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Most of us can?t imagine what would make an adult use violence against a child, and the worse the behavior is, the more unimaginable it seems. The incidence of parents and other caregivers ']willfully committing acts that harm the very children they?re supposed to be nurturing is a sad fact of human society that cuts across all lines of ethnicity and class. Whether the wing wah prices abuse is rooted in alexis de tocqueville the perpetrator?s mental illness, substance abuse, or inability to cope, the psychological result for each abused child is often the same: deep emotional scars and a feeling of Action Research Project Essay, worthlessness. Alexis De Tocqueville? Chi. 1756 words - 8 pages. Running head: CHILD ABUSE AND HOW TO RAISE AWARENESS Child Abuse and national solidarity essay, How to Raise Awareness Introduction Child abuse is something a lot of people may have a hard time thinking or talking about. But it is something we should all be aware of. Alexis De Tocqueville Definition? Child abuse may not seem like something with history, but then again everything around us has history. Just like everything that happens to Project us in life can affect us, child abuse has a huge risk of affecting the victim. Child abuse can have short term and alexis de tocqueville, long term effects that can follow a victim throughout their lives affecting them as an adult a.
1913 words - 8 pages. Child abuse is defined as being the physical, emotional, or sexual abuse or neglect of children. Child abuse may be a life threatening social problem for children today. According to the U.S. Department of Action, Health and Human Services, ?Physical abuse can be identified as punching, beating, kicking, biting, burning, shaking , or otherwise harming a child? (Joint Commission Resources 6). It is defined as any act that results in a non- accidental trauma or physical injury. Alexis De Tocqueville Definition? The National Exchange Club Foundation stated, ?Physical abuse, which is 19% of genovese effect, all substantiated cases of child abuse, is t. The Committer Vs The Non Committer. Alexis De Tocqueville Definition? 3174 words - 13 pages. First Last Name First Last Name English 101/Section # Date Essay #2 The Committer vs. the effect Non-Committer There are many types of men in the world, and each type displays a variety of distinguishable characteristics.
Women should become aware of these characteristics before considering a prospective mate. The smallest of personal details, from where and alexis definition, how they met (including the weaknesses of the humanistic first date), the way he walks and talks, the clothes he wears, the career choice he's made, the vacation spots he frequents, or the automobile he drives can offer valuable, meaningful, insightful clues. 1374 words - 6 pages. De Tocqueville Definition? Child abuse is a very common thing now days, it is way more than just broken bones and genovese bystander, bruises (helpguide.org). Abuse is de tocqueville deeper then that, it can be an everlasting scar that never leaves a child (helpguide.org). Child abuse is a cycle, more than half the children being abused will grow to abuse their children because that is all they know. There are more than two types of wing wah prices, abuse, there is sexual abuse, emotional abuse, child neglect and physical abuse, these are all forms of de tocqueville, child abuse. When you hear of child abuse you probably think ?oh what a horrible person? but not all abusers are bad some.
90057 words - 361 pages. 101 Small Business Ideas for Under $5,000 Corey Sandler Janice Keefe John Wiley Sons, Inc. 101 Small Business Ideas for humanistic, Under $5,000 Corey Sandler Janice Keefe John Wiley Sons, Inc. This book is definition printed on the jungle acid-free paper. ? ? Copyright © 2005 by Word Association, Inc. All rights reserved. Published by John Wiley Sons, Inc., Hoboken, New Jersey. Published simultaneously in Canada. No part of this publication may be reproduced, stored in a retrieval system, or transmitted in any form or by de tocqueville, any means, electronic, mechanical, photocopying, recording, scanning, or otherwise, 2962 words - 12 pages. Walter A. National Solidarity? Barnes Jr. North Brunswick Schools Case: Improper Handling of Person in Special Needs 4/10/2011 Let me begin by de tocqueville definition, thanking you in advance for your attention to this matter. This is a complaint in regards to kitty effect my son Walter A. Barnes who is currently assisting North Brunswick Schools.
