography essay provides an insight into the thinking of and cons of electronic medical this man who was considered as a genius of his time. In order to understand Dr. King, we will be required to look through the life and the times he had to learn about how he came to be considered as a person who was different from the The Role of Ethics Species Essay rest.

A number of essays have been written about Dr. King some of which look like thesis topics and could very well confuse a newcomer about the subject being spoken about. However, it must be understood this is just the pros of electronic records way of writing a writing a persuasive essay and puritanism in america, must not be confused with some other subject. It was on pros and cons of electronic, January 15, 1929 when Michael King Sr. and 18th amend, Alberta Williams King had a baby, who was their middle child and decided to Christian him as Michael King Jr. The families of of electronic King and Williams had a firm foothold in rural Georgia where the grandfather of Martin Jr., A.D. Williams was a rural minister before moving to Atlanta in 1893. He had taken over the tiny but struggling Baptist church of Ebenezer along with 13 members to convert it into a congregation that was strong. Contraction! AD married Jennie Celeste Parks with whom he had one surviving child who was christened as Alberta.

The union between the families took place in pros medical, 1926 after a courtship of eight years with the newlyweds moving into the A. D. Williams home in Atlanta. Martin Luther King Jr. biography essay: What Led To the Birth of The American Dream? Martin Luther King Jr. biography essay looks into the reasons why Dr. King believed in puritanism in america, the American dream and and cons of electronic medical records, the reasons why a movement was established to show the way forward for people to believe that indeed it is an American dream. It can be said that this is 18th amend, one of the best case study examples to have been seen in a long time. History is evidence to the fact that a number of people have been coming to America in search of pros records a better life because of a perception this is the land of opportunities. When Dr. King said, I Have a Dream he believed all humans were created equal and should be allowed to pursue their dreams by utilizing the opportunities available in the country for education and work. During those times, these opportunities were restricted to some races, be it the Japanese or even the African-Americans.

There was a difference of opinion about who could write anengineering paper and who couldn't because of the puritanism restrictions placed by the law. It was these differences that led Dr. King to make the proclamation that African-Americans did not have the freedom and therefore, led to the Declaration of Independence. Dr. Martin Luther King Jr. biography essay attempts to give an understanding of the man and the reasons why he decided to take the pros records actions needed. It was the segregated bus policy of 18th amend Montgomery, which initially gave rise to the movement in 1955 when a girl just aged 15 refused to offer her seat to a white man on and cons records, a city bus, which was then considered as a violation of the law. The incident saw the arrest of the girl who was taken to jail.

Another incident in December 1955 fueled further sparks to the incident when again a colored woman refused to in Bringing, give up her seat and pros medical records, was arrested to be found guilty of violating the court and also had to pay a fine. It was these incidents and at the prompting of the head of the local NAACP leader who had a meeting with Dr. Puritanism! King Jr. and other leaders of the civil rights movement that a plan to boycott the citywide bus was put in pros of electronic, place. As a young and well-trained individual with good family connections, Dr. King was considered as a great leader of professional standing.

What made things even better was that he was new to the community and is a cell eukaryotic, did not have adversities of pros and cons records any kind. The opportunity allowed Dr. King to 18th amend, use the dissertation methodology and explain to pros, people why he was fit to lead them. Therefore, it was believed he would be credible enough with the community of Blacks. Alabama's civil rights struggle received fresh energy from the skillful rhetoric of Dr. King Jr. leading to a bus boycott that lasted 382 days causing plenty of difficulties for the African-American community.

After a period of litigation going through several courts, the Supreme Court decided to lift the segregated public transportation mandate, which had been put, in contraction, place by the law. The leaders of the pros medical records civil rights movement recognized the in america need for coordinating their efforts under the leadership of pros and cons of electronic records Dr. King Jr. and other ministers leading to the formation of the Southern Christian leadership conference to harness the authority along with the Cognitive Theory Essay organizing power of churches within the community of Blacks. It also served as a national platform because it had the participation of King Jr. and and cons of electronic medical, this was the place, which gave African-Americans the voice to enfranchise themselves in the process of voting. A number of protests organized by the SCLC were held in February 1958 with Dr. King meeting civil rights and religious leaders and talking about race -related issues throughout the romeo and juliet country. It was a struggle, which continued until August 1963 and the historic March on Washington, which led Dr.

Martin Luther King Jr. to make the speech, which is now famous as the I have a dream speech. Dr. Martin Luther King Jr. essay is an explanation of how Dr. Of Electronic Records! King made it possible for African-Americans to overcome the second-class treatment they were getting from the infamous Jim Crow laws, which had been enforced nearly a century ago. Puritanism In America! The civil rights movement finally resulted in the passage of the Civil Rights Act in 1964 and authorized the federal government to do away with desegregation of all kinds.

Dr. Martin Luther King was awarded the Nobel Peace Prize for his acts in 1964. The various struggles he was involved in finally had an pros and cons of electronic records impact on Martin Luther King Jr. after a number of confrontations and by living under the threat of death constantly. The slow progress of the civil rights movement was also proving to puritanism, be a discouragement for Dr. And Cons Of Electronic Medical! King and a number of African-American leaders.

It was finally in Extinct, 1968 that Dr. King was assassinated in and cons medical, his motel room balcony when he was struck by a sniper's bullet. The assassin was finally apprehended and sentenced to 99 years in prison. Martin Luther King Junior biography essay is not an attempt to give people an understanding who Dr. King was but just to make clear, he had certain qualities, which prompted many leaders from the in america African-American community to choose him as their leader. The qualities to describe them best are as follows: Dr. King was exposed to racism from an early age. Medical Records! He had an education and a solid background to be classified as a leader for African-Americans. He had a belief and the conviction to say all Americans must be treated equally regardless of their race. Most importantly he had a dream, which most others had not thought about.

The dream Dr. King made it possible for them to bring about permanent changes in the American way of life, which until this day believes that it is a land of opportunities where all humans are created equal. The movement created by Dr. King established the fact that America is a land of limitless opportunities and is open to all people who wish to make it a goal to get there.

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A Murder Mystery Unfurled in a College Admissions Essay. Every so often on The Choice, we traverse into do-not-try-this-at-home territory, and the story told in a new novel called #8220;The November Criminals#8221; would seem to fit that category. And Cons Of Electronic Medical! As described in a review in The Times Book Review on Sunday, the book, by The Role of Ethics in Bringing Back to Life Sam Munson, is #8220;a murder mystery that takes the form of pros and cons of electronic records a rambling college admissions essay.#8221; Here#8217;s how the reviewer, Joseph Salvatore, who teaches writing and literature at is a eukaryotic, the New School, synthesizes the plot: Addison Schacht, the conflicted hero of #8216;The November Criminals,#8217; is less interested in committing a crime than solving one. And though no one in the admissions office at the University of Chicago has asked Addison to discuss the murder of his high school classmate Kevin Broadus, he uses the application’s essay assignment (#8216;What is pros records, your best quality? What is your worst quality?#8217;) as a chance to get some things off his chest. The result is no tidy, eager-to-please essay but a book-length spiel — concerning, among other things, Virgil’s #8216;Aeneid,#8217; Holocaust jokes, dope dealing, friends with benefits, classic cinema, adolescent ennui, Latin grammar and syntax, Jewish numerology, anti-Semitism, struggles with guilt, the hypocrisy of liberal politics, race relations in the United States, the philosophical downside of living in D.C. and, oh yeah, who killed Kevin Broadus.

Mr. Salvatore#8217;s ultimate assessment: The list of topics sometimes makes this novel, Sam Munson’s first, feel a bit shaggy. But, more often, #8216;The November Criminals#8217; is puritanism, both a thoughtful coming-of-age story and an engaging teenage noir. Think of it as an and cons of electronic, existential murder mystery for the stoner pre-college set — Keanu Reeves’s #8216;River’s Edge,#8217; as written by Camus. If readers of The Choice have given this book an is a, early read #8212; or have other admissions-related fiction to suggest, like last year#8217;s “Admission” by Jean Hanff Korelitz #8212; please use the comment box below to let us know. Comments are no longer being accepted. Favorite Admissions Book, Non-Fiction: the peerless (despite being dated) Questions and Admissions: Reflections on 100,000 Decisions at Stanford, by Jean Fetter. Of Electronic! Favorite Admissions Book, Fiction: Jane Austen in Scarsdale, by 18th amend Paula Marantz Cohen. Pros And Cons Of Electronic Records! Can#8217;t wait to read this one.

Thanks for the point. Acceptance, by Susan Coll, was excellent fun fiction as well. The Overachievers is another non-fiction winner in of muscular contraction, my book. read november criminals after suffering through the admissions process and after seeing the review in the post. it was surprisingly great. Jacques: I read with interest your article from May 16th called #8220;Plan B, Skip College#8221; and wanted to alert you to pros, the fact that there is a great alternative to college in the Washington Metro Area. The UAM special showcase Open House event is romeo and juliet, happening tomorrow. Perhaps you can do a feature article on this wonderful contest and medical, the outcome of this national contest.

It#8217;s the United Association’s District II Apprenticeship Contest. This year’s contest will be held at the U.A. Mechanical Trade School, located at 8509 Ardwick-Ardmore Road Landover, MD, 20785. This event is hosted by is a cell eukaryotic or prokaryotic Plumbers Local No. 5, Steamfitters Local No. 602 and Sprinkler Fitters Local No.

669. This contest is pros and cons, held to determine the best plumber, steamfitter, sprinkler fitter, welder and H.V.A.C. tech that will represent District II in the International Apprenticeship Contest of the of Learning Essay United States and Canada being held this August. District II is comprised of 8 states, including the District of Columbia as well as Maryland, Virginia, Ohio, Indiana, Kentucky, Pennsylvania, West Virginia, and Indiana. The three day competition will encompass trade-related projects that are part of a skilled journeyperson’s craft. We are having an open house with a tour of pros and cons records our facility on Wednesday, June 9th from 10:00 a.m. until 2:00 p.m. Puritanism! with lunch provided. This “Pipe Trades Industry Day” will include area high school students, school administrators and civic leaders from the participating jurisdictions. There will be interactive learning, trainers covering green awareness, fire safety, career opportunities, and a chance to observe the competition. A remote radio broadcast, along with Washington, D.C. area sports professionals, will be onsite to help encourage young men and pros of electronic medical, women on romeo words choosing rewarding career paths. It is very exciting for our area to get the opportunity to pros of electronic records, host this event that dates back to 1954. We would be thrilled if you would be available in puritanism in america, joining us to pros, help us showcase what career opportunities in the piping trades are available in the D.C. / Metro area. If you should have any questions, please feel free to contact Jim Killeen at puritanism, (301) 899-7861.

The favor of a reply is requested by June 4th, 2010. Does any one find it ironic that the student#8217;s name is Kevin Broadus? For those of pros and cons medical you who do not follow college basketball, Kevin Broadus(same spelling) is the The Role of Ethics in Bringing Extinct to Life Essay NCAA I college basketball coach from Binghamton University currently on and cons of electronic records suspension for violating a couple of NCAA rules and has had 6 members that he recruited suspended from the plant cell eukaryotic team. Most in the local community despise both the image both he and the adminstration at BU have done to pros and cons medical, the school. I wonder if the Cognitive Theory author is from the area?

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English 245: Film Form and Culture. Christopher Nolan is an pros of electronic records, American/British film-maker, who lives and works in London and Los Angeles. He first started making films (on Super8) when still a child. He studied English literature at University College, London, which he chose specifically because they had the 18th amend facilities to make films. His debut feature was Following (1998), a neo-noir thriller. He has made some of the highest grossing films of all time, such as The Dark Knight , the pros and cons second film in his Batman “reboot” series, which grossed over a billion dollars at the box office. Filmography (as director): All of Nolan’s films have been critically acclaimed. His films have been nominated for 21 Academy Awards. This is astounding given the in america short period of time he has been making films. Particularly notable are the eight Oscar nominations each for The Dark Knight and Inception . His films have won 6 Academy Awards, most for sound and medical records visual editing.

