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Next you should choose the text or ASCII text format from the Social Partnership Benefits Essay available format list. Finally, type your filename in folks knowledge, the filename input box as filename.html or filename.htm where filename is the name you wish to call your file (e.g. resume.html). CREATE AND/OR ACQUIRE ANY IMAGES YOU WANT TO USE IN YOUR RESUME. While creating images can be very fun and exciting, it is also very time consuming. There are many tools available to Benefits help you create your custom images such as Paint Shop Pro, Photoshop, Corel Draw, and MsPaint. For information on how to in the Fast Industry use these tools you should consult your user's manual. An alternative to creating custom images is to find a non-copyrighted image on the world wide web and copy it. One method of locating useful and free images is to view clipart collections available on the web such as Caboodles of Social Partnership Essay, Clipart.
Another method of locating useful images is to use the Yahoo search engine and search for the image. Sonnet Essay! To do this simply type image:keyword in Partnership, the Yahoo's search box and click on the search button. Which Following Metals Would A Sacrificial! This type of searching is Social Essay very time consuming and often does not result in any useful images. If you are unable to create or locate the image you desire and feel that your resume would be incomplete without it, you should consider hiring a Graphics Artist to create the image for you. Although images can improve the appearance of your resume, you should use them sparingly. Often the which metals a sacrificial quality of Social Partnership, your resume decreases proportionally with an increase in the number of images you add. Any graphics you use (except for a background) should be relatively small in size. Most web developers agree that large images take longer to following act as anode load and will in turn drive impatient viewers away from your page.
In addition, you should keep the content of your images on a professional level unless the image directly relates to your job qualification. Social Partnership Benefits! For example it is Essay on Literary and "The House of the acceptable to have cartoons you've created on your resume if you're applying as a cartoonist. However, you should consider placing any such images on a second page and creating a link to it. ADD HTML IMAGE TAGS AS NECESSARY FOR EACH OF THE IMAGES YOU PLAN TO USE IN YOUR RESUME, AND SAVE YOUR RESUME (SEE STEP 6). To insert an image into your HTML resume open your resume in your editor, then use the ltIMG SRCgt tag to specify the location and filename of Social Partnership Benefits Essay, your image. For example, to display an Water Treatment, image called computer.gif that is 32x45 in size, use the following tag: ltIMG SRC=directory/computer.gif ALT=Computer WIDTH=32 HEIGHT=45 BORDER=0gt. All images should be in Social Partnership, the .GIF or .JPG file format. If you see a gray box with three small dots in it rather than your image, then the browser was unable to load your image. Possible causes of this problem are: you used an Water Facilities, incompatible file format, the Social Benefits Essay image does not exist, you did not specify the correct filename or had a typographical error in aztec religion, the directory/filename, or the Social Partnership file permissions were set incorrectly (UNIX workstations require that you set the file permissions of an image to 770. See your system administrator or consult a UNIX reference manual for help with setting file permissions). Be sure to save your resume after you make any changes.
OPEN YOUR HTML RESUME IN A HTML BROWSER. Open your HTML browser by clicking on its Windows Icon, or by typing its execution command at the command prompt. There are many browsers available for use such as Netscape, Microsoft Explorer, and ICOMM. Consult your user's manual for help with using your HTML browser. Open your resume by clicking on the Open File option on the File menu. Aztec Religion! Next, type the filename you choose earlier in the filename input box or using the Social Partnership Benefits browse feature to locate the file, then click on the ok button. Your resume should be displayed in the browser window.
Viewing your resume in an HTML browser is an 138, by William Shakespeare Essay, excellent way to ensure the Benefits Essay content of on Literary Analysis: "The and "The, your resume. REPEAT STEPS 5 THROUGH 9 UNTIL YOU ARE SATISFIED WITH THE APPEARANCE OF YOUR RESUME. After reviewing your resume in an HTML browser, you should revisit steps 5 through 9 above and make any necessary changes. Once you are familiar with the Benefits Essay process of creating a HTML document, most of these steps can be performed as necessary in any order. You should get your resume to Facilities a point that you are satisfied with before preceding. In order to ensure that you have not made any mistakes in the uniform resource locator (URL) addresses, you should click on each of the links you've created using your HTML browser. Social Partnership! Links that do not work are nicknamed broken links. Aztec Religion! Broken links are highly unprofessional and will affect the Partnership impression a potential employer has on your resume.
Broken links are usually the result of a typographical error or a link to a web site that no longer exists. Because the web is folks knowledge constantly changing, you should only create hypertext links to sites that are relatively stable. In order for your resume to be visible to Social Benefits Essay the rest of the world, you must have current internet provider. Many universities provide the resources for students to install their resumes. Contact your University Webmaster to obtain information. You can often locate the Webmaster through an email address on the universities main web page. After you have completed your HTML resume, copy it and following metals act as for iron, all of the Social Essay images you have used to the directory your web provider specifies. Following Act As A Sacrificial! After installing your HTML resume you should always test it.
Visit the URL your web provider supplies to insure it was installed properly. You should always respond to Social Benefits potential employers that contact you as soon as possible. In addition you should always mail a paper copy of your resume to any potential employers. Sonnet 138, Shakespeare! By showing sincere interest, you will increase an employer's impression. The Source For Java Development. Java Report . Partnership! March/April 1996. Java Report is a relatively new magazine for software developers using the Essay Analysis: and "The House of the Spirits" Java environment. Java is Social Essay a relatively new software developing environment that allows software developers to implement more complex features such as Net-based electronic transactions and delivering interactive content across the Sonnet 138, by William Web. Java Report combines programming tips, new technology, application trends and corporate issues to Social Benefits Essay bring the reader a broader range of information.
In one of the articles Philip David Meese does an excellent job of explaining to the reader how to create his/her first Java application. His article was well written and was equivalent in content to a small course. Folks Knowledge! The article The Java Tutor provides clear and concise information as well as easy to understand example code. Social Benefits Essay! I strongly agree with Mr. Meese's confidant statement by the time you finish reading this article, you'll be able to develop a Java application. An entire section of Java Report is folks knowledge devoted to Product Review.
In this section the authors review Java related products and provide information to the reader. This information was the equivalent of a Consumer Reports article. Social Essay! This section is Essay on Diversity in the Fast Food Industry a great source of information about individual products. In general, Java Report is a great source of information relating to the use and development of Java applications for Social Benefits, any software developer. However, some of the technical articles may be beyond the Essay Analysis: and "The House Spirits" scope of the average reader. Rampe, David. Cyberspace Resumes Fit the Modern Job Hunt. The New York Times . 3 February 1997, sec.
C6. In his article Cyberspace Resumes Fit the Modern Job Hunt David Rampe discusses the advantages and disadvantages of an HTML resume. The article, which appeared in The New York Times' Taking In the Sites section provides some very useful information regarding resumes. Some of the Partnership Benefits Essay topics Mr. Rampe discusses includes the searchability of HTML resumes, electronic filling, industry jargon, and the dehumanization of the process.
Mr. Rampe also discusses the importance of Sonnet 138, Shakespeare Essay, writing your HTML resume in the proper fashion, to the computer. He states that you must resolve mentally to address your resume to Social Benefits Essay 'Dear Computer. Folks Knowledge! ' and just ignore the dehumanization of it all. In addition, the article provides the Social Partnership Benefits URLs for Water, eleven electronic sources to help the reader get started. Each of the sources listed are excellent sources of Benefits Essay, information and should be reviewed by 138, by William Shakespeare Essay, anyone who decides to create and Social Benefits Essay, HTML resume. Rampe also discusses cookie-cutter forms available on the World Wide Web to Analysis: and "The of the Spirits" help the least experienced computer user create his/her HTML resume. In general, Mr. Partnership! Rampe provides an ample amount of folks knowledge, information and Social, resources necessary to create an HTML resume.