In February, I happened to get a phone call from my son?s school in de tocqueville which I was 5 minutes away from kitty bystander effect, arriving to and the alexis de tocqueville definition school nurse tells me over the phone that my son is suffering from hives which we all know are red welts symptoms on Essay the surface of the skin which causes itching and could be an. International Vs Domestic Adoption. 4487 words - 18 pages. Kimberly Lucas Ms. Moon Honors English IV 15 April 2011 International Adoption: Who will save a life? Pearl is an orphan from Ethiopia. She has no home and is all alone. Her family abandoned her three years ago.
She has very few clothes and little to no happy memories from her past. She wonders if she will ever have a family that will love her or a permanent, caring home. Who will help her? There are 147 million orphans worldwide and almost five million in Ethiopia (Bestul). International Adoption is when someone from the United States adopts an orphan from another country. American fami. 2457 words - 10 pages. Honours: Psychopathology Assignment 2: Child Abuse This essay is concerned with the definition possible individual predisposing factors that are relevant to child abuse. Weaknesses? An outline of those individual predisposing factors will be provided and explained according to de tocqueville different theoretical perspectives.
An in-depth definition of family violence and child abuse will be discussed, as well as the kitty bystander effect precipitating factors that contributes to child maltreatment. Family violence also known as domestic violence can be defined as any abusive, forceful, violent, coercive or threatening act or word inflicted by on. 463 words - 2 pages. A Do you need help writing your essay? Are you having trouble completing your related academic research on time? You may need an alexis de tocqueville, essay writing example to guide you in completing your essay writing task. Having an example essay as a reference can definitely make the summary essay writing process a lot easier and far less cumbersome. Essay Writer provides students and academics of all levels easy access to several essay examples. You can get an essay example on any subject free of charge! Essay Writer has an extensive essay examples database covering a wide range of subjects and topics. All oursampl.
How To Make Anyone Fall In Love With You. 77952 words - 312 pages. Page iii How to Make Anyone Fall in Love with You Leil Lowndes CONTEMPORARY BOOKS A TRIBUNE COMPANY Page iv Library of de tocqueville, Congress Cataloging-in-Publication Data Lowndes, Leil. How to national solidarity essay make anyone fall in love with you / Leil Lowndes. p. Alexis Definition? cm. Weaknesses Of The Approach? Includes bibliographical references and index. Alexis De Tocqueville? ISBN 0-8092-3211-1 1. Love. 2. Man-woman relationships. 3. Intimacy (Psychology) 4. Action Project Essay? Sexual excitement. I. Title. Alexis Definition? HQ801.L69 1996 306.7?dc20 96-14502 CIP Jacket design by Scott Rattray Interior design by Mary Lockwood Excerpt from Obsession: Copyright © 1995 by Debra McCarthy-Anderson and Carol Bruc.
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Sleepers Essays and Research Papers. Total Pages: 22 Words: 8857 Bibliography:0 Citation Style: APA Document Type: Essay. To what extent are families bound to their past? What does it take to make a family change ?for the better?? When (if ever) is it justified to definition, break away from family? The Postman Always Rings Twice. Title: body and nudity in the ninettenth century art. Total Pages: 3 Words: 871 Sources:0 Citation Style: MLA Document Type: Research Paper.
For the kitty genovese bystander effect, 3) part you can choose a work of art that wouldwork or you could use some of the one's that I mentioned below: My first choice: One of alexis definition, Ingres 's odelisque paintigs (Sexuality) My Second Choice: Courbet's The sleepers (Realism) My Third Choice: Someone in of the humanistic the late century that depicts both sexuality and alexis definition, realism. Title: considered the concepts of seismic change Kaizen change and wing wah prices, the work of Dr Ashby 1 What is your organizations orientation to change Seismic or Kaizenjustify your answer with an alexis de tocqueville definition, example 2 If Dr Ashby were to do an assessment of your organization how would he label your organization explain your answer 3 Assess yourself regardless of your role in your organization you are essential to any strategic planning process be it planning implementation or evaluation How would YOU personally respond to change 4 Considering what you have learned about change how can you prepare yourself to meet the reality of wing wah prices, change regardless of what the change may beno matter how big or small. Total Pages: 3 Words: 897 References:3 Citation Style: APA Document Type: Essay. 1.What is your organizations orientation to change? (Seismic or Kaizen??justify your answer with an de tocqueville, example). 2. If Dr. Action! Ashby were to do an assessment of your organization, how would he “label” your organization (explain your answer). 3. Assess yourself- regardless of your role in de tocqueville your organization, you are essential to any strategic planning process (be it planning, implementation or evaluation).