His films have also been nominated for 21 BAFTA awards (winning 6). His films have won many other international film awards. Nolan has never won an Oscar for Best Director. Words! In fact, he has not ever been nominated, not even for The Dark Knight and Inception , which were both nominated in the Best Picture category. Some consider this a historic snub. Typically, Nolan writes and directs his films (his brother Jonathan has co-written some of the and cons films). He also often produces his films as well (his wife Emma Thomas has produced the films he hasn’t produced). Having creative control of The Role in Bringing Extinct Back Essay his films makes him an auteur. However, this is complicated by the fact that, since Memento , he has created his films under the auspices of Warner Brothers, which is (still) a major Hollywood movie studio. The easiest explanation for this is that he has proven himself at the box-office, and on the international award circuit, and can command any kind of budget he likes, including the huge budgets attached to pros of electronic, Hollywood studio films. Inception was a summer blockbuster from the summer of 2010.

Critics acknowledge that it was an atypical summer fare; some have called Inception a “thinking person’s blockbuster.” Richard Corliss writes that “the picture’s main pull is not visceral but intellectual, in the style of 18th amend Euro puzzle films of the past 50 years . . . but as Nolan told The New York Times , with ‘way more explosions.'” The film made over $800 million at the box office and, as already mentioned, was nominated for eight Academy Awards, winning four. Even before the film came out it was the subject of intense speculation and debate. This is records, true of its “after-life” as well. Plant! Even now, a few short years after it was released, people enjoy discussing the film and what it means – particularly the ending of the film. The film is set in the near future when new techniques and drugs allow people to share dreams. Dom Cobb is a former dream architect who now uses his expertise in shared dreaming to engage in industrial espionage, stealing business secrets from people while they are sleeping.

This is called “extraction.” He is also on the run after being charged with murdering his wife. After a failed attempt at extraction, Cobb is offered a job by a man named Saito to do the impossible: implant an idea in the mind of a competitor (Fischer), a process called “inception.” The idea is that he should break up the energy conglomerate that he inherited from his father. Cobb puts together a crack team of and cons operatives for the job, including a dream architect named Ariadne. After entering his mind in a dream state, Ariadne learns that Cobb is Social of Learning, haunted by pros of electronic medical, the memory of his dead wife, who manages to foil every job that he designs himself. That’s why Ariadne must design the dream, and Cobb can’t know the details. In order to fool the puritanism host dreamer, Ariadne must design an incredibly intricate dream world with multiple layers. For the and cons medical records Fischer job, she must create a dream world with three layers – each a complex, self-contained world. The three layers are in fact a dream within a dream within a dream. The main danger in dream architecture is that if it seems too real, the dreamer may confuse the dream for reality. We learn that, in his past, Cobb has experienced this catastrophic confusion. His technique for countering this is to use a totem, an object that follows the laws of physics in the real world, but not in the dream.

His totem is a spinning top. In the film, however, it is suggested that this is not a fool-proof method. It is possible Cobb is only dreaming that his totem is 18th amend, behaving as it should in reality. The film poses philosophical conundrums such as: How do we distinguish between reality and fantasy (ontology)? How do we distinguish between objective and subjective truth (epistemology)? How do we distinguish between the pros and cons medical records self and the world (that is, other selves)?

Mark Fisher notes that in the film “there’s a shift from the epistemological problems posed by unreliable narrators to plant or prokaryotic, a more general ontological indeterminacy, in which the nature of the whole fictional world is put into doubt.” He adds: “In Nolan’s world, it’s not only that we deceive ourselves; it’s also that we’re deceived about even having an authentic self. There’s no separating identity from fiction.” These issues are at and cons of electronic medical the core of postmodern philosophy, which I discussed in a previous blog entry. There are also many issues relating to psychology that are addressed in the film, such as the importance of dreams in understanding the unconscious mind and the way unconscious ideas shape the formation of the person. This is what “inception” is about: planting ideas in the unconscious mind which lead to a personal re-orientation, a re-programming, a new person. In the Social Cognitive Theory of Learning Essay film, both Cobb and pros and cons of electronic medical records Fischer have this experience: the action within the dream becomes a kind of psychotherapy. Leon Saunders Calvert makes the observation that “for a filmmaker within the Hollywood system, Christopher Nolan is unusually pre-occupied with psychological human states to the degree that they often act as primary theme of his films.” He suggests that psychology is usually the 18th amend preoccupation of auteurs, not Hollywood directors. Calvert has analyzed the pros records film from an is a plant cell eukaryotic, psychological (or more specifically psychoanalytical) perspective, based on ideas of records Sigmund Freud, such as: The rebellious unconscious: “The unconscious mind of the individual is 18th amend, a mass of pros and cons of electronic contradictions and by definition remains uncontrolled and unordered.” The unconscious reveals itself in dreams: “Psychoanalytic theory argues that during sleep the romeo and juliet barrier weakens and the unconscious bubbles out, albeit often in disguised form.” Oedipal/Electra conflicts: “Another foundation of psychoanalytic thought is the overwhelming significance of the child’s relationship with its parents.” The unconscious and of electronic medical records the social self: “The unconscious self has a huge impact on how we interact with the world and The Role of Ethics Back to Life with others.” The seductive power of fantasy: “Psychoanalytic theory has also provided us with important insights into human fantasies. . . . And Cons Medical Records! The psychological pull of the fantasy is all the greater when we perceive it as simple reality.”

Some critics make the case that Inception deals not just with psychology, but with religion. And Juliet Words! There are a number of pros records ways the film can be read as a religious story. Throughout the Theory of Learning Essay film, characters are urged to and cons of electronic records, take the The Role of Ethics Back to Life Essay leap of faith. They must abandon their skepticism and believe in pros medical, a reality that transcends their conscious mind and reality itself. This is a religious impulse and imperative. The themes of guilt and redemption are also important in the film, and these too are deeply religious. In the film, the journey to limbo (unconstructed dream space) suggests a perilous journey to 18th amend, underworld, where demons are confronted. This is the central theme of quite a few religious texts, including Dante’s Inferno and The Tibetan Book of the Dead, to name just two classic world religious texts. Many critics of the film have pointed out the similarity between dreams and the experience of viewing films. According to Corliss, this is nothing new: “The idea of of electronic records movie-going as communal dreaming is puritanism in america, a century old.”

Colin McGinn argues that. movies delve into our dreaming self, that submerged and seething alter ego that emerges when the sun goes down. In the cinema we relive the pros and cons of electronic records life of the Social dreaming self. Movies thus tap into the dreaming aspect of human nature. Moreover, they improve upon our dream life. They give us the dreams we yearn for. And Cons Of Electronic Records! It is a rare individual who is not fascinated by his own dreams, with their raw ability to reveal, their magical expressiveness; movies partake of this fascination. Of Ethics Back Essay! The impact of movies stems, then, at least in part, from the primal power of the pros and cons of electronic dream.

To be sure, the dream component of the movie experience is is a, augmented by pros of electronic records, the special qualities of the medium, but the cell eukaryotic primary emotional hook originates in the evocation of the dream. (Qtd. in Calvert). Jason Staples describes how Inception functions like a dream: The construction of medical dream worlds for shared dreaming serves as an excellent metaphor for film itself (and ‘myth’ in general), as it involves the Species Back to Life creation of a virtual reality, a shadow-like imitation of the real world into which people can journey together, guided by the ‘architect’ (writer/director). As people are naturally resistant to pros of electronic, new or outside ideas, those media (like film) that can influence people’s thinking without drawing the attention of their (often militarized) subconscious guards are especially powerful forms of of Ethics Back to Life communication and agents of cultural change. Like a shared dream state, films, video games, novels, and other narrative media immerse a receptive subject within a different, shared virtual world(view) – even potentially planting outside assumptions or ideas in the subject’s unguarded subconscious.

But the of electronic medical idea of The Role of Ethics in Bringing Inception as an analogy for film can be extended beyond the experience of viewing film to of electronic, the business of creating film. According to this interpretation, put forward by critics Devin Faraci, Mark Fisher, and 18th amend Richard Corliss: Cobb is the and cons of electronic medical records director Arthur is the 18th amend producer Ariadne is the screen-writer Saito is the studio honcho Fischer is the audience. In interviews, Nolan denies that he was trying to and cons medical records, create an analogy in the film between dreaming and film-viewing or film-making. Puritanism In America! But Fisher counters: “If a century of cultural theory has taught us anything, it’s that an author’s supposed intentions can only ever constitute a supplementary (para)text, never a final word.” Fisher thinks, despite Nolan’s intentions, Inception is of electronic, very much about the film-making business, and not in romeo and juliet words, a good way. Fisher suggests it might be unconscious on medical, Nolan’s part, but it nonetheless reveals a creative mind in thrall to in Bringing Extinct to Life Essay, Hollywood entertainment film and global capitalism. Inception is less a meta-meditation on the power of cinema than, more interestingly, a reflection of the way in which cinematic techniques have become imbricated into a banal spectacle which – fusing business machismo, entertainment protocols, and breathless hype – enjoys an unprecedented dominion over our working lives and our dreaming minds. . . . Inception ‘s arcades and and cons of electronic records hotel corridors are on the contrary those of is a plant cell or prokaryotic a globalized capital whose reach easily extends into the former depths of and cons medical records what was once the unconscious.

There’s nothing alien, no other place here, only a mass-marketed ‘subconscious’ recirculating deeply familiar images. Fisher believes that Nolan is not just the creator of romeo and juliet words a film called Inception , but someone who uses film to practice inception. Just as in the film inception is used for the benefit of corporate interests, it is used in the multiplex to indoctrinate movie viewers in the ideology of capitalism. He writes: “Nolan’s films are preoccupied with . . . the lies that we tell ourselves to pros and cons of electronic medical records, stay happy. Yet the situation is worse even than that. It’s one thing to lie to oneself; it’s another to not even know whether one is lying to puritanism in america, oneself or not.” In Marxist terminology this is called “false consciousness,” the process by which we are unconsciously socialized and indoctrinated into pros and cons of electronic medical records, the values of the ruling class.

Staples has a similar concern: “The most potent and puritanism influential ideas [in the film] are those so thoroughly socialized and internalized that, their origins long forgotten, they are presupposed without argument.” What Staples is writing about is and cons of electronic records, ideology, which we have been discussing all throughout the second half of the course, beginning with Far From Heaven . Critics like Fisher and Staples argue that the process of “false consciousness” is at of Ethics Extinct Species Back to Life Essay work in the film, in the same way that inception works. For inception to be successful, the host has to believe that the implanted idea is theirs. In other words, they must come to believe that the lie is true, and pros records not only that: that it is a deeply personal truth. According to Fisher, “in Inception , as in late capitalist culture in Social Cognitive of Learning Essay, general, you’re always in someone else’s dream, which is also the dream of no one.” It is the dream of capital, and those who control capital. I would suggest this is particularly true of the violence in the film. Viewers consume shocking amounts of violence in the film without thinking about it because it is entertaining in itself and part of a story that is written in such a way to make the violence seem inconsequential (it’s all just a dream). I like to call this “ The Matrix Complex” (because the same thing happens in that film).

Critics like Fisher insinuate that Nolan is the purveyor of the Hollywood blockbuster mentality, cleverly masquerading Inception as an art film. While I believe this critique has some validity, I think the opposite may be equally true: Nolan is an auteur who cleverly masks his art films as popular entertainment. That is the pros and cons main reason I chose Inception as the last film in this course. Nolan is a master of film technique, an auteur; he is process contraction, prescient in his grasp of the zeitgeist; and pros of electronic medical records he understands how to romeo and juliet, insert “big ideas” into his film without seeming pretentious. But he does all this in Hollywood, which is quite an accomplishment. It is something that the online film critic Eileen Jones would applaud, and hold up as a shining example of what Hollywood film studios can accomplish, as long as they embrace their own pro-business aesthetic and refuse to slavishly follow the standards of of electronic medical records European art film. Richard Corliss says of Inception : Though the plot is really one giant hallucination, it’s an experience that doesn’t blow your mind so much as challenge it. Viewers will have to work to process, keep up with all the shifting perspectives and layers of deceit. Medical! Inception is like the coolest, toughest final exam – or like the dream of one, in which you’re suddenly in class and you realize you didn’t prepare for the big test. This is a movie that you’ll wish you had crammed for. But reading this blog entry is preparation for Social, the final exam, so you won’t be totally unprepared (and hopefully won’t have the it’s-the-day-of-the-final-and-I-haven’t-studied-all-semester nightmare).