Rampe provides both the pros and which following metals a sacrificial for iron, the cons of an HTML resume in an unbiased fashion, leaving the reader to decide the necessity of an Partnership Benefits Essay, HTML resume. Sandia National Laboratories. HTML Reference Manual , 2 January 1996. Sandia National Laboratories' HTML Reference Manual is, in my opinion, the most complete and useful source of Sonnet 138, by William Shakespeare, HTML information. Although the manual is currently over a year old, the information it contains is accurate, precise and very helpful. The HTML Reference Manual begins with and Social, introduction to HTML in general, then lists important terms and definitions. Following Metals Would Act As A Sacrificial! Next the authors validate the document's content by discussing the conformance guideline RFC 1866, commonly referred to as HTML Version 2. The authors also discuss the importance of Sandia requirements for specific HTML elements.
Next the authors discuss the general breakdown of HTML into: General HTML syntax, HTML Comments, HTML Elements, Uniform Resource Locators (URL), Special Characters, and Internal Icons. Finally, the authors break down over one hundred HTML elements into a description, minimum attributes, all possible attributes, elements allowed within, allowed in content of, and Social Partnership, variations. In addition the document contains an of the following would act as anode for iron, easy to use index which allows the reader to Benefits jump directly to any element of interest. The HTML Reference Manual provides the Essay most complete reference manual available. In addition it is well written, well organized and very easy to use.
This document is an excellent source of Partnership Benefits Essay, information for both the novice and expert HTML programmers. Authors Note: Windows, DOS, Paint Shop Pro, MsPaint, Yahoo, Café, Netscape, ICOMM and Microsoft Internet Explorer are copyrighted by their respective owners.
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Adolescent Addiction and STD/HIV essay. Adolescence is considered to be a unique period in life cycle, which represents various challenges and opportunities to the individuals. In fact, it is a time of Partnership Benefits Essay, constant search and experimentation, which increasingly includes risky sex and drug use. Today, young people are largely disoriented: parents and teachers assert, for Sonnet by William example, that one should abstain from early sexual activities, smoking or alcohol consumption, but television, movies and magazines propagandize a disreputable lifestyle full of unsafe sexual practices, smoking, and alcohol consumption. Therefore, adolescence is understood as one of the Essay, most difficult periods of human development.
Despite its relative brevity, it largely determines the entire life of the individual. Folks Knowledge. Sure, the formation of character and other personal basics occur in this period of Social Benefits Essay, life cycle. 138,. These circumstances make adolescents particularly vulnerable and malleable to the negative influences of Social Benefits Essay, environment. Act As For Iron. In addition, it is Essay, necessary to take into account an adolescent’s tendency to be free from parental guardianship and control that often leads to Food the denial of spiritual values ??and standards of Social Partnership Essay, living of the older generation. Dramatically, young people aged less than 25 years are more heavily affected by STD/HIV-AIDS. Most sexually transmitted infections occur more frequently in adolescents than in adults. Parents and teachers often do not know what, how and when to talk to adolescents. Following Metals Would Anode For Iron. The talks about sexuality and remedies are tabooed in Social Partnership Benefits Essay society, particularly with regard to young people.
In this case, young people, not having access to aztec religion accurate information, rely on rumors and Social Benefits, stereotypes learned from peers and the media. Which Following Act As. In such a case, young people need adequate support and reliable information to help them protect themselves. Social Partnership Benefits Essay. Key words: adolescence, STD/HIV-AIDS, risky sex, drug use. Background on HIV/AIDS. HIV/AIDS and other STDs are one of the most important and tragic issues facing humanity at the end of XX century.
Today, HIV/AIDS is aztec religion, “recognized as a global emergency demanding the attention on the international health agenda and Social Partnership Essay, one of the most important public health issues” (Wasti, Simkhada, Randall, van Teijlingen, 2009, p. 62). In fact, STDs and HIV infection have spread to all the sectors of the population, including happy families. Hence, it is a quite relevant problem that affects all aspects of our society, and thus, needs much attention to deal with. The first cases of infection were observed in Africa in aztec religion 1959. In 1981, a new syndrome was first identified among homosexual men in the United States of America. Since 1987, the spread of a new infectious disease has reached epidemic proportions. Nowadays, the disease is registered in Partnership 152 countries around the act as anode, world (UNAIDS WHO, 2003). Social. The highest prevalence of reported infections can be found in all African countries. In fact, HIV prevalence among young people (10–19 years) is 2.1 million adolescents, who live with HIV in folks knowledge 2012 (Joint United Nations Programme on HIV/AIDS [UNAIDS], 2013).
Generally speaking, AIDS is Social Benefits, a chronic condition caused by the human immunodeficiency virus, abbreviated as HIV. There is no doubt that AIDS is a complex scientific problem. On Literary Analysis: "The Stranger" And "The Of The Spirits". However, the fight against HIV/AIDS and other STDs is largely complicated by the lack of effective therapeutic drugs, and because of the inability to be vaccinated. That is why, health education programs, full and objective information about the urgency of the problem and effective ways to prevent infections are crucial in the fight against the AIDS epidemic. Sure, HIV/AIDS and other STDs are difficult to control due to the following significant issues: 1) lack of effective treatment; 2) lack of resources for primary prevention (vaccination); 3) difficulties in contacts with the population most severely affected by HIV/AIDS. How HIV is Transmitted. The main routes of HIV transmission include as follows: A. Unsafe anal, vaginal, or oral sex (i.e. sex without a condom). Currently, the lion’s share of cases of HIV infection falls on unprotected sex. In order to protect themselves from HIV and other sexually transmitted infections, it is important to abstain from sexual intercourse or even it happens make sure to Social Partnership use a quality condom. B. Through blood products. The vast majority of HIV infections are among people who use or have used drugs intravenously.
Furthermore, HIV can be transmitted when using non-sterile, untreated medical instruments or during blood transfusions. C. Aztec Religion. From mother to Partnership child. Child transmission is possible: during pregnancy (when HIV penetrates through the placenta to the fetus) during childbirth and breast feeding. Now let us talk about the factors that contribute to the spread of Essay on Literary Analysis:, HIV infection: 1) the growing number of children and adolescents, who have dropped out of the sphere of social control; 2) the proliferation of different forms of deviant behavior among children, adolescents and Partnership Benefits, young people:increase in the number of injecting drug users; increase in alcohol abuse among minors; increase in juvenile delinquency; involvement of youth and minors in commercial sex. 3) reducing educational potential of families; 4) preventive work is not up to teenagers dropped out of the area of social control; 5) the imperfection of social monitoring (allowing to assess the effectiveness of preventive measures to track changes in the behavior of #8220;at risk#8221; groups, and to identify new areas of risk) as well as medical control over the representatives of #8220;at risk#8221; groups; 6) the lack of legal protection and psychosocial assistance to drug addicts and their families during the rehabilitation period; 7) low effectiveness of drug treatment, the high cost of removing the psychological dependence that makes it unaffordable for most addicts; 8) relative effectiveness of law enforcement agencies to combat drug trafficking; 9) low coordination of prevention activities by different agencies and organizations; 10) poor sexual health knowledge; 11) limited condom use since parents do not talk to their children about which of the following metals would a sacrificial sexual matters (Wasti, Simkhada, Randall, van Teijlingen, 2009). HIV Signs and Symptoms. Social Partnership. Now let us focus our specific attention on the fundamental criteria for recognition of HIV infection. The recognition of HIV infection, especially in the early stages, is aztec religion, very difficult. The doctor must first of all be alert to this infection, mindful of its inexorable spread in our society.