How would YOU personally respond to change? 4.Considering what you have learned about change, how can you prepare yourself to meet the reality of change? (regardless of wing wah prices, what the change may be…no matter how big or small) Orientation to de tocqueville, Change. Customer is requesting that (infoceo) completes this order. Title: Imagine company religious organization civic group asked submit a report personal computer buy members organization Your goal essay provide information 3 models To achieve goal submit a compare contrast report essay 3 personal computer models. Total Pages: 3 Words: 930 Works Cited:3 Citation Style: MLA Document Type: Research Paper. body paragraphs (each body paragraph should present and the lesson, discuss a point that supports your thesis statement). a conclusion paragraph. 2. Write the essay using the pare and contrast pattern of development: No Seinfeld, Gates seen as marketer riffs off rival Apple's PC-bashing ads. After only two weeks, Jerry Seinfeld and Bill Gates' rambling conversations about nothing have been jettisoned for a new campaign in which Microsoft tries to alexis, rebuild an of the humanistic, image that has long been battered by rival Apple.
A new 60-second spot that broke last week for Microsoft from agency Crispin Porter Bogusky opens with a dead ringer for actor John Hodgman, who plays a PC in Apple's popular Mac vs. PC advertising campaign. De Tocqueville Definition! Hello. I'm a PC. National! And I've been made into a stereotype, the character in alexis definition Microsoft's ad laments. The ad introduces viewers to PC users around the world, including Microsoft employees (even Mr. Gates), children, an astronaut, an environmentalist and celebrities such as star couple Tony Parker and Eva Longoria Parker, hip-hop producer Pharrell Williams, and Deepak Chopra. It wraps with the debut of a new tagline, Life Without Walls. There's a 15-second version of the spot, and the campaign is supported with print, out-of-home and outdoor elements that also broke last week.
The move is an abrupt change of kitty genovese bystander, tone for Microsoft after just two iterations of the Seinfeld-Gates spots-Crispin's first work for the marketer-which saw the de tocqueville definition, duo chatting in a discount shoe store and trying to solidarity essay, blend in with an average American family. But the Redmond, Wash.-based marketer insisted the spots weren't pulled because they prompted a lot of head scratching and heavy criticism in the blogosphere. This has always been the plan from the beginning, said David Webster, general manager for brand marketing at alexis definition, Microsoft. National Solidarity! There is a storytelling arc between [the two iterations], even if the tone and style are different, around the idea that Windows has connected 1 billion people. At the same time, in the newest ad, Microsoft attempts to alexis, identify the real PC user, said Mr.
Webster, rather than the caricature painted by national solidarity essay Apple's Mac vs. PC campaign, from Omni Group's TBWA Media Arts Lab, which portrays the alexis, PC as a perennial loser to the hipper Mac. It was important to do on behalf of our users, who really aren't like that guy, Mr. Webster said. Kitty Genovese Effect! (About that guy: His name is Sean Siler, and he is a Microsoft employee, one of a number who were plucked to appear in the ads following a casting call. Definition! Their e-mail addresses run as part of the spot.) Whether the campaign transition was planned or not, Microsoft's advertising seems to be all over the place of late.
Besides the Seinfeld-Gates ads, it recently launched its bait-and-switch spot dubbed the Mojave Experiment, an attempt to correct negative perceptions about the Vista operating system. Those ads, which aren't part of Crispin's $300 million campaign, will continue to run. PHOTO (COLOR): NOT HODGMAN: Microsoft's new spots feature real PC users such as employee Sean Siler, discovered in a casting call. And yes, that's his real e-mail address. PHOTO (COLOR): WEBSTER. By Rupal Parekh,
Komando, K. (2000). PC vs MAC. Popular Mechanics, 177(7), 72. Humanistic! Retrieved from EBSCOhost. After years of debate, we settle the question once and for all. It's the puter industry's very own holy war.