Cobb, in and cons medical, Inception , offers a final thought (that might never leave you): “The most persistent parasite is an idea. Once it takes root in the brain, it’s almost impossible to eradicate.” University of Maryland. Leon Saunders Calvert, “ Inception : Film, Dreams and Freud,” Offscreen 15.5 (May 31, 2011). Robert Capps, “QA: Christopher Nolan on Dreams, Architecture, and Ambiguity,” Wired (November 29, 2010). Richard Corliss, “ Inception : Whose Mind Is It, Anyway?”, Time (July 14, 2010).

Mark Fisher, “The Lost Unconscious: Delusions and Dreams in Inception,” Film Quarterly 64.3 (Spring 2011). Jason Staples, “Shadowlands, Myth, and the Creation of of Ethics Species Meaning in Inception, ” Journal of Religion Film 14.1 (April 2010). Chicago 10 and Postmodern Documentary. The first films were documentaries. Pros And Cons Of Electronic Medical Records! Louis and Auguste Lumiere, the 18th amend French brothers credited with the invention of the cinema, called their short films “actualites.” They were depictions of and cons of electronic records actual life, recording such things as workers leaving a factory or a train arriving at a station. However, even in The Role Extinct Species Essay, these early films, some of the human figures acknowledge the camera, and are sometimes characters in pros and cons medical, rudimentary narratives – as in The Waterer Gets Watered (1895).

I also noted, in class, the subjective nature of the camera. Even if you point your camera at something and turn it on, you’re only getting one possible vantage point, and leaving out a lot of information. Shooting a camera entails choosing what the audience will see, and not see. So, from the very beginning of Theory of Learning Essay film history, the line dividing the pros medical objective from the subjective, the factual from the fictional, the real from the artificial, has been blurred. This is still true, perhaps even more so, in film today, as I explain below. The effort to of muscular contraction, distinguish documentary realism and narrative illusion became more necessary once story-based film came to dominate the industry. Documentarians claimed realism for themselves, leaving fantasy to the big movie studios. We see this in the ethnographic films of Robert Flaherty, in and cons of electronic medical, the 1920s.

However, critics now question Flaherty’s realism. Your textbook authors write: Flaherty’s Nanook of the North (1922), about the Inuit people in Canada, and Man of Aran (1937), about the Aran Islanders off the puritanism west coast of Ireland, are voice-of-authority documentaries organized by intertitles that explain the activities depicted. Pros And Cons Medical! In his zeal to 18th amend, valorize what he considered the blissfully primitive cultures of the Inuit and the Aran islanders, however, Flaherty misrepresented the cultures he intended to of electronic medical, document (290). The example they give in the textbook is when Nanook (or Allakarillak, his real name), “feigns awe at 18th amend the sight of the gramophone,” something which Nanook had actually seen before (290). Flaherty has him pretend not to know about and cons of electronic records, such modern conveniences in order to reveal his innocence of modernity, his blissful ignorance. I gave a couple other examples in class. Flaherty had Nanook construct only half an igloo – a set made of puritanism in america ice – so that he would have the light to shoot inside the pros medical igloo.

The way the film is shot, the half-igloo appears to be whole. Social Essay! Flaherty also staged Nanook’s capture of a seal – what Nanook was really yanking on was a rope that was attached to two or three members of the film crew, not a seal. When all this came to light, exposed in films like Nanook Revisited , some critics concluded that it was difficult if not impossible, even in medical, documentaries, to separate what is real and true from what is imaginary and false. The Role Of Ethics To Life Essay! They similarly saw no good way to distinguish the film-maker’s subjective view from the objective presentation of reality. Towards Postmodern Documentary. One prominent response to this situation was to embrace fictionality and subjectivity in the documentary. And Cons! In this sense, the documentary film becomes a performance by the film-maker, rather than an objective recording of reality. Errol Morris was one of the first film documentarians to do this.

As your textbook puts it: Morris adopts a bemused perspective on of muscular, his subjects: his ironic distance is made evident through editing. He juxtaposes images of one subject with interviews with another, so it seems as if the pros and cons of electronic records people he interviews are making comments about the lives and Social of Learning Essay work of other people. . . Pros And Cons Of Electronic Medical! . By pairing a subject’s statements with seemingly unrelated images, Morris adds dimension to the interviews, introducing ideas that none of his subjects has voiced. Morris gets at one truth by is a plant or prokaryotic, allowing the interviewees to tell their own stories yet his editing encourages the audience to and cons records, make unusual connections. (284). Michael Moore, the director of Fahrenheit 9/11 (which won the 18th amend prestigious Palme d’Or at pros and cons of electronic medical Cannes in 2004) is a film documentarian that you’re likely more familiar with. Moore is always a participant in his films, he is always performing on camera, usually as a humorous gadfly character. Moore’s subjectivity – his responses, his opinions, his outrage – is part of the subject. Some think Moore is refreshingly candid in putting his own point of 18th amend view front-and-center in his films; others think he is an medical, unbearable, opinionated blowhard. Morris and Moore were early practitioners of postmodern documentary, a form of documentary that has become popular – largely because of film-makers like Morris and or prokaryotic Moore. Before getting into postmodern documentary film, it’s important to say something about postmodernism, and postmodern film more generally.

For our definition of postmodernism, we go to Margaret Wertheim, of the Faith and Reason program on PBS. A general and wide-ranging term which is applied to literature, art, philosophy, architecture, fiction, and pros and cons of electronic medical cultural and literary criticism, among others. Postmodernism is largely a reaction to the assumed certainty of scientific, or objective, efforts to explain reality. In essence, it stems from process a recognition that reality is not simply mirrored in human understanding of it, but rather, is constructed as the mind tries to understand its own particular and personal reality. For this reason, postmodernism is highly skeptical of explanations which claim to be valid for all groups, cultures, traditions, or races, and instead focuses on the relative truths of each person. In the postmodern understanding, interpretation is and cons of electronic records, everything; reality only comes into being through our interpretations of plant cell what the pros and cons medical world means to us individually. Is A Plant Cell! Postmodernism relies on concrete experience over records, abstract principles, knowing always that the outcome of one’s own experience will necessarily be fallible and relative, rather than certain and universal.

Postmodernism is 18th amend, “post” because it is denies the existence of any ultimate principles, and records it lacks the optimism of there being a scientific, philosophical, or religious truth which will explain everything for everybody – a characteristic of the so-called “modern” mind. The paradox of the postmodern position is that, in placing all principles under the scrutiny of its skepticism, it must realize that even its own principles are not beyond questioning. As the philosopher Richard Tarnas states, postmodernism “cannot on is a cell eukaryotic, its own principles ultimately justify itself any more than can the various metaphysical overviews against which the postmodern mind has defined itself.” This can be broken down further. Below are the five main concepts regarding postmodern culture more generally. Postmodernism. calls into question “grand” theories that purport to explain everything for everyone forever (Enlightenment, liberalism, Marxism, Freudianism, etc.) claims there is no universal/objective truth; everything is subjective and relative holds that the self is socially constructed (undercutting individualism, agency, and freedom) is suspicious of media, particularly the and cons power of visual media to recreate, represent, and cell replace the real (Baudrillard’s “simulacrum“) blurs the border between reality and representation. In terms of aesthetics, postmodern works of art are characterized by.

non-linear, fractured narrative self-referentiality/self-reflexivity (irony) pastiche/bricolage/intertextuality/fragmentation/genre bending the leveling of pros and cons of electronic medical records high/low culture blurring the romeo words border between fact and fiction. It should be evident that fiction films would have less problems with postmodernism, as defined above, than documentary films. Documentary films are not supposed to be subjective or fake, whereas that is very much allowed in fiction films. In its cultural skepticism, postmodernism relentlessly attacks the and cons records essence of documentary realism. Postmodernism and Documentary Realism. Representing the postmodern perspective, Krystin Arneson writes of documentaries: Like photography, documentaries are a representational medium: They record and occasionally reconstruct the everyday reality viewers typically cannot experience themselves. Because photography is an indexical sign signifying truth, audiences understand the documentary, a moving photograph, to signify truth also. However, they are able to make the distinction between the ?everyday reality? presented by documentaries and the fictive ?reality? of 18th amend cinematic films. But the pros and cons of electronic medical records documentary?’s version of reality is not as innocent as it presents itself to be. Because of the perceived indexical truth-value of the film, the is a audience is drawn into an everyday reality that seemingly doesn’t need questioning.

There is ?a sense of co-presence between creator and viewer that gives the viewer the sensation of being both here, now, looking at the image and there, then, looking at pros what the image represents or evokes.? For Arneson, it is difficult to separate objective from subjective truth in postmodern documentary. As a ?human document? dealing with not only the hard facts but also the romeo words ?social and pros and cons medical records personal aspects? of the theme, the documentary is romeo and juliet words, a representational, recorded version of the everyday created through ?[the director?s] personal interpretations of what he or she chooses to place in front of the camera lens.? The ?informational value is of electronic, mediated through the perspective of the person making it, and it is presented as a mixture of emotion and information (Stuart Hall, Representation: Cultural Representations and 18th amend Signifying Practices [Philadelphia: Open University Press, 1997], 83) This ?mediation,? or personal interpretation of the topic, is and cons of electronic medical records, influenced by any number of factors: preconceived attitudes, biases, and what story they hope to get out of the filming. Essay! Frederick Wiseman, a documentary maker himself, writes of the impossibility of objectivity in representation: ?Any documentary made in no matter what style, is arbitrary, biased, prejudiced, compressed and subjective. And Cons Of Electronic! Like any of its sisterly or brotherly fictional forms, it is born in choice – choice of plant cell eukaryotic subject matter, place, people, camera angles, duration of shooting, sequences to be shot or omitted, transitional material and cutaways (Toby Miller, Technologies of Truth: Cultural Citizenship and the Popular Media, ed. Michael Renov, Faye Ginsburg, and Jane Gaines [Minneapolis: University of Minnesota Press, 1998], 225). No matter how objectively a filmmaker approaches a topic, they will always be filtering the topic through their personal lens ?- not just the camera?’s. Subjectivity, and therefore a departure from the real, is thus introduced in the documentary as soon as the pros and cons of electronic records filmmaker makes a decision on The Role of Ethics Extinct Back, how the everyday should be represented. This begins the moment the camera turns on and continues until an audience views the final product. Linda Williams has also written on postmodern documentaries, though with less suspicion.

In an analysis of Errol Morris’s The Thin Blue Line (about someone’s wrongful conviction for murder) and of electronic records Claude Lanzmann’s monumental Shoah (about the Holocaust), Williams focuses on is a cell eukaryotic or prokaryotic, the. low-budget postmodern documentary borrowing many features of the and cons of electronic medical records fiction film. My goal . The Role Species Back To Life Essay! . . Medical! is to get beyond the much remarked self-reflexivity and 18th amend flamboyant auteurism of of electronic medical records these documentaries, which might seem, Rashomon -like, to abandon the contraction pursuit of truth, to what seems to me their remarkable engagement with a newer, more contingent, relative, postmodern truth—a truth which, far from pros and cons of electronic records being abandoned, still operates powerfully as the receding horizon of the documentary tradition. (312) The lesson that I would like to 18th amend, draw from pros and cons records these two exemplary postmodern documentaries is thus not at and juliet words all that postmodern representation inevitably succumbs to a depthlessness of the simulacrum, or that it gives up on truth to wallow in the undecidabilities of representation. Of Electronic Medical Records! The lesson, rather, is that there can be historical depth to The Role Species Back to Life, the notion of and cons records truth – not the depth of unearthing a coherent and unitary past, but the depth of the past’s reverberation with the present. If the authoritative means to process, the truth of the past does not exist, if photographs and records moving images are not mirrors with memories, if they are more, as Baudrillard has suggested, like a hall of mirrors, then our best response to puritanism, this crisis of representation might be to do what Lanzmann and Morris do: to and cons records, deploy the many facets of these mirrors to reveal the seduction of romeo and juliet lies. (325).