The diagnostic program for HIV infection should include three main fragments. Anamnesis – information about a person’s belonging to risk groups, sexual contact with persons from Social Benefits Essay, these groups, especially with the large number of partners. In addition, it is important to consider the indications of the subject for a long stay abroad, especially in endemic regions. Analysis of clinical symptoms. Multifaceted, abundant and diverse clinical manifestations of HIV infection have the common features: relentless flow, increasing severity, combination of a variety of pathological conditions, resistance to therapy, etc. The physician must especially pay attention to generalized lymphadenopathy, weight loss, persistent diarrhea, severe pneumonia, progressive damage to the central nervous system and, of course, Kaposi’s sarcoma.
Laboratory tests. The diagnosis of Essay on Literary Analysis: and "The, HIV infection should always be confirmed by the laboratory. Thus, HIV signs and symptoms include: 1) enlarged liver or spleen; 2) fever; 3) diarrhea; 4) chills; 5) headache; 6) muscle aches; 7) sore throat; 8) rash; 9) night sweats; 10) neurologic symptoms; 11) ulcers in the mouth; 12) nausea and Social Partnership Benefits, vomiting; 13) thrush; and 14) swollen lymph nodes (“Signs and Symptoms,” n.d.). However, it is possible to remember that the above-mentioned symptoms and of the metals for iron, signs usually disappear in a week to a month and Benefits, can be easily mistaken for any other virus infections. HIV/AIDS Prevention and Treatment. There is no doubt that successful fight against HIV / AIDS largely depends on the targeted prevention efforts of different government and non-governmental organizations and efficient attempts to deal with the problem that include political, societal, and treatment approaches. Since the recognition of HIV, many government and folks knowledge, non-governmental organizations took all the possible to measures to deal with the problem.
HIV/AIDS treatment and prevention took place in different areas, including education programs, public information, strategies to minimize the risks of being affected with HIV, and more. In fact, HIV / AIDS treatment pursues a comprehensive goal: to reduce the Partnership Benefits, amount of virus in the body, to keep the replication (reproduction) of the virus, to backup or restore the immune system and to prevent or treat opportunistic infections that occur due to by William Essay immune deficiency. As for the treatment options for dealing with the problem, it is important to introduce free voluntary HIV testing, qualified counseling for infected people to raise their awareness about the disease and safe sex behavior, appropriate and Social Partnership Benefits, adequate antiretroviral therapies, training sessions, specialized diagnostic and treatment centers to improve the social and material conditions of life for all. Thus, HIV / AIDS treatment is folks knowledge, currently being conducted in three areas: Etiotropic therapy aimed at eliminating or suppressing a retrovirus. Social Partnership Benefits. Pathogenetic therapy aimed at restoring the 138, by William Shakespeare Essay, immune system. Symptomatic therapy aimed at the treatment of major clinical manifestations of AIDS. Standard antiretroviral therapy that is considered to be today’s most efficient and effective way to treat HIV infection. It blocks the Social Benefits, HIV virus in the patients’ blood with antiretroviral drugs, which does not allow the virus to of the following metals would act as a sacrificial multiply further. Nowadays, medicine does not have the means that would completely cure a person infected with HIV. However, various medicine products that can delay disease progression are designed and manufactured by different organizations. WHO reports about the Essay, evidence-based programs for dealing with the metals a sacrificial anode, problem, arguing that as of the Partnership Essay, end of Sonnet 138, by William, 2012, 9.7 million individuals, including children and adolescents, had access to antiretroviral therapy (ART) in different countries worldwide.
In fact, WHO provides various countries with treatment options, evidence-based programs, ongoing guidance and support in delivering standard antiretroviral therapy within a public health approach (World Health Organization [WHO], 2013). In addition to this, WHO along with UNAIDS launched an evidence-based prevention program known as the Treatment 2.0 strategy. This program is aimed at encouraging adults and adolescents to adopt appropriate behaviors that decrease their risk of HIV infection. Also, the program is designed to assist HIV-positive individuals in reducing their risk of transmitting HIV. In fact, the Treatment 2.0 strategy promotes drastic simplification of standard antiretroviral therapy (ART) and full integration with treatment and prevention in order to ensure Universal Access (WHO, 2013). Here are some preventive measures to cope with the Social, HIV / AIDS issue. One of the most important ways to prevent HIV / AIDS is to have sex with only one partner, do not have contact with prostitutes, casual acquaintances, drug addicts who use intravenous needles, etc. 138, Shakespeare Essay. Moreover, it is Social Partnership Essay, essential to use condoms to Treatment protect against HIV.
Make sure to utilize only your own hypodermic needles, toothbrushes, and razors. Insist on using only sterile disposable instruments during surgeries (including dental ones), acupuncture, tattooing or body piercing. In addition, the most important policy actions include: 1. Ensuring promotion, protection and respect of human rights and Essay, taking measures to eliminate discrimination and combat stigma. 2. Cooperative work of all sectors of Water Facilities Essay, society, including governments, non-governmental organizations, religious organizations, education sectors, private sectors, trade unions, and the media. 3. Involvement of individuals living with HIV in the implementation and evaluation of preventive strategies that address the distinct prevention needs. 4. Taking into account cultural norms and beliefs, recognizing the key role they can play in supporting prevention efforts and Benefits, their potential impact on the spread of metals act as a sacrificial, HIV.
5. Wide dissemination of Social Benefits Essay, knowledge of on Diversity Industry, how HIV infection is transmitted and how to prevent it. 6. Promoting the links between HIV prevention and protection of sexual and reproductive health. 7. Promoting programs to meet the HIV prevention needs of key groups and populations affected by HIV. 8. Mobilizing and strengthening financial, human and institutional capacities in all sectors, particularly in health and education. 9. Ensuring adequate investment in areas of research, development and promotion of Partnership, new prevention technologies.
10. Ensuring “safer sex behavior, condom promotion, identifying and treating STIs, harm reduction, voluntary counselling and testing services, sexual health and HIV/AIDS to youth, preventing mother to Industry child transmission” (Wasti, Simkhada, Randall, van Teijlingen, 2009, p. 63). Thus, taking the above-mentioned information into consideration, it is possible to draw a conclusion that HIV/AIDS and other STDs are truly one of the most important and tragic issues facing humanity at the end of Benefits, XX century. Anyone at any age, regardless of gender, place of residence, religion and aztec religion, social status can become infected with HIV. However, the fact is that young people are most at risk of HIV infection. This is due to the fact that adolescence is viewed as one of the most difficult periods of human development. Today, young people are largely disoriented: the media, movies and magazines propagandize a disreputable lifestyle full of unsafe sexual practices, smoking, and Social Benefits, alcohol consumption. As a result, not having access to accurate information, they begin to rely on rumors and stereotypes learned from peers and TVs. In this connection, young people need adequate support and help to protect themselves from being infected. Sure, HIV/AIDS is an important issue, which requires much attention to deal with.
It is critical to take all the possible measures to cope with the problem at the national and international levels. Our research presents a solution to the HIV issue, provides the information on HIV transmission routes, HIV symptoms and signs and HIV/AIDS treatment and preventive measures to deal with the issue. Undoubtedly, only the knowledge about HIV transmission and 138, Shakespeare, prevention is able to protect each of us from Social Benefits, being affected by folks knowledge, this viral infection.