Raging for well over 10 years, the ongoing battle between Macintosh zealots and volatile Windows devotees is not about to end. Don't get us wrong. The majority of alexis definition, puter users realize that one's choice of personal puter platform is about as important to the overall Big Picture of Human Existence as which underarm deodorant you choose. Try to imagine a BAN Roll On user launching an all-out verbal assault on a Right Guard user and national, you can begin to appreciate the level of sheer idiocy to which this debate can quickly sink. Ultimately, the best personal puter is the one that works best for you. Of course, if you're in the market right now and don't have a personal preference, all the distorted Mac-versus-PC banter only confuses the issue. Benchmarks? They can give you an idea, but who uses their puter in a lab, performing the de tocqueville definition, same few tasks over and over again?
To help with the debate, we've done the unthinkable and the lesson summary, shattered the myths. In short, we pitted a state-of-the-art Mac against a state-of-the-art Windows machine in a real-world setting. So hold onto de tocqueville definition your seats, silence your opinions and weaknesses humanistic, get ready to rumble. In the Windows corner we have a Compaq Presario 5900Z sporting an 850-MHz AMD Athlon processor. De Tocqueville! Granted, now there are 1-GHz processors from both AMD and Intel, but at the time we were testing, this was the best. The system was equipped with 256MB of SDRAM, a 30GB Ultra DMA hard drive, and an NVIDIA GeForce 256 video card with 32MB of the lesson, VRAM. In the de tocqueville definition, other corner we have the Mac, which has a configuration similar to that of the Presario. Our PowerMac G4 sported a 500-MHz Motorola G4 processor, along with 256MB of SDRAM and a 27GB Ultra ATA hard drive. For video, the Mac had a Rage 128 Pro video card with 16MB of VRAM. Finally, both systems were connected to wing wah prices, the Internet via the de tocqueville, same high-speed cable modem link using each one's respective built-in Ethernet port. Check out the configuration chart on page 74 for plete details.
Applications For Normal People. Although we did many other tests, we figured that in this report we'd focus on more pedestrian applications. We loaded Microsoft Office 98 on the lesson, the Mac and Microsoft Office 2000 on alexis de tocqueville, the Presario--these are the most recent versions for their respective platforms. Because Microsoft applications tend to bystander effect, get slower and more bloated with subsequent releases, this probably handicapped the Presario, but it was the best we could do. If you're like us, you probably receive e-mail that you need to include in alexis de tocqueville other documents. Copying and pasting is Essay, easy enough. Definition! The problem is that each line of an the jungle chapter, e-mail message typically ends with a hard paragraph return, with double returns between paragraphs--not suitable for most documents. Alexis Definition! What's more, many people still mistakenly insert two spaces after a period.
To deal with all this, we wrote a Word macro that does the following: It converts all double returns to the letters ZXC. We chose these letters only because they're right next to each other on the keyboard. It converts all single returns to chapter 1, spaces, thereby eliminating the hard returns at the end of each line. It converts all double spaces to single spaces, thereby undoing the wrong done by those who spent too many years on a typewriter. It converts all occurrences of ZXC to single returns. Most of our documents are usually on the short side, but we wanted to de tocqueville definition, give our systems a true workout. So we created a single 25-page document from Action Research Project several misformatted e-mail messages. De Tocqueville Definition! In the past, we've seen this macro take a few seconds on slower machines, even with a document of normal length. Wing Wah Prices! With our systems, however, it wasn't even a challenge. The changes were made almost instantaneously.
The Presario was noticeably faster in this test. While the Presario did better in our macro test, the Mac seemed to get us up and running sooner. As you can see in the Application Load Times chart on page 75, we timed how long it took to start up various mon office applications on each system. Just as with the games, the Mac consistently loaded programs faster than the Presario. Basically, if you use either of these machines for typical office work, your puter will spend much more time waiting for you than you spend waiting for alexis de tocqueville definition, it. Let The Games Begin. Sony has publicly stated that it plans to use its PlayStation2 game console to national essay, make PC gaming obsolete. But we find it unlikely that anyone is going to trade their puter for alexis, one more box to strap onto their TV set. Computer gaming is here to stay for the foreseeable future, so we figured we ought to test it. For our gaming usability, we tested two games: Tom Clancy's Rainbow Six and Star Wars Episode 1 Racer.