That is, they construct “truths to dispel pernicious fictions, even though these truths are only relative and contingent. While never absolute and never fixed, this under-construction, fragmented horizon of truth is one important means of combating the pernicious scapegoating fictions that can put the of electronic wrong man on death row and enable the extermination of a whole people. (325). Williams seems to puritanism in america, suggest that personal, subjective truth, presented by someone personally involved (as an pros and cons medical records, advocate, etc.), is better than no truth at all. Pure moral relativism, the absolute denial of objective truth, leads to in Bringing Extinct Species Essay, paralysis, whereas engagement in the issue gets us a little closer to the truth. Chicago 10 as Postmodern Documentary. Chicago 10 is pros of electronic medical, generally recognized by critics and reviewers as a postmodern documentary (as defined above). Jim Emerson writes that the film. bursts with Yippie-ish irreverence and political fervor.

The movie intercuts archival footage with colorful motion-capture animation (voiced by some really good actors), based upon actual transcripts of the trial. Romeo And Juliet Words! These play, quite intentionally, like countercultural Looney Tunes, with Hoffman the Younger as the pros and cons medical Tasmanian Devil and Hoffman the Elder as Elmer Fudd. . . Of Ethics In Bringing Extinct Back To Life Essay! . The irreverent attitude of Chicago 10 is in pros of electronic, synch with the times it portrays. Puritanism In America! Giddy, funny and sometimes nightmarishly absurd, it’s an apple-cart-upsetting performance piece shot through with blasting music from pros medical records Eminem, the 18th amend Beastie Boys and Rage Against the Machine [and let’s not forget “War Pig,” performed by Black Sabbath, during a key juncture of the film]. As an activist documentary with a contemporary agenda, it doesn’t pretend to be “objective” (whatever that means), but to find inspiration in the passion and irreverence of its heroes. Chicago 10 is “irreverent” and “doesn’t pretend to be ‘objective’.” It upsets the “apple cart “of film – and particularly documentary film – convention. When the animation starts near the beginning of the film we know this will be no ordinary documentary. And Cons Of Electronic! By combining documentary realism with exaggerated animation, Chicago 10 mixes high and low culture and calls into question the veracity of what we see, since we typically associate animation with fantasy and fiction. This cognitive dissonance is amplified by the fact that there are at least three different kinds of animation utilized in the film.

The variety of animation styles, mixed with archival footage, also highlights the pastiche/bricolage/intertextuality/fragmentation/genre bending of the film. Social Theory Of Learning Essay! It is edited together in a seemingly sloppy, slap-dash manner, which is not poor work but rather the film-maker’s attempt to use the deconstruction of film form as a way to challenge the authorized version of reality, which passes itself off as universal, objective truth. Chicago 10 is fragmented in its form. And Cons Of Electronic! It is also fragmented in its narrative. Process Of Muscular Contraction! You are no stranger to fractured narrative. The film Adaptation has a famously convoluted narrative, and and cons of electronic is postmodern in just about every way.

But, again, fiction films are allowed to play around with narrative (even in 18th amend, Hollywood films), whereas documentaries are meant to and cons of electronic medical records, reflect the real, without bias or a subjective viewpoint. The best way to interrogate this is to present a historical narrative that jumps around in time, and refuses to privilege one account over others. This is what Morgen does in Chicago 10 . Relatedly, Chicago 10 is self-referential. Puritanism! Formally and thematically, Morgen draws attention to his film as an artificial construct. He makes visual “jokes,” he “winks at the audience.” The best example of this is early on in the courtroom when Abbie Hoffman blows a kiss towards a juror and the “camera” follows the of electronic medical kiss to its destination, on the juror’s cheek (which the judge according to the transcript, tells the jury to disregard). The mimicry of live-action cinematography in fiction films is common in animated films, but here, in a documentary, it is meant as an of Ethics in Bringing Extinct Species Back Essay, ironic commentary on film-making. At the pros of electronic medical same time, the 18th amend film looks critically at the kind of pros and cons medical spectacle that postmodernists typically question. In the in Bringing to Life film, it is pros and cons of electronic, Abbie Hoffman who examines the topic, in the form of political theater. Hoffman argues that politics is nothing more than “theater and The Role of Ethics Extinct Back to Life magic.” He says to a reporter: We believe that politics is the way you live your life, not who you support.

It’s not in terms of rallies or speeches or political programs. It is in terms of images and in terms of pros of electronic records transforming people’s lives. In ideological war, the romeo side who controls visual representation is the side that usually wins. Hoffman and pros and cons his Yippie cohorts understood this very well, which is why they managed so successfully to dramatize the protests at of Ethics in Bringing Extinct the Democratic convention, and the trial itself, on their own very colorful terms. It’s also why we still find these historical figures compelling, because their antics – nominating a pig as president, creating a melee at the New York Stock Exchange by throwing money into the pit, encircling and attempting to levitate the Pentagon – are such good theater, which makes them tailor-made for film treatment. As Emerson puts it: In the great 1960s clash of generational values, Hoffman believed that his side would prevail because it had better symbols. As he framed it, the comedic/dramatic faceoff was between peace, love and freedom on one hand, and war, repression and oppression on the other. When you look at it in those terms, it’s hard to argue with him.

In the end, Morgen’s documentary follows the template of the and cons of electronic records postmodern advocacy documentary described by puritanism, Williams. Pros Of Electronic Medical! Morgen is 18th amend, clearly an advocate of the and cons of electronic medical activists depicted in puritanism in america, Chicago 10 , and their radical politics. Though he uses postmodern techniques, it seems very likely that Morgen did not intend to and cons records, cast suspicion on process of muscular, the actions or even the ideology, of the anti-war counterculture. Unlike more postmodern films, and many postmodern documentaries, Chicago 10 doesn’t just question and pros and cons records undercut the idea of objective truth, asserting instead an ironic – but untrustworthy – subjectivity. Chicago 10 takes sides, suggesting that some truths are better than others, and are worth fighting for, despite being partial, particular, and contingent. University of Maryland. Krystin Arneson, “Representation through Documentary: A Post-Modern Assessment,” Artifacts: A Journal of Undergraduate Writing 6 (March 2012). Jim Emerson, “Review of Chicago 10 ,” rogerebert.com (February 28, 2008). Margaret Wertheim. “Postmodernism.” Faith and Reason.

PBS. December 11, 2013. Linda Williams, “Mirrors without Memories: Truth, History, and the New Documentary,” eds. Brian Henderson and Ann Martin, Film Quarterly: Forty Years – A Selection (Berkeley, CA: University of California Press, 1999). http://ark.cdlib.org/ark:/13030/ft5h4nb36j/ Chicago 10 and the Counterculture. Brett Morgen is a writer/director/producer of documentaries. His first feature-length documentary, Ollie’s Army (1996), featured the former Marine and 18th amend conservative pundit, Oliver North (of Iran-Contra infamy).

In 1999, with Nanette Burstein, Morgen released On the Ropes , a documentary about three young boxers and their coach. This film was nominated for an Academy Award for Best Feature Documentary, and won a number of film awards, including the Special Jury Prize at the Sundance Film Festival, the Directors Guild of America award for best documentary, and the same award from the International Documentary Association. After On the Ropes , Morgen is perhaps best known for The Kid Stays in the Picture , an “inside-Hollywood” look at the controversial and legendary Paramount producer Robert Evans. This film was nominated for twelve minor film awards, winning four. Morgen’s latest documentary was Crossfire Hurricane , a television documentary about the medical records fiftieth-anniversary tour of the Rolling Stones. This film was nominated for four primetime Emmies, and won the “Golden Reel” award for plant eukaryotic, best sound editing. (This film can be favorably compared with Martin Scorsese’s 2007 documentary about The Rolling Stones, called Shine a Light ).

With its mix of archival footage and various forms of animation, Chicago 10 is a less conventional documentary than the ones Morgen made before. The film was generally well reviewed, though it was panned by some of the pros and cons records bigger media outlets and has not garnered the kind of awards that Morgen has previously won. Social Of Learning! There were mixed reviews on pros and cons of electronic, Morgen’s use of animation in the film. At Time Out , Ben Kenigsberg writes that. this unclassifiable cine-essay from Brett Morgen . . 18th Amend! . And Cons Of Electronic Medical! burnishes the in Bringing Extinct Species to Life Chicago Seven trial with an iGeneration makeover. Pros Of Electronic Medical! Alternating between archival footage and animated reenactments – somewhat clunkily scored with a contemporary soundtrack – this is the first nonfiction film that plays like a Matrix trailer. Mick LaSalle of the San Francisco Chronicle has a different take on the film. Social Theory! He concludes: In the end, the pros and cons medical records truest thing that can be said for “Chicago 10” is that, though Morgen did just about everything he could to Social Theory, make his movie unwatchable, the story was interesting enough to and cons, fight him to a draw. The film chronicles the creative provocations of anti-war activists at the Democratic National Convention in 1968 in Chicago, and the police push-back. Two of the defendants, Abbie Hoffman and 18th amend Jerry Rubin, were members of the newly-formed activist group, the Yippies.

The Yippies were well known for their political street theater, which took on monumental proportions in Chicago during the convention. Other defendants, such as Rennie Davis and and cons of electronic records David Dellinger, represented the slightly more mainstream peace group, the puritanism in america National Mobilization Committee, or MOBE. A third defendant, Bobby Seale, was an organizer for the Black Panther Party. The protesters street theater turned into a riot on the streets of Chicago. It is generally acknowledged now that it was Mayor Daley’s police who created the riot, not the protesters. But arguably this is exactly what the protesters wanted, since it showed quite concretely the lengths the authorities were willing to go to maintain order and pros perpetuate a repressive status quo based upon war and profits. When they went on trial, the leaders of the protest at the Democratic convention in 1968 brought their theater out of the streets and into the courtroom. The trial became a “circus,” but like the circus-like demonstrations, it was arguably the authorities (particularly Judge Julius Hoffman) who made it so – particularly in the silencing of Bobby Seale. Chicago 10 and the Counterculture. Earlier in the semester, when we viewed Apocalypse Now , we discussed the American counterculture of the romeo words 1960s and 1970s, which was characterized by and cons medical, newer, looser conceptions of “sex, drugs, and rock-n-roll,” and, eventually, anti-war protest.

I posted a blog entry in which I argued that Apocalypse Now shows the “dark side” of the counterculture, reflecting the moral exhaustion the followed the conclusion of the Vietnam War and the Watergate scandal (which forced the resignation of President Richard Nixon in 1974). By contrast, Chicago 10 shows us the vibrancy (and sense of and juliet words humor) of the student-led peace movement in the United States circa 1968. In this sense, Chicago 10 is more like Jean-Luc’s Godard’s Weekend , from 1967, than Apocalypse Now – though Godard is somewhat critical of his student revolutionaries, whereas Morgen is quite celebratory. Still, though in Chicago 10 we see the American counterculture through rose-colored, psychedelic glasses, there is a hint of dark times to pros records, come. We see this in the growing stridency and militancy of the plant peace movement, which would lead to and cons medical, some students taking up arms (and bombs) for peace. Previously in the 1960s, protests were more likely to 18th amend, feature hippie flower children putting flowers into the barrels on soldiers’ guns; post-1968 protests were much more chaotic, with protesters enveloped by clouds of tear gas and running from truncheon-swinging policemen. Pros Of Electronic Medical Records! Indicative of this is the romeo and juliet words violent tactics of the protesters in Chicago, and of electronic medical the ubiquitous use of the “p” word (“pig”) in 18th amend, reference to the police. As I mentioned in class, if you’re looking for historical background on pros medical records, the film, you’ll want to search for “the Chicago 7,” not “the Chicago 10.” That’s because most accounts focus on the seven white activists originally charged with inciting to riot, and treat Bobby Seale (also convicted) separately, and don’t consider the defense attorneys who were also jailed (for contempt of court). As the film makes clear, the defense attorneys actually spent more time in jail than most of the of muscular contraction defendants.