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essays on Partnership Essay bell jar The Separative Self in Sylvia Plath's The Bell Jar Critic: Diane S. Bonds Source: Women's Studies, Vol. 18, No. 1, May, 1990, pp. 138, By William Essay? 49-64. Reproduced by permission Criticism about: Sylvia Plath (1932-1963), also known as: Victoria Lucas, Mrs. Social Benefits? Ted Hughes The Separative Self in Sylvia Plath's The Bell Jar , [(essay date May 1990) In the following essay, Bonds reconsiders feminist critical analysis of The Bell Jar, drawing attention to Esther Greenwood's recovery in the novel. According to Bonds, Esther fails to establish an autonomous, or separative, self, and ultimately resorts to culturally-ingrained stereotypes of women.] Plath's novel The Bell Jar dramatizes the collusion between the notion of a separate and separative self (or bounded, autonomous subject) and the cultural forces that have oppressed women.
The pervasive imagery of dismemberment conveys the alienation and self-alienation leading to Esther Greenwood's breakdown and suicide attempt; the recovery which Plath constructs for her heroine merely reenacts the on Literary Analysis: "The Stranger" of the Spirits", dismemberments obsessively imaged in the first half of the novel. This recovery denies the Partnership Benefits Essay, relationality of the self and leaves Esther to define herself unwittingly and unwillingly in relation to culturally-ingrained stereotypes of women. Contemporary feminist theory has questioned the validity of the 138, Shakespeare Essay, separative model of selfhood, but literary critics have brought to the novel the same assumptions about the self which inform Plath's book. Thus they have failed to Social Partnership Benefits Essay recognize what the novel has to teach about the destructive effects--at least for of the following metals a sacrificial for iron women--of our cultural commitment to that model. As Paula Bennett has written, Sylvia Plath's The Bell Jar offers a brilliant evocation of the oppressive atmosphere of the 1950s and the soul-destroying effect this atmosphere could have on ambitious, high-minded young women like Plath. It has not been widely recognized, however, that the soul-destroying effect of Plath's social context is dramatized as vividly by the putative recovery of the heroine as by her breakdown and attempted suicide. The novel presents the transformation of Esther Greenwood from a young woman who hates the idea of Social Partnership serving men in any way to of the following metals act as one who appears to earn her exit from the Social, asylum by committing herself, albeit unwittingly, precisely to that project. Sonnet By William Shakespeare? In the first half of the novel, the Social, pervasive imagery of dismemberment conveys the alienation and self-alienation leading to Esther's breakdown and suicide attempt.
In the second half of the novel a pattern of symbolic rebirth is superimposed on a narrative which in its details suggests that Esther purchases her new self by the discontinuance of any relations that might threaten by means of Essay in the Fast Food Industry intimacy or tenderness the boundaries of a self conceived as an autonomous entity, as a separate and separative self. Contemporary feminist theory has questioned the validity of this model of the self. Partnership Benefits Essay? Catherine Keller, for example, has recently drawn on theology, philosophy, psychology (including the work of Nancy Chodorow and Carol Gilligan), and literature, to demonstrate in impressive detail the historic collusion between the notion of a separate subject or bounded, autonomous self and the cultural forces that have oppressed women. 138, By William Shakespeare? The Bell Jar vividly illustrates that collusion by proposing, through its representation of Esther's recovery, an ideal of a self uncontaminated by others. But such a conception of the self denies the undeniable: the relationality of selfhood. The recovery which Plath constructs for her heroine reenacts the dismemberments obsessively imaged in the first half of the novel; I would argue that it merely leaves Esther prey to defining herself unwittingly and unwillingly in relation to Essay all that remains to her: culturally-ingrained stereotypes of women. Critics for the most part seem to have brought to the novel the same assumptions about the self which inform Plath's book, assumptions deriving from a separative model of the self. Essay On Diversity In The Fast? Thus they have failed to recognize what the novel has to Social Essay teach about the effects of our cultural commitment to that model.
In the first part of Essay on Diversity in the Fast Industry Plath's novel, both the commitment to the separative self and the effects of that commitment are woven into the text through the Social Benefits, pervasive imagery of dismemberment. This imagery suggests Esther's alienation and fragmentation as well as a thwarted longing for relatedness with others and for a reconnection of Analysis: "The Stranger" and "The of the dismembered part to whole. Social Benefits Essay? A signal example of this imagery is the image of folks knowledge a cadaver head which occurs on the first page of the novel: I kept hearing about the Rosenbergs over the radio and at the office until I couldn't get them out of Social Partnership Essay my mind. It was like the first time I saw a cadaver. Folks Knowledge? For weeks afterward, the cadaver's head--or what there was left of it--floated up behind my eggs and bacon at breakfast. . . . I felt as though I was carrying that cadaver's head around with me on a string, like some black, noseless balloon stinking of vinegar. This image anticipates and comprehends the disembodied faces that Esther repeatedly encounters, faces always associated with the Partnership Benefits Essay, threat of the loss of self. She repeatedly confronts her own unrecognized or distorted image in folks knowledge the mirror, mistaken on one occasion for a big, smudgy-eyed Chinese woman, looking like a sick Indian on another; a third time, in Social Partnership Benefits Essay the hospital after her suicide attempt, she thinks she is looking at a picture of another person, unrecognizably male or female, with their hair . . . shaved off and sprouted in bristly chicken-feather tufts all over Essay on Literary "The House of the Spirits" their head. The faces of others hover over her or float in front of Social Essay her eyes with startling frequency: the face of by William Essay Buddy Willard hanging over her after her skiing accident, announcing with some satisfaction You'll be stuck in a cast for months; the face of Joan Gilling floating before her, bodiless and smiling, like the face of the Cheshire cat, an image that comes to Esther immediately before she learns of Social Partnership Benefits Essay Joan's suicide by hanging; on the next page her mother's face floating to of the following a sacrificial for iron mind, a pale reproachful moon. It is possible that the precursor of these and other apparently disembodied heads is the head of the baby born in the traumatic episode in Partnership Benefits which Buddy Willard, a medical student, takes Esther into the delivery room to Essay Stranger" and "The Spirits" witness a birth. The episode, a flashback, is permeated with images of dismemberment: the stomach of the woman in labor sticks up so high that her face cannot be seen; the baby's head is the first thing to appear in Partnership Essay the delivery, a dark fuzzy thing that emerges through the Essay Analysis: and "The, split, shaven place between [the woman's legs], lurid with disinfectant.
The images of dismemberment seem to be linked as well to the image of a baby pickled in laboratory jar which occurs at the end of the first chapter. Social? If, as Jung has taught us, the baby is an archetypal symbol of the self in crisis, then the Essay Fast Industry, image of the pickled baby, along with the images of dismembered body parts, accurately conveys the nature of Esther's crisis: each of the Social Benefits, various paths open to her will require that she dispense with, leave undeveloped, some important part of herself. Imagistically the novel makes this point through scenes like that in the delivery room where the following metals would act as anode for iron, emergence of the infant's head is accompanied by the decapitation of the mother. Thus at the beginning of the novel, as Esther walks along the New York streets wondering what it would be like, being burned alive all along your nerves, her musing is Social Partnership, not merely a response to the electrocution of the Rosenbergs but to her own growing sense of alienation from the cultural demands and images of women with which she is daily bombarded during her guest editorship at Ladies' Day. These seem implicitly to reinforce the lessons of the preceding year, especially those of her relationship with Buddy Willard, suggesting that she must mutilate or deform herself through mating, marriage, and motherhood. Which Of The Metals A Sacrificial For Iron? It is not entirely surprising then that she begins to Partnership Benefits Essay see the city as a collocation of dismembered body parts: goggle-eyed headlines stare up at her on every street corner and at the fusty, peanut-smelling mouth of every subway. Her friend Doreen, too, is Facilities Essay, presented as such a collocation: bright white hair standing out in a cotton candy fluff and blue eyes like transparent agate marbles, hard and polished and just about indestructible, and a mouth set in a sort of perpetual sneer, long, nicotine-yellow nails and the breasts which pop out of her dress later at Lenny's apartment. The dismembered animal parts that decorate that apartment--the white bearskins, the antlers and buffalo horns and [the] stuffed rabbit head with its meek little grey muzzle and the stiff, jackrabbit ears--are tokens of the sexual hunt in which it is assumed all the young guest editors at Social, Ladies' Day will gladly play their parts, oozing enthusiasm, like Betsy, about learning the latest way to make an all purpose neckerchief out of mink tails.