As a reference platform, we also ran both of these games on a Nintendo 64 game console. Game play with Rainbow Six was nearly identical on both the the lesson summary, Mac and Presario systems. The graphics were smooth and clear and the controls were very responsive. Indistinguishable is the word that es to mind. De Tocqueville Definition! From a parative standpoint, the Rainbow Six test was unremarkable. The only noteworthy difference is that the Windows version of Rainbow Six took a wee bit longer to install, and longer to kitty genovese bystander effect, load before game play, too.
Rainbow Six, however, is a strategy game, so it's not too exciting. For fast, nonstop action we turned to Star Wars Episode 1 Racer. Definition! We ran the game on effect, a Nintendo 64 first to see exactly what the gaming experience is supposed to be like. Say what you will about the de tocqueville definition, inferiority of game consoles, but as dedicated systems go, they are generally good at Research, doing what they're supposed to. We began installation on the Presario first, and then started on the Mac. Oddly enough, the definition, Mac software was installed and ready to go while the Presario was still chugging away. Hence, the Mac got the first run at Racer.
The biggest downer in any puter game--especially a high speed game like Racer--is when the action pauses for an instant so the puter can catch up. National Solidarity Essay! Gladly, we went through different courses--played a tournament, in tact, until we got beat--and never observed a single pause or skip. The game play was identical in every respect to the Nintendo 64 version. Pleased with these results, we turned to alexis definition, the Presario. Kitty Genovese! We ran the same tournament and got beat on de tocqueville, the same course. However, much to our chagrin, we experienced the telltale insta-pauses several times on each course. After playing Racer first on the N64 and the lesson, then on the equally capable Mac, this was a real letdown. So, even with a graphics card that's statistically half that of the Presario, the Mac came in first in the gaming tests. As you can see in the game performance charts, the Mac consistently outperformed the Presario and, in fact, rivaled the N64 in most instances. Working The Web.
Gaming may be the de tocqueville definition, top priority to some, but most of us spend more time working on the Internet and, certainly, we'll continue to be online more as the technology progresses. Thus, we next tested the humanistic, Web-surfing capabilities of both machines. And to de tocqueville, keep things fair, we tested the the lesson summary, latest versions of alexis de tocqueville definition, both Microsoft Internet Explorer (IE) and Netscape Navigator. At the time of weaknesses humanistic, testing, IE was at version 5 for Windows and version 4.5 for the Mac, while Netscape was at alexis, version 4.72 for both platforms. If the Web was still limited to text and kitty bystander, GIFs and JPEGs, you could get by with almost any old puter.
What really taxes your puter when you're surfing the Net is using multimedia, so that's what we did. First, we visited Macromedia's Shockwave page (www.shockwave.) to play a little game of Centipede--an old arcade favorite. The important thing to de tocqueville, remember is that playing the Shockwave version of Centipede is the lesson summary, not a matter of alexis, streaming media. In other words, once the Centipede code downloads onto your puter, the national solidarity, speed of your Internet connection has no impact on alexis de tocqueville, the game play. That said, playing Centipede on the Presario was pretty much like playing Centipede at approach, the arcade, except in alexis de tocqueville definition miniature, of course. In both browsers, the controls were responsive. We were able to blast those bugs to smithereens posthaste. On the other hand, Centipede performance on the Mac was less than spectacular. For starters, when playing the game with IE for Mac, the the jungle 1, little character doing the shooting flickered between the correct image and the mouse pointer. This was very distracting. Centipede play on Navigator for the Mac was even less pleasurable.
The controls were choppy and unresponsive--a game you'd probably have to play if you were sent to puter gaming hell. Streaming Internet Video. Streaming video is audio and video that downloads from the Web as it plays. Definition! It can be very taxing on your system. We started our streaming tests with just audio--live airplay from Web-enabled radio stations, to Action Research, be exact. Alexis Definition! With just audio to deal with, both systems performed admirably with one caveat. There are two main players in streaming media: Real Audio and Microsoft's Windows Media. Essay! While Real Audio makes player software for both Windows and Mac, the de tocqueville definition, Mac version of kitty genovese bystander, Windows Media Player was available only in beta when we tested. We found that the Mac version worked fine at some sites--MSNBC, for example--but not at others. Alexis! For instance, when we tried to tune in to the lesson, KGB in San Diego (www.101kgb.), the player consistently stalled after only a few seconds. Undoubtedly, there's something the station is doing wrong since the Mac player worked fine at alexis de tocqueville, other sites, but it's also likely that other sites are making the same mistake.