Morgen is right to consider Bobby Seale as one of the ten – despite not being one of the main organizers of the pros and cons medical protest, and being separated from the rest of the defendants – since his horrendous treatment (being denied the right to defend himself, dragged out of the courtroom, and later gagged in the courtroom) is is a or prokaryotic, one of the more controversial aspects of the trial. University of Maryland. Ben Kenigsberg, “Review of Chicago 10 ,” TimeOut (February 26, 2008). Mick LaSalle, “‘Chicago 10’ filmmaking fails story,” San Francisco Chronicle ( February 29, 2008). Three Experimental Films and Avant-garde Cinema. Also known as “experimental” and “underground” cinema, films of the avant-garde. tend to have broken, disjointed, or non-existent narratives often focus on some technical aspect of film usually “approach the medium as an aesthetic, philosophical, and/or political means of expression” ( Film: A Critical Introduction , 291) are generally antagonistic to conventional, Hollywood-style film-making.

According to and cons records, your textbook authors, there are five major kinds of avant-garde film: Surrealist. Films that violate narrative conventions, focus on the unconscious mind, and “reject conventional morality and poke fun at bourgeois values through form and content” (Film: A Critical Introduction 293). Abstract. Films that focus on objects rather than people; they also focus on issues involved in vision itself, as well as investigate the materials of the film medium (e.g.

Stan Brakhage). 18th Amend! City Symphony. Films that “celebrate the vibrancy of the pros and cons medical records modern world,” and combine documentary and experimental film. Romeo And Juliet! Structuralist. Films that concentrate on the use of the cinematic apparatus, such as strips of and cons of electronic medical records film, sound waves, cameras, and lenses. Compilation . Films that “reuse film footage in an entirely new context to generate innovative ideas” (299). The three short films I assigned for this week are certainly experimental, avant-garde films, but not all of them fit the textbook definition.

An Andalusian Dog (Un Chien Andalou) , written and directed by Salvador Dali and Luis Bunuel, and is a cell eukaryotic first released in pros and cons medical records, 1927, is the best-known example of 18th amend Surrealist film. Your textbook authors note that Surrealist films “are rife with humor, sexuality, and scandalous images. They reject conventional morality and poke fun at bourgeois values through form and content” (293). An Andalusian Dog intentionally confounds the expectations of the audience and purposefully violates most of the conventions regarding film narrative. It undermines any sense of coherent narrative, and pros revels in 18th amend, its irrationality. In this sense, it is just like a dream. Again, according to your textbook authors, the and cons of electronic records film subverts chronological time and narrative causality, and 18th amend mocks narrative form. And Cons Records! “The sequence of events is not coherent; viewers cannot make sense of the film using cause-and-effect logic,” and “unnamed characters have few goals or conflicts (although motifs include gender fluidity and process of muscular contraction sexual aggression” (293). Pros! Needless to say, the Cognitive Theory of Learning Essay film does not conform to conventional film-making represented by Hollywood. According to Martha Nochimson, in pros and cons medical records, An Andalusian Dog Dali and Bunuel mock “the assumption that there is any absolute reality. The Role In Bringing Species Back! Creating a film that has no traditional narrative syntax, that is, rules by pros and cons of electronic records, which the parts were joined to form a story, Dali and Bunuel set out to prove that all individuals and and juliet cultures are doing no more than connecting the dots according to their own limited perspectives when they talk about the real” (281).

An Andalusian Dog can best be understood as an experiment in Freudian dream analysis, utilizing the method of medical records free association. Just as dreams are deeply subjective, amorphous, and have their own logic, An Andalusian Dog works at the level of the subconscious mind, which includes the “sub-rational.” Like psychoanalysis, the film proceeds via free association, encouraging the viewer to randomly and automatically associate one thing with another. Though the film defies explanation, and the film-makers repeatedly refused to explicate the symbols of the film, one way to read An Andalusian Dog is as a journey through the stages of psycho-sexual development according to Freud. (I have created a separate blog entry on Freud’s stages, and another that walks you through a reading of An Andalusian Dog according to Freud.) There are many visual associations of in america a sexual nature in An Andalusian Dog (armpit hair representing pubic hair, the and cons of electronic records wounded hand representing the vagina, the close association of puritanism female breasts and pros and cons of electronic medical buttocks). There are other associations of a non-sexual nature (tennis racket for crucifix, shaken martini mixer for the father). Some of these images are taken right out of the Freudian playbook, others (such as ants crawling out of stigmata holes) are personal obsessions of Dali or Bunuel, which first appeared in dreams. Finally, in the film we see, in many different guises, the close association of sex with death, or eros (sexual desire) and thanatos (the death wish), which was one of is a plant eukaryotic or prokaryotic Freud’s later psychological theories. The final image of the film, in which the formerly vibrant lovers are now corpses half-buried in the dirt, makes this association quite clear. Meshes of the Afternoon was made, in the United States, in 1943. It was written, directed, and acted by Maya Deren and her husband at the time, Alexander Hammid.

According to pros and cons medical, your textbook, Meshes of the Afternoon is a late, American Surrealist film. It “explores the dream state, suspending the notion of chronological time while relying on characters, settings, and the semblance of narrative. Deren and her husband use domestic interiors as the nightmarish location for the dreamer’s vivid and self-destructive imagination” ( Film: A Critical Introduction , 293). The film blurs the border between dream and reality, to the point where we don’t know which is which. Deren said of the Meshes of the Afternoon : “This film is puritanism, concerned with the interior experiences of an individual. It does not record an event which could be witnessed by other persons. Of Electronic Medical Records! Rather, it reproduces the way in which the puritanism in america subconscious of an and cons of electronic medical records, individual will develop, interpret and elaborate an apparently simple and casual incident into a critical emotional experience.” (Commentary from of muscular contraction Maya Deren from the DVD release, Maya Deren: Experimental Films 1943–58 ).

As a number of critics have noted, it is the subjective camera work in the film that shows how the individual develops, interprets and elaborates emotional experience. Meshes of the Afternoon is often characterized as a feminist film. According to Theresa Geller, Deren worked tirelessly . . . as a filmmaker and activist in an otherwise masculinist avant-garde art world. The critiques she wages against the dominant representations women were met with vehement resistance by a rabidly patriarchal, and frequently misogynistic, avant-garde film culture that did not hesitate to conflate Deren herself with her films in their attacks” (140). As a feminist film, Meshes of the of electronic Afternoon shows the psychological oppression of women, which – in the case of the unnamed woman character – leads to suicide. The unnamed man in the film is part of this oppression; the The Role Extinct Species Back Essay woman’s dream shows him to be a ominous, threatening figure. In its feminism, the film is similar to Todd Haynes’s Superstar: The Karen Carpenter Story . Superstar: The Karen Carpenter Story. Superstar: The Karen Carpenter Story , written and directed by Todd Haynes while he was in graduate school, is a short biopic about the pop chanteuse of the 1970s who died of anorexia nervosa in 1983.

The moment you first see a Barbie doll playing Karen Carpenter, you know you are stepping into the avant-garde. Seeing Barbie dolls play all the characters, throughout the entire film, seals the and cons of electronic medical records deal. Haynes’s use of Barbie dolls has two main functions in the film. First, it is a subtle critique of the way girls and women are encouraged to puritanism in america, aspire to – or are indoctrinated in – an unrealistic and dysfunctional physical ideal, for the purpose of and cons of electronic records looking more attractive to men. Of Muscular! This is one way that women suffer as a result of the Male Gaze. Secondly, Haynes uses the of electronic records Barbie dolls to romeo, prevent the viewer’s identification with the characters in the film. That is, he puts into practice Brechtian distanciation (the alienation effect). And Cons! He attempts to put some critical distance between the viewer and the fantasy world of the and juliet film. Medical! However, as I mentioned in class, it doesn’t always work that way. I still managed to identify with the romeo characters and of electronic become immersed in the world of the film.

The melodrama of the plot and the music (and my own 1970s nostalgia) had a big part to play in puritanism in america, this. Like Meshes of the pros and cons of electronic medical Afternoon (and decidedly not like An Andalusian Dog ), Superstar can be considered a feminist film. The film shows how Karen Carpenter struggled with the expectations of her family and 18th amend society, which derived from a patriarchal ideology. The film also deals with the Male Gaze, as mentioned above. Related to this is Haynes’s critique of consumerism. The film suggests that consumerism was complicit in the death of Karen Carpenter, in that it was the consumption of Ex-Lax and Ipicac that led to of electronic, her anorexia. Ironically, Carpenter consumed these products as a form of un-consumption – she used them to starve herself. And she starved herself to meet an impossible physical ideal, to be pretty so that men might more easily consume her image. The film also critiques the counter-counterculture of 1970s, which was a conservative response to the counterculture of the early 1970s.

That is, Carpenter became the in america poster child of wholesome living, and the antithesis of sex, drugs, and rock-n-roll. This was another impossible ideal to fulfill, feeding into Carpenter’s sickness. It was exacerbated by the pressures of celebrity, of being a role model before you’re mature enough to pros medical, handle it. Cognitive Theory Of Learning Essay! This inevitably leads to cognitive dissonance, a conflict between who you are and pros and cons records who your are supposed to be (or forced by others to be). The film is Surrealist in some places (the spanking hand). It could be considered Abstract, particularly if you think dolls are objects and not people. It could also be considered a Compilation film in that Haynes inserts scenes from the liberation of the The Role in Bringing Species Back to Life Nazi Death Camps, and other seemingly inappropriate footage. It might seem that Haynes was going way over the top with such footage, in effect comparing anorexia nervosa to the Holocaust and the Vietnam War, but on a formal level it is justified – it is one way to offset the melodramatic story-line, and confound the nearly-automatic emotional response provoked by the music. University of Maryland.

Maya Deren, “Commentary to Meshes of the Afternoon ,” Maya Deren: Experimental Films 1943–58 (DVD) . Theresa L. Geller, “The Personal Cinema of Maya Deren: Meshes of the Afternoon and its Critical Reception in the History of the Avant-garde,” Biography: An Interdisciplinary Quarterly 29.1 (Winter 2006): 140-158. Martha Nochimson, World on Film (Malden, MA: John Wiley Sons, 2007). A Freudian Interpretation of of electronic An Andalusian Dog. The following is a Freudian interpretation of An Andalusian Dog ( Un Chien Andalou) . It is cell eukaryotic, one of of electronic medical many possible interpretations of the film. My reading draws upon Freudian psychology, which I summarized in another blog entry. The narrative of the film is illogical, like the narrative of a dream. Dream analysis was a preoccupation of both Freudian analysts and Surrealist artists. The film begins with the sexual act, which is an act of violence. This is represented by the sliced eye-ball of the woman. A child is born, a boy; birth, too, is a violent act.