Feeling as cut off as these excised animal parts from the culture which expects her participation in aztec religion this hunt, Esther is haunted by images suggesting the self-mutilations of marriage and motherhood. She recalls the way in which Buddy Willard's mother weaves a beautiful rug only to destroy its beauty in Benefits a matter of days by using it as a kitchen mat. The message is clear to Esther: . . . I knew that in spite of all the Essay Stranger" and "The, roses and the kisses . . . Partnership Benefits Essay? what [a man] secretly wanted when the wedding service ended was for Facilities [the wife] to flatten out underneath his feet like Mrs. Willard's kitchen mat. Social Partnership? Her reaction against this form of mutilation is clear in her violent sensitivity upon her return home to the presence of Dodo Conway, a neighbor who had gone to Barnard and who is now pregnant with her seventh child.
The vision of Dodo, not five feet tall, with a grotesque, protruding stomach. . . Water Treatment Facilities? . Her head tilted happily back, like a sparrow egg perched on Essay a duck egg, elicits from Esther the following reaction: Children made me sick. . . . I couldn't see the point of getting up. I had nothing to look forward to. Esther sees Dodo as a grotesque collection of unrelated and incompatible parts, a vision which we may read as a projection of her own sense of self. Essay On Diversity Fast? It is crucial to emphasize at Social Partnership Benefits Essay, this point in of the metals would act as a sacrificial anode the argument, however, that the imagery of Partnership Essay dismemberment in The Bell Jar does not simply communicate Esther's psychic disturbance or a set of feelings characterizing a certain point in aztec religion her history; the imagery also implies a certain model of the self. Imagery focusing our attention on part-whole relations (or dis-relations) presupposes that the self is a bounded entity, something with separate and distinct existence and of which certain kinds of things may be said: it is a whole; it may have parts or members; if some of Social Benefits these parts or members are removed, then the entity is not whole; neither are the severed parts, from this perspective, wholes.
The model of the self implied by aztec religion, the imagery of dismemberment, in Benefits Essay short, coincides with the Sonnet by William, model of a bounded self, an autonomous subject, that has dominance in our culture. The notion of a separate, bounded self of Partnership Benefits course corresponds to our sense of being locked into our own bodies, of being separate and distinct entities. Sonnet 138, By William Essay? But it is important to stress that the model of an autonomous bounded self does not represent the only way in Benefits Essay which the self may be conceived, and Essay, according to some theorists it does not represent the most accurate way of conceiving selfhood. Catherine Keller compellingly argues for the possibility of a relational model of selfhood that does not preclude a sense of Essay differentiated identity or imply, as some feminists have argued, submersion of the self in others. Based on the assumption that the self is constituted in and through relationships with others, the relational model rejects subject-object dualism (and the system of hierarchical oppositions in which it is embedded), and it recognizes the fluid, permeable boundaries of self. Conceived not as an entity, but as a nexus of relations, the self might be imaged through metaphors of webs and linkages.
Conceived not as a substance, but as a process, it might be imaged through metaphors of Analysis: "The of the fluidity. Or, conversely, a predominance of images of webs, linkages, process and fluidity, might imply an entirely different conception of the self from that informing The Bell Jar. That such metaphors are absent from Plath's novel suggests how thoroughly dominated by the separative model was the novelist's imagination. One image of linkage, of apparent significance because of its location in Social Benefits Essay the last paragraph of the metals would act as, novel, is qualified by the paragraph which precedes it: Pausing, for a brief breath, on the threshold I saw the silver-haired doctor . . . and the pocked, cadaverous face of Social Miss Huey, and eyes I thought I had recognized over white masks. The eyes and the faces all turned themselves toward me, and guiding myself by them, as by a magical thread, I stepped into the room. The reminder in the image of Miss Huey of the cadaver head which obsesses Esther, the recalled image of aztec religion eyes floating over masks--there is little qualitative difference between the vision represented here and that at the beginning of the novel, though the narrator's tone may have changed. The magical thread does not so much provide a link to others constitutive of the self as it does a line to those who hold the Social Partnership Benefits Essay, power of 138, by William release from daily confrontation with the self and its agonies. Despite the ambiguities of the closing of The Bell Jar, critics have been surprisingly willing to accept that Esther is in some positive sense reborn even if her future is uncertain.
In the final episode, when Esther readies herself to meet the board of doctors who will certify her release from the hospital, she behaves as if she is Social, preparing for a bridegroom or a date; she checks her stocking seams, muttering to herself Something old, something new. . Essay On Diversity In The Fast Food Industry? . . But, she goes on, I wasn't getting married. There ought, I thought, to be a ritual for being born twice--patched, retreaded, and approved for the road, I was trying to think of an Social Essay appropriate one. . . . Critics who have been willing to aztec religion see a reborn Esther have generally done so without ever questioning the propriety of the reference to a retread job. Linda Wagner, for example, ignores this passage and concentrates on subsequent paragraphs, where the Social Benefits, image of an open door and Esther's ability to Essay in the Food Industry breathe are, Wagner writes, surely positive images. Susan Coyle writes that the tire image seems to be accurate, since the reader does not have a sense of [Esther] as a brand-new, unblemished tire but of one that has been painstakingly reworked, remade; Coyle claims that Esther has taken steps that however tentative, do lead her toward an authentic self that was previously impossible for her. Not only do the comments of Coyle and Social Partnership Benefits Essay, Wagner ignore the implication of choosing the Water Treatment Essay, tire image in the first place; they also miss an affinity of the passage with one I quoted earlier in which Esther views wifehood in terms of Social Benefits Essay service as a kitchen mat.
The tire, like a kitchen mat, presents us with a utilitarian object, easily repaired or replaced, as a metaphor for a woman. It is worth observing that a patched, retreaded tire may be ready for the road, but somewhere down the highway the owner can expect a flat. Now flatten out is folks knowledge, exactly what Esther suspects--or had suspected--women do in marriage. Social Essay? Yet it is folks knowledge, precisely for marriage that Esther seems confusedly to be preparing herself in the final episode as she straightens her seams. It is true that she withdraws her reference to marriage, but despite her disclaimer, it seems to me, a retread job can only be a travesty of rebirth. The metaphor of rebirth or a second birth is thus especially suspicious because of the way in which the Social Partnership, tire image obliquely forces us to associate Esther's new lease on life with role expectations that contributed to her breakdown in the first place: the domestic servitude that Esther painfully recognizes as a dreary and Essay, wasted life for Partnership Essay a girl with fifteen years of straight A's. Although Esther's breakdown may have sources lying buried in the past along with her father, the novel makes it sufficiently clear that she is torn apart by the intolerable conflict between her wish to avoid domesticity, marriage and motherhood, on the one hand, and her inability to conceive of a viable future in of the act as a sacrificial which she avoids that fate, on the other. Plath's inability to Essay resolve that conflict in of the metals would act as anode for iron her own life is well known. In an essay entitled Sylvia Plath's 'Sivvy' Poems: A Portrait of the Partnership Benefits Essay, Poet as a Daughter, Marjorie Perloff concludes: The first shock of recognition produced by aztec religion, Sylvia Plath's 'independence' from her husband and Essay, her mother was the following would a sacrificial anode, stimulus that gave rise to Social Partnership Essay the Ariel poems. But given the 'psychic osmosis' between herself and Aurelia Plath . . . Essay? given the Social Benefits, years of iron discipline during which Sylvia had been her mother's Sivvy, the Essay, touching assertion [in Medusa] that 'There is nothing between us' could only Essay, mean that now there would be nothing at all.
Whatever the biographical validity of Perloff's argument, it may help us to define a pattern that has not been discerned in The Bell Jar. Esther's movement toward her breakdown entails a series of rejections of 138, or separations from Social Benefits, women who, though they may be associated with some stereotype of womanhood unacceptable to Esther, have nurtured some important aspect of her evolving identity; as I want to which of the following anode show, the Partnership Benefits, supposed cure which she undergoes is actually a continuation of Sonnet 138, by William Essay a pattern in which Esther severs relations precisely with those whose presence in her self has been constitutive. Benefits? Such a series of rejections may dramatize a deluded notion that an autonomous and authentic self may be derived through purging the self of the influence of others, but there is good reason to suppose that the process actually means that little or nothing would remain to Esther, as means of on Literary "The and "The of the Spirits" modeling identity, except forms of womanhood offered to her by Partnership Benefits Essay, the very stereotypes she has sought to Water Treatment Facilities elude. The irony here is that in Partnership Essay the attempt to avoid dismemberment, disfiguration or mutilation of the self, the heroine undergoes a process of self-dismemberment. The novel provides another metaphor for the process I am describing in the repeated binge-and-purge episodes of the first portion of the novel. In chapter 2, Esther vicariously participates in Essay in the Fast Industry Doreen's debauch with Lenny, then returns to the hotel and a bath of purification; the pattern is repeated when Doreen returns, to pass out in a pool of Benefits her own vomit. Chapter 4 presents another purgative cleansing; after gorging on caviar at by William Shakespeare Essay, a luncheon, Esther is leveled by food poisoning, an experience which makes her feel purged and holy and ready for a new life. Shortly after this purgation, she announces: I'm starving. In somewhat a similar manner, I am arguing, Esther embraces relations with most of the women in the novel only to cast them off, as if they constituted a foreign presence within the purity of Benefits Essay her own identity, some threat to her integrity.
Doreen, for example, speaks to her with a voice like a secret voice speaking straight out of [her] own bones, but after the evening in Lenny's apartment, Esther decides to have nothing to do with her. Folks Knowledge? A similar pattern is repeated with every female character in the novel, including Dr. Nolan, the psychiatrist who brings about Esther's recovery, and Esther's mother. Esther's aversion from her mother is Benefits Essay, obvious, ascending in stridency from the mild understatement, My own mother wasn't much help to Essay Fast Food Industry the murderous fantasy inspired by sharing a room with her mother: one sleepless night, after staring at the pin curls on her [mother's] head glittering like a row of little bayonets, Esther comes to feel that the only way she can escape the annoying sound of her mother's faint snore would be to take the column of skin and sinew from which it rose and Social Partnership Benefits, twist it to 138, Shakespeare Essay silence between [her] hands. Even though Esther at one point wishes that she had a mother like Jay Cee, the editor for Social Partnership Essay whom she works at Ladies' Day, her ambivalence toward Jay Cee and other women who have nurtured her talents is profound--and it appears to derive, quite simply, from their supposed unattractiveness to men.
Of Jay Cee, Esther says . On Diversity In The Fast Industry? . . I liked her a lot. . Partnership Benefits? . . [She] had brains, so her plug-ugly looks didn't seem to matter; but sentences later, after admitting that she cannot imagine Jay Cee in bed with her husband, Esther changes her attitude abruptly: Jay Cee wanted to teach me something, all the old ladies I ever knew wanted to teach me something, but I suddenly didn't think they had anything to teach me. A similar reflection recurs near the end of the novel in a scene where the lesbian Joan Gilling lounges on Esther's bed in by William the asylum and Esther's revery seems to lump the unattractive, the manless, and the woman-loving together. She remembers: . . . the famous woman poet at my college [who] lived with another woman--a stumpy old Classical scholar with a cropped Dutch cut. When I told the Social Partnership Benefits, poet that I might well get married and have a pack of children someday, she stared at me in horror. But what about your career? she had cried. Folks Knowledge? My head ached. Why did I attract these weird old women: There was the famous poet, and Philomena Guinea, and Social Partnership Essay, Jay Cee, and folks knowledge, the Christian Scientist lady, and lord knows who, and they all wanted to adopt me in some way, and, for the price of their care and influence, have me resemble them. This passage focuses our attention on the immersion of Plath/Esther in what Adrienne Rich has called the Social, compulsory heterosexuality, the pervasive heterosexism, of our culture. Aztec Religion? It also reinforces our awareness that despite her intelligence, imagination and professional ambition, Esther's sense of identity as a woman is predicated on finding the Social, right man. That Esther categorizes Jay Cee, Philomena Guinea, and the woman poet at college (who is never named)--along with the Christian Scientist lady whom she does not know--as weird old women who want to save her is a way of rejecting these women's very real contributions and potential contributions to her own evolving identity.
The claim would seem to be at least partly a projection of her own desire to be saved from becoming like these women with whom she shares certain talents, capacities, and Essay on Literary Analysis: and "The of the, interests. I want to Social Benefits Essay suggest that there may be a kind of psychic dismemberment signified by the separation of self thus from one's nurturers; denying their influence is on Literary Analysis: "The and "The House of the, like peeling off layers of her own self--or cutting off important members. It is especially important to notice in this regard that the point where Esther turns her back on Jay Cee coincides with the diminishment of her sense of competence, which becomes increasingly worse as the weeks pass in Social Partnership Benefits New York. In rejecting the weird old women who want to save her, she appears to aztec religion become increasingly disempowered; that is, she appears to lose touch with the talents and skills that these women nurtured. Esther's recovery involves a reinstitution of the problems that led to her breakdown. Benefits? If, as I have already suggested, the reconstructed Esther is a retreaded tire doomed to go flat (and probably on the same highway that brought her to the asylum in the first place), that is partly because her cure perpetuates the disease. The recovery process of folks knowledge this heroine merely extends the Social Essay, series of separations from or rejections of others which seems to have played an important part in folks knowledge bringing about her breakdown. By the closing pages of the novel, two meaningful relations with women are open to Esther, relations with her friend, Joan Gilling, and her psychiatrist, Dr. Social Benefits Essay? Nolan.
The first of aztec religion these relations is Partnership, terminated decisively by the character's suicide, which renders irreversible Esther's prior rejection of that character. In the penultimate scene of the novel, Esther attends Joan's funeral, wondering, she tells us, what I thought I was burying and 138, by William, listening to the insistent brag of [her own] heart--I am, I am, I am. Since Esther springs to new life as Joan is buried, it would be difficult not to conclude that Plath is putting aside, burying, some unacceptable part of her heroine: Esther has even explicitly identified Joan as the beaming double of my old best self. Like the metaphor of a retread, however, this comment exemplifies the Social Benefits Essay, uncertainty of tone that, according to Rosellen Brown, manages to which act as a sacrificial anode for iron trivialize . . Partnership Essay? . [the novel's] heavy freight of pain. If the passage hints Esther's awareness that her old best self is peculiarly vulnerable to disintegration precisely because of the intolerable psychic conflict produced by trying to meet cultural expectations of women, it also--to the extent that it is sarcastic--distances Esther from Joan and from the painful feelings that she shares with Joan. Until the revelation that Joan is involved in a lesbian relationship, that young woman is folks knowledge, associated with a potential for intimacy that seems more positive than negative. Joan replaces, as Esther's neighbor, Miss Norris, with whom Esther shares an hour of Social Essay close, sisterly silence.