This is or prokaryotic, represented by the injured boy who has fallen off his bike. The boy is disturbed by a sexually undifferentiated (androgynous) female and becomes aware of of electronic medical records his own sexuality. The boy is 18th amend, both hostile towards, and aroused by, the androgynous person. He takes sexual pleasure in her death. He desires his mother sexually, reaching for and cons, the breasts, the center of his libidinous pleasure. but is thwarted and held back by societal conventions (Ten Commandments, dead horse, pianos, priests) and by the threatened violence of his father, who berates him, in a sense saying “grow up!” The father forces the boy to abandon his childish ways and become more like him. This is represented by the father throwing the boy’s childish things out the window. The boy, in an expression of the Oedipal Complex, imagines killing his father. It is The Role of Ethics Species Back Essay, humorously represented as a shoot-out, the of electronic medical kind featured in cowboy or gangster films. Once this conflict is resolved, the father and the son assume their proper roles, with the son inevitably taking precedence over his father.

This is represented by the son being much taller than his father. (Granted, this association is even more illogical than the 18th amend ones previously discussed, since now the father and the son are played by different actors, in what seems to be another film entirely. A similar thing occurs at the end of the film.) Later, the and cons records boy, now grown to an adult, attempts to establish a healthy sexual relationship with a woman but he still shows feminine characteristics, which means he has not developed properly. This is represented by the woman’s armpit hair (standing in for her pubic hair) on the man’s face. Then we see the boy/man in a healthier aspect; his healthy individuation is indicated by a completely different actor playing the character. The woman is attracted to him, not to the other man who has not developed properly.

The man and his female lover walk along the shore, representing the font of life from which we all come and to which we all return. The man shows his disgust for childish things. Words! These are the same items the father threw out the pros medical records window earlier in is a eukaryotic or prokaryotic, the film. The film ends with death, at pros of electronic medical which point the cycle begins again. (Some have also seen, in this shot, an allusion to the bloody battlefields of World War I). Freud’s Stages of The Role Extinct Species Back Psycho-Sexual Development. Though the pros and cons records film defies explanation, and in america the directors Luis Bunuel and Salvador Dali repeatedly refused to explain the symbols of the and cons of electronic film, one way to read An Andalusian Dog (Un Chien Andalou) is as a journey through the cell eukaryotic stages of psycho-sexual development according to Sigmund Freud.

These stages are: Oral stage (from birth to eighteen months): the child is preoccupied by nursing, and identifies nursing with his or her libidinal energy. Weaning provokes a crisis, an initial separation between the child and the mother. Anal stage (eighteen months to 3 years): as the child is toilet-trained, he or she becomes obsessed with defecation. Of Electronic Medical Records! The child takes pleasure in defecation, which is countered by the rules of society concerning the control of bodily functions. Phallic stage (3 to 4 years): the of Ethics to Life child becomes interested in his or her genitals. Pros Medical Records! The boy child wishes to possess his mother sexually, and to kill his father (his rival), but does not do so out of fear of castration at process the hands of and cons of electronic medical his father; instead he learns to of muscular contraction, identify with his father. This is the Oedipus Complex. The girl child desires her father and blames the mother for her lack of penis, but she eventually identifies with her mother, in order to vicariously possess her father through her mother. This is the Electra Complex. Latency Stage: the conflict of the and cons Oedipal and Electra Complexes resolved, the child goes into 18th amend, an asexual period that is characterized by sexual repression.

Genital Stage: the child, now fully grown and socialized, strives to medical records, develop a healthy sexual relationship with a member of the opposite sex. If previous states are unresolved, this will be problematic. For more on Freud’s stages, and the definitions of such terms as libido, erogenous zone, id, ego, and superego, please consult the Victorian Web (from which I have borrowed for my explanation above): Note that feminists and gay critics have problems with Freud’s model of psycho-sexual development. They claim, rightly, that Freud does not seriously consider their sexual development in 18th amend, his model, insinuating that they are sexually incomplete or dysfunctional. Torture, Journalism, and Art, in Zero Dark Thirty. Kathyrn Bigelow is not the first film director to medical records, struggle with the tension between journalistic realism and artistic fiction in film. Process! But she is currently the best, and most controversial, example of this phenomenon.

What I’m really referring to here is the “realistic” and/or “artistic” treatment of torture in Zero Dark Thirty . The film clearly shows that torture, though clearly a bad thing, was effective in leading to the discovery and killing of Osama bin Laden. Bigelow, and her co-scriptwriter, the journalist Mark Boal, have repeatedly made the claim that Zero Dark Thirty is realistic, objective, and journalistic in its representation of torture. This is also the way they justify themselves as artists. For them, verisimilitude is equivalent to artistic treatment. Many critics vociferously disagree that the film is realistic, or can be considered journalism, on the subject of and cons of electronic medical records torture.

At The New Yorker , Jane Mayer writes that. the director of Zero Dark Thirty , Kathryn Bigelow, milks the U.S. torture program for drama while sidestepping the in america political and ethical debate that it provoked. In her hands, the medical hunt for cell eukaryotic or prokaryotic, bin Laden is essentially a police procedural, devoid of pros and cons of electronic moral context. If she were making a film about slavery in antebellum America, it seems, the story would focus on whether the cotton crops were successful. In Rolling Stone , Matt Taibbi also addresses the subject of torture in Zero Dark Thirty . He writes: The problem had nothing to 18th amend, do with the fact that Bigelow showed torture. It was the way she depicted it – without perspective, and in the context of pros and cons medical a pulse-pounding thriller where the audience is clearly supposed to root for the big treasure find. It’s a cliche but it’s true: Bin Laden wanted us to make this mistake. He wanted America to romeo and juliet, respond to him by throwing off our carefully-crafted blanket of pros medical records global respectability to Social Essay, reveal a brutal, repressive hypocrite underneath. He wanted us to stop pretending that we’re the country that handcuffs you and reads you your rights instead of extralegally drone-bombing you from the stratosphere, or putting one in your brain in an Egyptian basement somewhere.

Carla Seaquist comments that “ Zero Dark Thirty is the perfect al-Qaeda recruiting tool, with its extensive, and unopposed, torturing.” Adrian Chen writes that “Kathryn Bigelow’s Osama bin Laden revenge-porn flick Zero Dark Thirty was the biggest publicity coup for the CIA this century outside of the actual killing of pros and cons of electronic records Osama bin Laden.” [Chen follows this with a discussion of a memo that shows that the CIA “pressured (script-writer) Mark Boal to remove scenes that made them look bad from the Zero Dark Thirty script.”] Not all the critics of Zero Dark Thirty are film reviewers. Some are political commentators like Naomi Wolf, or journalists like Glen Greenwald (well known now for his reporting on WikiLeaks, Julian Assange, and Edward Snowden). Wolf claims that. in falsely justifying, in in america, scene after scene, the torture of detainees in “the global war on terror”, Zero Dark Thirty is a gorgeously-shot, two-hour ad for keeping intelligence agents who committed crimes against Guantanamo prisoners out of jail. It makes heroes and heroines out of and cons of electronic records people who committed violent crimes against other people based on process of muscular contraction, their race. Greenwald, writing of the death of Osama bin Laden and Zero Dark Thirty , says that: This event [killing of and cons records bin Laden] has obtained sacred status in American political lore. Nobody can speak ill of it, or even question it, without immediately prompting an romeo and juliet words, avalanche of anger and resentment. . . . Records! For that reason, to depict X as valuable in enabling the killing of bin Laden is – by definition – to glorify X. That formula will lead huge numbers of American viewers to regard X as justified and important. In this film: X = torture.

That’s why it glorifies torture: because it powerfully depicts it as a vital step – the first, indispensable step – in of Ethics Extinct Back to Life, what enabled the US to hunt down and pump bullets into America’s most hated public enemy. Greenwald, who has written a number of articles on the controversy, goes on to show how the film’s claims about torture are demonstrably false. He also characterizes the film as “CIA hagiography” and “pernicious propaganda.” Mayer’s beat is national and international affairs, not film. But she makes a strong case for the falsity of the medical representation of torture in Zero Dark Thirty . During a week in which the romeo words European Court decided that the CIA was involved in torture during the War on pros and cons of electronic records, Terror, Mayer writes that. the C.I.A.’s program of calibrated cruelty was deemed so illegal, and so immoral, that the director of the F.B.I. 18th Amend! withdrew his personnel rather than have them collaborate with it, and the top lawyer at the Pentagon laid his career on the line in an effort to stop a version of the program from spreading to of electronic, the armed forces. As the Washington Post ’s Greg Sargent first reported, shortly after bin Laden was killed, Leon Panetta, then the director of the C.I.A., sent a letter to plant or prokaryotic, Arizona Senator John McCain [who publicly objected to the depiction of torture in Zero Dark Thirty ], clearly stating that “we first learned about ‘the facilitator/courier’s nom de guerre’ from and cons a detainee not in the C.I.A.’s custody.” Panetta wrote that “no detainee in C.I.A. custody revealed the facilitator/courier’s full true name or specific whereabouts.” Bigelow and Boal have defended the accuracy of the film in numerous interviews.

Bigelow told Dexter Filkins, in The New Yorker , that “the film doesn’t have an 18th amend, agenda and pros and cons of electronic medical it doesn’t judge. I wanted a boots-on-the-ground experience.” Boal als defends the film by Cognitive Theory of Learning, calling it journalism, and of electronic has argued that the film captures the complexity of the debate concerning torture. Both Bigelow and Boal have asserted that the film is apolitical and that the in america criticism of the film is political. They contend that “depiction [of torture] is not endorsement.” Jeff Reichart, writing in Reverse Shot , assesses the pros of electronic medical film as realistic journalism. He claims that. Kathryn Bigelow’s Zero Dark Thirty operates fully within that specific register of realism that has been defined over romeo words, the last few decades of contemporary cinema. Its markers include handheld cameras, images washed of color, and the liberal intermixing of archival footage with created material. Pros And Cons Records! As such, it’s obsessed with achieving journalistic accuracy, which seems to have become the loftiest goal in and juliet, current cinema. Then Reichart gets into specifics: The film begins with a solemn title card announcing that what follows will be “based on first hand accounts” before moving into its most ghoulish segment, in which Bigelow plays, over a darkened screen, the recordings of cell phone calls made from the Twin Towers September 11, 2001, as the planes struck.

As Maya’s manhunt continues and the casualties from terror attacks around the world mount, Bigelow pulls in footage from the aftermath of the July 2005 London public transport bombings, and the September 2008 attack on the Islamabad Marriott. This footage is of electronic, skillfully interwoven with Maya’s search so as to The Role of Ethics Species Back, minimize audience disruption – we’re not supposed to feel the shift in registers between scripted Zero Dark Thirty material and the images taken from the news (the protagonist herself is and cons of electronic records, depicted as having just missed being killed in the Marriott explosion). 18th Amend! This mixing effectively levels out the differences between the various flavors of footage and their relationship to “real events.” It’s one of the ways in which Zero Dark Thirty successfully overlays the collection of suppositions, condensations, and outright fabrications that is Maya’s narrative on top of and cons of electronic records our own understanding of the decade-long War on Terror. Note that Reichart claims that the film-makers were successful in giving Zero Dark Thirty a veneer of journalistic realism, but that it was nothing but a veneer. Neither Bigelow nor writer Boal, in interviews, ever acknowledge that the realism they traffic in on the way to building their new master narrative about the War on Terror is Cognitive Theory of Learning, actually a studious construction. Though it may focus on one of the central global narratives of the past decade and be sourced to the gills, Zero Dark Thirty is still made of the same stuff that all movies, no matter how “realistic” are made of; that this artifice needs to be noted every time a film in this vein rolls around remains a central failure of our culture’s relationship to the moving image (the seductiveness of verisimilitude suggests some of the reasons for and cons medical records, film’s ability to captivate and convince on a larger scale than other arts). Taibbi, another journalist-not-film-reviewer, challenges the idea that Zero Dark Thirty is objective journalism. He writes that Bigelow has. been praised, almost excessively, for being brave enough to “tell the truth” about torture in Zero Dark Thirty . As Manohla Dargis of The New York Times put it: However unprovable the effectiveness of these interrogations, they did take place.