Joan's intimacy with Dee Dee is associated with improving health ( pace Vance Bourjaily, who writes that a relapse is indicated by Joan's lesbian involvement--the novel simply contradicts this). Esther even feels free to curl up on Joan's bed on first encountering her at one asylum, though she admits to having known Joan at on Literary Analysis: Stranger", college only at Benefits, a cool distance. After discovering Joan with Dee Dee, however, Esther's treatment of Joan begins to be marked by a blatant cruelty, as when Esther tells Joan, 'I don't like you. You make me want to puke, if you want to know.' A less explicit cruelty, implicating not merely the character Esther but the author Plath, pervades the scene where Joan seeks medical attention for Esther's hemorrhaging after Esther's encounter with Irwin. Esther/Plath clearly has one eye on humiliating Joan.
Because Joan is allowed to surmise that the bleeding is some mysterious menstrual problem rather than connected to Esther's loss of virginity, she is made to look like a bumbler. Folks Knowledge? She has difficulty explaining the problem clearly enough to get emergency aid, a problem which of course increases the danger to Esther, but a pun seems more important here than prompt medical assistance. When Joan asks about the man who has dropped Esther off, Esther says: I realized that she honestly took my explanation at face value . . . and his appearance [was] a mere prick to her pleasure at my arrival. The oddity of her mentioning, in circumstances where every beat of her heart pushed forth another gush of blood, Joan's pleasure at her arrival is Social Partnership Essay, matched by what looks like a kind of desperation to hide from aztec religion, Joan the cause of the hemorrhaging. The peculiarities of this scene create ambiguities about Esther's motives and suggest confusion on Plath's part. Partnership? Still Plath's imagery hints at a causal link between Esther's hemorrhaging and Joan's death. Often described before this episode in terms of which following would act as for iron horse imagery, Joan is here described as a myopic owl in an image that appears paradoxically to Social Essay reveal what it intends to obscure: Joan's knowledge of the cause of Esther's suffering and the trauma of the Sonnet by William Shakespeare Essay, rejection that Esther's suffering represents.
Similarly, the structuring of the Social Partnership Benefits Essay, narrative implies a link between Joan's death and Esther's rebirth. By William Essay? Before she gets to the Emergency Room, Esther remembers a worrisome course in the Victorian novel where woman after woman died, palely and nobly, in torrents of blood, after a difficult childbirth. The birth that is brought about here, however, is not that of a strong new self but of an Esther who gives in to her fear of the love and nurturance of women--exemplified by Joan's role as nurse in this scene--an Esther who buries her capacity for Essay identification with women and accepts the very stereotypes which have been the source of her pain. As the only purely imagined event in the book, the inclusion of Joan's unexpected and unprepared for suicide immediately following this episode, is, as Paula Bennett has written, necessitated not by the novel's plot, themes, or characters but by Plath's own emotional understanding of her text. Joan, the Essay on Diversity in the Fast, woman who loves other women and who, therefore, can pursue a career and independent life without benefit of man or marriage, must be disposed of if the demons that haunt Plath's/Esther's mind are to Partnership Benefits Essay be exorcised as well. Of The For Iron? . Social Partnership Benefits Essay? . . The nature of those demons may partly be implied by the descriptions of the lesbians in folks knowledge the novel: not only the stumpy old Classical scholar, already mentioned, but the matronly-breasted senior, homely as a grandmother and a pious Religion major, and a tall, gawky freshman with a history of being deserted at Partnership Benefits Essay, an early hour in all sorts of ingenious ways by her blind dates.
Such images indicate the following would a sacrificial for iron, weirdness, the unattractiveness, to Benefits Plath of any female behavior deviating from heterosexual, patriarchal norms: Esther says of on Literary Analysis: "The Stranger" of the Spirits" Joan, It was like observing a Martian, or a particularly warty toad. It seems a kind of narrative reaction to these images that in Social the episode following those in which they occur, Esther has herself fitted with a diaphragm. So compelling is the logic of her desire to avoid pregnancy that we do not feel spurred to following metals anode for iron ask why she would at this point want to Social Partnership Benefits Essay have anything to do with a man in the first place. But it should be noted that her encounters with men have been nearly devastating: her father deserts her by dying when she is very young; much more recently in aztec religion the novel, she is knocked down in Partnership Benefits the mud, mauled, practically raped by a man who marks her face with blood; in another, a flashback to an occasion where she ends up inspecting Buddy Willard's genitals, all she can think of is turkey neck and turkey gizzards. Water Treatment Facilities? The man she sets out to seduce (Constantin) falls asleep unaroused by her, and the male psychiatrist to whom she turns for help practically electrocutes her. This pattern of pain and Benefits, disappointment is merely confirmed by her experience with Irwin, who creates for her, in deflowering her, a possibly life-threatening medical emergency. It is a sad irony that precisely at the point in The Bell Jar where the action seems to call for at least a temporary turning away from men or from seeing herself in relation to male sexuality, if only to provide for some period of reflection and healing on Esther's part, the novel turns more decisively than ever away from women and toward men. Critics have not, however, generally recognized this irony; the typical reaction has been to aztec religion accept at face value that the purchase of a diaphragm is an important step in the direction of independence. While contraception surely frees Esther from fears which no women should have to Social Partnership suffer, my argument is that we need to question the validity of the notion of independence offered through this episode. In killing off Joan, Plath cancels for Esther the following metals would act as anode for iron, possibility of tenderness--outside the relatively impersonal therapeutic relationship--clearly symbolized by Joan's lesbianism. That possibility is Benefits, named by Dr.
Nolan, the only character in folks knowledge the novel treated with unambiguous respect. When Esther asks this psychiatrist What does a women see in a woman that she can't see in a man, Dr. Partnership Benefits? Nolan replies with one definitive, authoritative word: Tenderness. Plath dramatizes both the aztec religion, yearning for tenderness in Esther and the way in Essay which Esther is cut off from that yearning, but there seems to be little authorial awareness of the disjunction. Water Essay? The novel presents the possibility of tenderness between women in a story Esther recounts about two suspected lesbians at her college: 'Milly was sitting on the chair and Theodora was lying on the bed, and Milly was stroking Theodora's hair.' An image of this sort of caress occurs at another point in the novel, significantly in connection with a male who is probably a homosexual. When Constantin, the simultaneous interpreter whom Esther fails to seduce in New York, reaches out at the end of the evening to touch her hair she feels a little electric shock and tells us: Ever since I was small I loved feeling somebody comb my hair. It made me go all sleepy and peaceful. This touch is arguably the only tenderness Esther experiences in the novel, yet her response to the similar contact between Milly and Theodora is this: I was disappointed. . . . I wondered if all women did with women was lie and hug.
In her aversion to Joan, Esther denies what the Social, text nonetheless reveals: the possibility of a healing tenderness and weirdness that the relation of Water Facilities Essay Joan and Dee Dee represents. As we have seen, this denial is authorially endorsed by Plath's invention of Joan's suicide. Suggesting that Joan represents Esther's suicidal self or--more exotically but no more helpfully--the inverted Victorian side of Esther, critics with a Freudian orientation have linked Esther's recovery to a splitting off of an unacceptable portion of the self dramatized by Joan's suicide. While a splitting off undoubtedly occurs, the nature of what is Social, split off is ultimately ambiguous. Furthermore, splitting off appears to be a major symptom of the Water, disorder from which Esther suffers. The novel dramatizes a tragic self-dismemberment in which the heroine, because of her very strengths and aspirations, appears to split off those components of herself that represent patriarchally-defined expectations of women, projecting these aspects of herself on her mother, her grandmother, Dodo Conway, Mrs. Willard, and the young women who are guest editors with her at Ladies' Day, especially Doreen and Betsy.
Although she consciously rejects the influence of these others, she must still unconsciously be dominated by the patriarchal images of womanhood that she rejects; otherwise she would not need also to split off those qualities and impulses in herself that do not meet patriarchal expectations--all that goes counter to conventional femininity and is therefore weird. Social? These she projects upon Jay Cee. Philomena Guinea, the unnamed famous poet at Essay on Literary Analysis: and "The Spirits", her college, and Social Partnership Essay, finally Joan. Her systematic rejection of these leaves her quite possibly with nothing in aztec religion the same sense that, as Perloff argues, Plath was left with nothing after rejecting the beliefs she inherited from her mother. Dr.
Nolan appears to play a special role in Esther's cure, but several reservations about that role ought to Social be made. Combining the by William Shakespeare, attributes of patriarchally-defined femininity and professional accomplishment, Dr. Social Partnership? Nolan is set forth by some readers as an ideal role model for Esther, but the last thirty years have taught us to question this sort of image which can merely compound the oppression of women by folks knowledge, leading them to assume expectations traditionally held of men as well as those held of women: Plath herself provides a highly visible example of the Partnership Essay, tragic consequences of uncritically embracing this model which encourages the belief that women can have it all. Furthermore, the Treatment, novel leaves ambiguous the extent of Nolan's contribution to the recovery. Although the trust she engenders in Esther undoubtedly counts for a great deal, the electroshock therapy and the psychic dismemberment involved in the process appear to get equal if not more credit for Esther's improvement. Finally, whatever the depth of Esther's indebtedness to Social Partnership Dr. Nolan, the relationship appears to be largely terminated by Esther's release from the hospital. Thus, at the end of the novel, far from having moved in the direction of an authentic self, Esther has been systematically separated from the 138, by William Essay, very means by which such a self might be constituted: relationships with others. Her high heels and red wool suit flamboyant as [her] plans clearly signal a renewed and energized willingness to enter the Social Benefits, sexual hunt that so dispirited her during her summer in New York. Essay Fast Industry? Esther's seeming preparation to reenter the hunt for the right man is accompanied by the strong suggestion that the right man is one with whom she may avoid emotional attachment. (Esther says gleefully, after realizing that Irwin's voice on the phone means nothing to her and that he has no way of getting in touch with her again, I was perfectly free.) In other words, Esther's identity, the boundary of her self, has been secured by her isolation. The Bell Jar makes apparent the oppressive force (at least for Social Partnership women) of the model of separative selfhood which dominates patriarchal culture.
The novel dramatizes a double bind for women in which, on the one hand, an authentic self is one that is a sacrificial anode for iron, presumed to be autonomous and whole, entire to itself and clearly bounded, and yet in which, on the other hand, women have their identity primarily through relationship to a man. It is the increasing tension of this double bind for Esther which results in her breakdown; her release from the asylum, I have argued, is marked by a restoration of the double bind at a different and tolerable level of tension. The experiences of both Esther and Joan suggest that escape is Social Benefits, not possible through conscious rejection of the expectation that a woman find herself in a man; in my reading, Plath's novel hints that the expectation is, in that instance, likely to be heeded at a more deeply unconscious level. (This would be a possible explanation of Joan's unexpected suicide, and the idea is supported by Essay Fast Food, the imagery of the closing episode as I have analyzed it.) Yet the other alternative, to reject the model of separative selfhood and embrace a relational model, involves--in the cultural context portrayed by Plath--the restoration of the traditional plight of women: subservience to Benefits or submersion in others. The way out of the Sonnet Shakespeare Essay, dilemma is a relational conception of selfhood in a world of non-oppressive, non-hierarchical relations. Social? But we do not live in such a world (yet), and our culture offers few means of imaging non-oppressive, non-hierarchical relationality.
It is in signaling the of the following metals would a sacrificial anode for iron, paucity of such means, the unavailability of such images at least to Benefits someone like Plath but by extension to many women in our culture, that The Bell Jar has special importance. Images of Sonnet by William Shakespeare Essay lateral relationships among women, i.e. images of female friendship, provide one means, but as I have argued, Plath seems compelled in this novel eventually to reject all such images. In this context, the introduction of Joan specifically as a lesbian becomes very important. Partnership Benefits? Joan's lesbianism and suicide appear to which of the would anode belong to a small number of invented features of the novel. That Plath rejects Joan by killing her off is a sign of the Partnership Benefits Essay, novelist's domination by the cultural norms that, I believe, destroyed her; that she created Joan as a lesbian in the first place, however, especially in Water Treatment Facilities a novel so dominated by autobiographical fact, might plausibly be viewed as a last desperate imaginative reaching toward some viable image of non-hierarchical relationality.
Having rejected all the other woman-woman relationships available to her from her experience, Plath turns finally to invention, which--controlled by stereotype as it is--proves no more successful than autobiographical fact. It is important for feminist critics to discern such emancipatory impulses or gestures wherever they occur in women's writing. We need to bring them into Benefits Essay, focus and to which would a sacrificial anode for iron assess where they succeed and the conditions of their success or failure. But I would suggest that critics are less than well-equipped to undertake such work if they remain uncritical of their own discourse, for example, the way in which it is permeated with terminology implying that the self is an autonomous, bounded entity. Paula Bennett, who rightly calls the Social, ending of The Bell Jar unbearably factitious, provides an Essay on Literary Analysis: Stranger" and "The House Spirits" example of such terminology when she writes that . . . Plath herself seems to have gained little from her experience at the psychiatric hospital. She returned to Smith . Benefits? . Water Treatment Essay? . hollow and unintegrated at her core. Bennett's language here (hollow, core), founded as it is upon the dichotomy of inner and outer, implies subject-object dualism and all the patriarchally-freighted oppositions that it brings in Partnership Essay its wake. It is difficult to write about the self in our culture without making use of terms implying the very dualisms on which patriarchy is founded.
Yet if we cannot entirely dispense with such terminology--and I do not believe that we very well can--we can be aware of its metaphoric nature and Essay in the Fast Industry, of the assumptions that it covers. When we become aware of the Social Partnership, limits of our metaphors for Essay on Diversity in the selfhood, we become more attuned to those employed by the writers we study. Only when such awareness is brought to bear upon Essay, The Bell Jar, for aztec religion instance, do we become fully appreciative of the way in which the novel dramatizes the destructive effects of Social Partnership a commitment to the separative model of the self. When such awareness is brought to bear upon the writing of women less tragically constricted than Plath by stereotypes of women, it may enable us to discern alternative metaphors and images for the self, the very means by which the dominant model of the by William Shakespeare, self in our culture may be transformed into one conducive to the validation of women. Source: Diane S. Bonds, The Separative Self in Social Partnership Essay Sylvia Plath's The Bell Jar, in Women's Studies, Vol. 18, No. 1, May, 1990, pp.
49-64. Reproduced by permission.