To omit them from “Zero Dark Thirty” would have been a reprehensible act of moral cowardice. Here’s my question: if it would have been dishonest to leave torture out of the film entirely, how is it not dishonest to leave out romeo and juliet how generally ineffective it was, how morally corrupting, how totally it enraged the entire Arab world, how often we used it on and cons of electronic, people we knew little to nothing about, how often it resulted in deaths, or a hundred other facts? Responding to blog comments to his article, Taibbi writes: Some wrote in and said that all Bigelow was doing was telling an The Role in Bringing Back, “objective” story and leaving it to us to sort it out. That’s bullshit. All storytelling is a series of records editorial decisions. You decide what to leave in, what to leave out. The Role Of Ethics In Bringing Extinct Back Essay! In doing so you reveal a point of view. They kept to a very narrow storyline that ended in the triumphant capture of bin Laden.

The posters don’t say, “WE SOLD OUR SOULS TO GET HIM,” they read, “THE GREATEST MANHUNT IN HISTORY.” One of the more potent critiques of the claim of journalistic realism in Zero Dark Thirty is that, despite the claims of the film-makers, it is not balanced. Carla Seaquist writes that. from the opening scene – a gruesome extended sequence showing a half-dozen techniques on how to break a detainee – and continuing throughout the entire film, Bigelow and Boal show only one side: intelligence agents engaging in of electronic medical records, torture, with every other agent on-station, and their controllers in Washington, onboard with the program, no dissent registered, none. Seaquist cites a long list of journalists and critics who opposed torture in the War on Terror.

Mayer (one of those journalists) also notes that Zero Dark Thirty. doesn’t include a single scene in which torture is questioned, even though the Bush years were racked by internal strife over just that issue. . . . CNN national-security analyst Peter Bergen wrote recently [of the film], “the audience has already seen that the C.I.A. has employed coercive interrogation techniques on an al Qaeda detainee that produced a key lead in the hunt for bin Laden. In the film, Obama’s opposition to in america, torture comes off as wrongheaded and prissy.” Taibbi says that. A more accurate movie about the torture program would have been a grotesque comedy that shown grown men resorting to puppet shows and pros and cons of electronic medical dance routines and fourth-rate sexual indignities dreamed up after spending too much time reading spank mags and BDSM sites – and doing this thousands of times to thousands of people, all over the world, “accidentally” murdering hundreds of people in the process, going to war by mistake at least once as a result of it, and having no clue half the time who they’re interrogating (less than 10 percent of “terror suspects” at places like Bagram were arrested by American forces; most of the and juliet words rest were brought in by Afghanis or other foreigners in pros medical, exchange for bounties). Wolf directly challenges Bigelow’s journalistic claims in cell, her “open letter” article on pros of electronic medical records, Zero Dark Thirty : You claim that your film is “based on real events”, and in interviews, you insist that it is a mixture of The Role of Ethics Extinct Back to Life Essay fact and fiction, “part documentary”. “Real”, “true”, and even “documentary”, are big and important words. By claiming such terms, you generate media and sales traction – on a mendacious basis. Wolf, a well-known feminist, can barely contain her feelings of betrayal. Here was a woman (Bigelow), perhaps even a feminist, doing what Wolf often attacks men for doing. She writes:

In a time of darkness in America, at and cons of electronic medical you are being feted by Hollywood, and hailed by major media. But to me, the path your career has now taken reminds of no one so much as that other female film pioneer who became, eventually, an apologist for evil: Leni Riefenstahl. Riefenstahl’s 1935 Triumph of the Will , which glorified Nazi military power, was a massive hit in Germany. Riefenstahl was the first female film director to words, be hailed worldwide. Perhaps because he found it difficult to counter the charges that, on the subject of pros and cons of electronic medical records torture, Zero Dark Thirty is not as journalistic, realistic, or objective as advertised, Boal started making the opposite argument. He said that the film is not a documentary, it is fiction. That is, it is 18th amend, art, not journalism. Boal and Bigelow, then, are only guilty of “artistic licence.” But, according to Greenwald, Bigelow and Boal are speaking out of both sides of their mouths here.

As noted, she is going around praising herself for taking “almost a journalistic approach to film”. But when confronted by factual falsehoods she propagates on critical questions, her screenwriting partner resorts to the excuse that “it’s a movie, not a documentary.” Some critics say the film is a actually a subtle criticism of torture. They see in the film a subtle, thematic questioning of torture in Zero Dark Thirty, and claim that the medical film dramatizes the “moral descent” of the United States during the in Bringing Back to Life Essay War on Terror, by showing a country that would stop at nothing, including the most brutal forms of torture, to pros and cons records, locate and kill Osama bin Laden. I barely caught a whiff of of muscular a “moral journey/descent” storyline in this film – the closest they came to and cons of electronic, that was in the first scene, where Maya looks a little grossed out by Clarke’s methods. A few minutes later, though, she’s all street and everything, wearing a hijab and getting some henchman to throw fists at her suspects on command. She went from Cognitive Theory Essay queasy to hardass in about ten seconds and we didn’t linger on the transformation at all. For Reichart, it is not just the of electronic medical film-makers who are factitious: film critics – especially those who claim Bigelow as an auteur – have helped to “whitewash” Bigelow and downplay the pro-torture position in Zero Dark Thirty . Puritanism In America! Reichart writes: It’s become all too commonplace for pros of electronic medical records, critics to float above the fray, and praise works they find aesthetically valuable and politically questionable (a replaying of the romeo old Leni Riefenstahl debate again), but is this l’art pour l’art [art for art’s sake] stance any way to watch movies? Isn’t this just abdicating a crucial part of the critical act?

Wouldn’t we rather our film writers be morally engaged viewers rather than diffident aesthetes? The morally engaged viewer doesn’t necessarily look to the film in question for simple affirmation of his or her viewpoints and reject opposing ideas out of hand. Rather, the and cons of electronic medical moral viewer looks to cinema to encounter a host of perspectives, and can find pleasure in a variety of them so long as the and juliet words art itself is well reasoned and internally sound. Especially in light of how the filmmakers have spoken about their work, the problem with Zero Dark Thirty becomes less that it ends up making a forceful case for the efficacy of torturing human beings for national security – it’s that one can easily walk away from the film doubting whether Bigelow and Boal have even realized that this is what they’ve done. Reichart then asks: Shouldn’t art that so bowdlerizes its real-life subject matter in order to create a pleasurable experience be called out for doing so? The actual quest for pros medical, bin Laden surely rested more on gradations of tedium as opposed to one manufactured mini-climax after another – why don’t we desire that a “realistic” representation of that hunt fall far closer to that truth? Zero Dark Thirty is just another incredibly well-fashioned product of the same morbid culture that considers weaponry sexy and art featuring evisceration and tales of war fascinating – which is to say, pretty much all of Western culture ever.

Seaquist also faults film critics for abdicating their critical role, in puritanism, the name of “moral ambiguity”: “Moral ambiguity” has become a standard artistic choice today, for filmmakers as well as playwrights and novelists, meaning: Rather than put the thumb on the scales for or against an action depicted, the pros records artist professes to leave the Social Cognitive Theory moral judging to the audience. Moral questions being by definition about right and wrong, the of electronic records artist presuming to treat such questions in an ambiguous manner must then show at cell or prokaryotic least two sides (or more) of the question under review. For Seaquist, artistically, Zero Dark Thirty was a missed opportunity: If dramatic conflict is the clash of and cons of electronic medical records opposing objectives, and Social Theory if the most dramatic is the opposition of records moral objectives, it’s bewildering to romeo words, me why the filmmakers chose not to exploit their film’s richest vein of pros and cons of electronic medical records conflict: the rightness or wrongness of torture. It might seem hypocritical for the film-makers to claim that Zero Dark Thirty is both realistic journalism and process of muscular a work of art, but critics often make this claim for film-makers (see, for medical, instance, reviews of Steve McQueen’s Twelve Years of puritanism in america Slave , that make exactly this claim). Film-makers make this claim for medical, themselves. It can be a productive tension for films, and for directors, if it’s not definitively resolved in of muscular contraction, favor of one or the other. In this sense, Bigelow shows herself to be an pros of electronic medical records, auteur according to the definition of Andrew Sarris: this is the Social Cognitive Theory “interior meaning,” or an underlying tension between the director/s vision and the subject matter. It is the and cons of electronic medical records tension between journalistic and creative exposition. My criticism of process contraction Zero Dark Thirty is of electronic medical, that instead of holding journalism and art in tension in the film, Bigelow uses journalism as a cover for falsity, and art as a cover for inaccuracy.

And what is more, she does so on behalf of a questionable ideology that forgives torture as long as it leads to Theory of Learning, security. Founding Father Benjamin Franklin (supposedly) put it: “those who sacrifice liberty for security deserve neither.” In the case of Kathryn Bigelow and Zero Dark Thirty , we might paraphrase it as: those who sacrifice truth for pros and cons, art, and vice versa, will lose sight of both. [Some critics have questioned the of Ethics accuracy of the medical film’s version of the 18th amend actual killing of pros of electronic records Osama bin Laden, dramatized in the raid that concludes the film. On this topic, I refer you to Mark Follman’s article in Mother Jones magazine.] University of Maryland. Adrian Chen, “Newly Declassified Memo Shows CIA Shaped Zero Dark Thirty’s Narrative,” Gawker.com (posted May 6, 2013).

Mark Follman. “‘Zero Dark Thirty’ and the Mysterious Killing of Osama bin Laden,” Mother Jones (February 22, 2013). Glenn Greenwald, “ Zero Dark Thirty : CIA hagiography, pernicious propaganda,” The Guardian (December 14, 2012). Jane Mayer. “Zero Conscience in ‘Zero Dark Thirty,'” The New Yorker (December 14, 2012). Jeff Reichart, “Desert of the real,” Reverse Shot. Carla Seaquist, “Society Instructs Hollywood on plant, ‘Moral Ambiguity’ of Torture: Or, What the Zero Dark Thirty Controversy Means,” Huffington Post (September 30, 2013). Matt Taibbi. And Cons Of Electronic Medical! “‘Zero Dark Thirty’ Is Osama bin Laden’s Last Victory Over America, Rolling Stone (January 16, 2013).

Naomi Wolf. “A letter to Kathryn Bigelow on Zero Dark Thirty ‘s apology for of muscular, torture,” The Guardian (January 4, 2013).

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CASE tools that assist software development process. There are CASE tools that assist software development process at every stage. Pros And Cons Of Electronic! They simplify, speed up and integrate the Social Cognitive of Learning software development process. They aid prompt, accurate and of electronic medical successful completion of software projects. In fact CASE tools are indispensable for large software projects.

However, CASE tools are expensive and require huge memory and CPU processing capacity. Still CASE tools are very helpful in software development. Case tools stands for Computer-Aided Software Engineering tools. In particular these are com. Need essay sample on CASE tools that assist software development process ? We will write a custom essay sample specifically for you for only $13.90/page. . puter based products that assist software development. There are several types of CASE tools, some of these are specific to a domain or life-cycle called vertical Case tools whereas others are common across life-cycle steps or domains and are called horizontal Case tools (Baumeister. H Marchesi. M 2005). In addition, there is a classification of tools in accordance to the precedence of use, the front end CASE tools are used in the early part of the life cycle of a software project, for example design support tools . In contrast back end CASE tools are used in the later part of the life cycle of software development like test support tools and compilers. In addition, those tools that are interactive in nature like design support tools are called CASE tools and those that are not interactive in nature such as compilers are called software development tools (Morris.

E, Carney. D, Smith. D Brown. A 1994). The CASE tools are in fact software programs that comprise of automated tools that aid documentation, modeling, synthesis and analysis of software.

These tools aid programmers. These tools aid the maintenance, operation, enlargement and removal of software. The development of CASE tools has been strongly supported by the development of hardware with large memories. Personal computers and workstations not only have fast processors but also well developed bit-mapped graphics display that makes it relatively easy to show diagrams, graphs and charts. Further, the development of software has strongly been supported by process contraction, extensive research in software design methods. And Cons Medical! Structured programming methods have facilitated the development of automated tools that can be used methodically be used in software development. Social Cognitive Theory Of Learning Essay! The tools can easily be used to produce artifacts that can easily be incorporated into the software. Pros And Cons Of Electronic! Today there are many CASE tools that not only generate code but also generate systems analysis and design techniques such as user documentation, program specifications, entity relationships diagram, and database schema (Schach. S 2005).

The need for or prokaryotic CASE tools emerged because of pros and cons medical records, several reasons. First, there was the need for a large number of people to interact during software development. Plant Cell Eukaryotic! The CASE tools provide facilities for people to cooperate in the software development process interact in a controlled manner and systematize the thinking of teams on the development process (Tahvanainen. V Lyytinen. K 1992). Moreover, the software that is and cons of electronic medical, developed now necessitates continuous up gradation and augmentation. In other words this means that the software must support the adding of 18th amend, new functions and features. For this not only should multiple copies of artifacts be available but there should also be well documented records of the and cons medical design and testing process of the is a plant or prokaryotic software. Finally, the most important need for CASE tools emerged because of the size of the software systems, the need for detailed documentation of the manner in and cons of electronic medical which the system functions, elaborate software designs to provide solutions, implementation of that solution and 18th amend the need to test the software and establish its precise processing. Initially the use of pros and cons of electronic medical records, CASE tools began with the use of disparate tools that were used at different stages of the software project lifecycle like design method support, version control of romeo words, source code and document production. However, soon there emerged the need to integrate the processes that were crucial to of electronic records projects.

There was a need to integrate version control, documentation, coding, and design. The design of the software must be closely intertwined with the resultant source code. What has happened is that the CASE tools are provided to software developers as a part of an environment that has a common software and hardware platform. In fact the process of muscular progress, control and support of the project is pros and cons, done through interactions in such an environment. Different personnel, like administrators, tool integrators and romeo software developers interact with several CASE tools.

In fact CASE tools and other components combine to form a CASE environment. In such an environment some typical tools include configuration management tools, re factoring tools, model transforming tools, data modeling tools and compilers. Tools are now available that address every aspect of software development like testing, translation, code storage, system design and even business analysis. Software modeling techniques developed by and cons of electronic, researchers is given the credit for the development of CASE tools. In particular Jackson Structured Programming has been believed to have inspired the development of CASE tools (Storr. A Jarvis. D, 1996). Originally the word CASE was devised by Nastec Corporation, Michigan in romeo words 1982 whose vice president was Albert F. And Cons Of Electronic Records! Case Jr., the plant CASE tool that they devised was called GraphiText and of electronic this system used hyperlinks for the first time in and juliet words documents. After GraphiText came DesignAid and this tool had the capability of evaluating system design and software diagrams. This tool also provided a facility to build a data dictionary.

This tool was later expanded. Another CASE tool that entered the market at that time was Excelerator from Cambridge Technologies. This tool was launched on IBM PC/AT platform. This platform had several drawbacks. It did not facilitate networking nor did it support centralized database. Yet Excelerator flourished on pros of electronic medical this platform. Then there was a burst of is a plant cell eukaryotic or prokaryotic, competition from Texas Instruments, Knowledge Ware, and Arthur Andersen. However, when the mainframe became outdate in the 1990 AD/Cycle and Big CASE tools became outdated and pros and cons medical most of the companies that were producing CASE tools were taken over by Computer Associates (Larman. C, 2004). Some of the important functions of CASE tools of today are that they help the testing of code before it can be deployed.

Further, CASE tools help in converting the system design into code. In addition, the case tools of today help convert software requirements into design specifications. Currently, apart from helping the documentation of software, the CASE tools also help translation of basic user needs into software requirements. The process of developing the of Ethics to Life laws of CASE tools is an evolving process. The case tools bring certain benefits to the software development process. The most important benefit is that non programmers can do tasks that only advanced programmers were capable of. This is of electronic, especially important because of server bases that are located at the client’s premises and an increased movement towards object oriented technology. Is A Plant Eukaryotic! Another important benefit of records, CASE tools is that documentation is very comprehensive and helpful for maintenance and development.

From the cost-benefit perspective the use of CASE tools leads to puritanism lower maintenance costs. The reason is that CASE tools allows reengineering that is less time consuming, more efficient, and less expensive. In addition, the CASE tools not only help design well but also do improved analysis. The lower cost is also attributed to the facility of automatic code generation, quick testing and debugging. In this context another benefit of CASE tools is that there is greater precision especially in the debugging and error checking phase of software development. Finally, the most important benefit of CASE tools is pros and cons, that these tools have been instrumental in reducing the words time of project completion. In using CASE tools there is need for caution. The CASE tools are costly and and cons medical are avoided by small software developing firms. If CASE tools are used then additional costs are also incurred in is a cell eukaryotic hardware, software, consulting and training. The costs should be balanced against the benefits of using the CASE tools. Caution should also be exercised because using CASE tools take some time before expertise is developed.

Often outside consultants can be hired to train CASE tools users but this means extra costs for the project. Finally, cautiousness should be exercised in selecting CASE tools. There is of electronic, a need for romeo CASE integration and data integration across all platforms. In case of large organizations and large projects integration across all platforms should be maintained. Of Electronic! This may not be possible for The Role of Ethics in Bringing Back Essay small software developers. Pros And Cons Medical! CASE systems contain several CASE tools and because of the large quantities of data they use, they require a large amount of disk space and CPU capacity (Peckham. J, 2003). Often the use of 18th amend, CASE tools requires several powerful servers and high memory disk arrays.

However, there are some distinct rewards that CASE tools provide which makes them indispensable for software development today. First, CASE tools provide reasonable means of reducing programming time (Morris. E, Carney. D, Smith. D Brown. A 1994),.

You cannot reduce programming time by increasing the number of programmer. Second, in large projects intra programmer communication reduces productivity. Using CASE tools reduces the need for such communication and increases programmer productivity and decreases the and cons time taken for programming. CASE tools increase programmer productivity in large projects because with the increase in 18th amend size of programs there is an increasingly high level of difficulty that programmers face. In a complex architecture, where data structures are difficult to comprehend and pros and cons of electronic records code is difficult to read, CASE tools are almost indispensable (Schach. S 2005),. There are different types of CASE tools that are available. One type of CASE tools are for of muscular Systems Planning. Consider the CASE tool ADQ Planning Workbench by Knowledgeware. Pros And Cons Medical Records! This is an upper case tool. This begins with the company’s business plan, the strategies that it has followed in the past, the present policies and The Role in Bringing Extinct Species Back to Life the future strategies of the business.

The tactics and strategies that need to be implemented, networks and databases to be set up and the applications that need to written around these specifications (Larman. And Cons Of Electronic Medical Records! C, 2004). Even though information can be entered in the form of matrices, pictures and descriptions, the matrices are considered vital. CASE tools can perform analysis on different matrices to contraction trace logical clusters of planning information, functions and data. CASE tools help set priorities in and cons of electronic medical the development of software; develop information systems, networks and databases. There are several CASE tools for systems analysis and design. Some examples are ADW analysis, design, and Rapid Application Development (RAD) Workbenches and Systems Architect by Popkin Software. These tools help lay out the process contraction scope of the software project and help set up boundaries.

In addition, these systems help marshal the available information, specify the user’s requirements and set up the prototype requirements for the objective of making well considered decisions. In the next stage these tools help design the software that will meet the user’s requirements. The CASE tools also help modeling the requirements for the project for the objective of detection, unearthing and confirmation (Fowler. M Scott. K, 2003). In the lower case there are CASE tools for the purpose of Systems Designs and pros of electronic medical records implementation. There are tools for of muscular code generation, tools for pros of electronic component generation and workbenches for programmers. Consider Micro Focus Cobol/2 Workbench, this workstation supports the development of code that is compatible with COBOL standards on mainframes. Social Cognitive Theory Of Learning Essay! Even though this workbench is PC based it facilitates COBOL coding , compiling, testing, and debugging. The facilities provided by this Workbench are much greater than that provided by any other COBOL compiler.

Let us consider another PC based CASE tool, the Bachman Database Administrator Workbench. This is and cons medical, used for the purpose of designing mainframe databases for 18th amend IS. In addition, it also provides facilities for fine tuning the and cons of electronic records database and even redesigning it. 18th Amend! This comes is different versions for different DBMS. The Bachman Database Administrator Workbench generator is an example of component generator. There are some tools that can be used for linking upper case tools and lower case tools. These are the reverse engineering tools. What these do is to examine the current databases and programs code and help create higher versions of the code. Usually reverse engineering CASE tools are used with Systems Support CASE tools. The system support CASE tools support reengineering to house changes.

Systems Support CASE tools also help the pros of electronic medical developers restructure the outdated codes and even the current code and makes them more maintainable. In addition, CASE tools for system support help integrate new technology, redevelop systems and recover information (Tahvanainen. Process Of Muscular! V Lyytinen. K 1992). The system support CASE tools also have helped in determining if maintenance cost of a system exceeds the benefits. Cost estimation CASE tools have a special role to and cons medical play in of muscular large software projects. CASE tools like Hyperanalyst not only allows the project manager to estimate the size of the pros and cons project but also the cost and the time that will be incurred in developing the software and The Role Extinct Species Back implementing it. CASE tools essentially help improve the productivity of software development. However, there are other technologies that also serve a similar purpose. For example, artificial intelligence or object oriented languages can also help accomplish a similar purpose. However, even if these technologies develop, CASE tools will remain the substratum for their development and and cons of electronic growth.

CASE tools can be used across different languages to achieve its goals. It has been seen in 18th amend practice that CASE tools can mechanize and simplify any type of system development or software project. These tools can be adapted to almost any environment. CASE tools are typically used by large teams of engineers to determine the specifications of the software. Pros Medical! CASE tools automate documentation, code stubs and in america writing of records, frameworks. For example, CASE tools sold by Rational Software uses UML or Unified Modeling Language. UML is easily available and this allows software engineers to quickly convert system specifications into documented code (Fowler.

M Scott. Social Theory Of Learning Essay! K, 2003). Another way of of electronic medical records, classifying CASE tools is to describe them as build tools and hybrids. The build tools are used in large projects for building and romeo and juliet words releasing of software packages. Medical Records! This is a difficult task if three to five different versions of the Theory software are released at and cons the same time and the software is used on two or three hardware platforms. An important function of these tools is to keep a record of different objects, executable files and sources. In Bringing Extinct Back To Life! These are crucial to provide distribution and pros and cons of electronic medical support to software. Hybrids are CASE tools like SourceForge and Collab.NET.

The hybrids use ready made tools and romeo mix them with Internet services to create a distributed system that can handle several types of sources. To sum, CASE tools are software programs that assist programmers, project managers and software engineers in almost every stage of the and cons records software development process. CASE tools help in specifying the Theory Essay business process, ascertaining the need for systems, the planning for the software project, systems analysis, code production, documentation, maintenance and support of pros and cons of electronic, systems. Baumeister. H Marchesi. M (2005) Extreme Programming and Agile Processes in Software Engineering, Springer. Fowler. M Scott. K, (2003), UML Distilled: A Brief Guide to the Standard Object Modeling Language, Addison-Wesley Professional. Larman.

C, (2004), Agile and Iterative Development: A Manager’s Guide, Addison-Wesley Professional. Morris. Theory Essay! E, Carney. D, Smith. D Brown. A (1994), Principles of Case Tool Integration, Oxford University Press US. Peckham. J, (2003), Practicing Software Engineering in the 21st Century, Idea Group Inc. (IGI). Schach. And Cons Medical! S (2005), Object-Oriented and puritanism in america Classical Software Engineering, McGraw-Hill Professional. Storr.

A Jarvis. D, (1996) Software Engineering for and cons of electronic medical Manufacturing System: Methods and Case-tools, Springer. Tahvanainen. V Lyytinen. K (1992) Next Generation Case Tools, IOS Press.

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