Streaming Internet video failed to the lesson summary, thoroughly impress us on either platform. High-speed Internet access is great, but video puts a real strain on that bandwidth and, regardless of the particular site, the alexis de tocqueville definition, stream seemed to consistently get bogged down somewhere along the way. While the audio portion kept moving just fine, the video on both platforms was choppy, sometimes even stalling pletely. Humanistic Approach! Even though the results were second-rate on both platforms, the Presario outperformed the Mac in this category. De Tocqueville Definition! For example, we watched a trailer from Mission: Impossible 2. While the video was often choppy on both platforms, we could at least distinguish Tom Cruise from the jungle chapter 1 Anthony Hopkins on the Presario. On the Mac, the definition, video tended to suffer from a tiling effect when the stream slowed down. That means at weaknesses humanistic, its worst, all you saw on the Mac was a bunch of fuzzy, indistinct blocks. In short, for overall Internet multimedia performance, our Windows system pretty much ran circles around the alexis de tocqueville definition, Mac system. With the kitty genovese effect, exception of streaming audio -- where the two performed similarly -- the Mac delivered a consistently inferior user experience. No system test would be plete without using Adobe's Photoshop. For those who have been living in alexis de tocqueville a cave for the last few years, Photoshop is the industry standard for digitally manipulating and transforming photographic images.
With Photoshop and a little skill, the results are amazing. With Photoshop and a lot of solidarity essay, skill, the results can be breathtaking. We should preface this discussion by stating that we had occasion a while ago to test this same Presario system against a 450-MHz PowerMac G4. And naturally, we did our fair share of Photoshop dabbling with both. In test after test, the Mac was consistently and noticeably slower at various Photoshop tasks. What a difference 50 MHz can make! This time around, we put the same 200-dpi digital photo on both systems and alexis, went to work with Photoshop. We applied filters, we rotated, we adjusted, we tweaked, we rippled, we applied lens flares, we water-colored, we saved as JPEG. In short, we gave these two systems just about every resource-taxing task that Photoshop had to offer.
Time after time, the results were almost instantaneous on the lesson, both systems. Click the mouse, blink your eyes, and bam!, the image was transformed. In some of the tests, the Mac seemed just a little snappier than the alexis de tocqueville definition, Presario. If you were hoping for a tiebreaker in wing wah prices this round, sorry to disappoint you. As photo manipulation tools, these two systems are dead equal. There's one especially important thing to keep in mind as you digest all this information. In each test we ran, more came into de tocqueville, play than just the puter's processor and operating system. In each case, we were running application programs, and who's to say that the weaknesses humanistic approach, Mac programmers at XYZ Co. aren't just as efficient as the Windows programmers, or vice versa? Just because a Mac and a Windows program look the same on the outside, that doesn't mean that the programs have identical code inside. Ultimately, for the end user, it doesn't matter why one system works better than another--only that it does. And that brings us right back to alexis definition, our earlier premise, that the best personal puter in the world is the one that you feel is kitty effect, right for you.
The next time you meet a Mac zealot or a Windows zealot (or now a Linux zealot), tell them that your choice in personal puters is just that--personal. Alexis! Which puter is the most powerful one of all? Why, it's the the jungle chapter, one in your head. After all, as Francis Bacon said some 400 years ago, Knowledge itself is power. It all started with an internet search engine, now Google's on your mobile and alexis de tocqueville, powers the Action, latest laptops. Windows? That's so last decade gadgets.
For decades, it's been a two-horse race in de tocqueville the world of puters - the technorati cool of Apple's Mac versus the lumbering colossus of Windows. Wing Wah Prices! So any serious third contender is alexis de tocqueville definition, big news - particularly when the high-tech newer, Chromebook, es from Google, and casually tears up the rulebook for wing wah prices, laptops too. It's ultra-simple - even less fussy than the iPad. For silver surfers who aren't interested in Call Of Duty and are just looking for something that does the de tocqueville, internet, Samsung's Chromebook is just the ticket - that's all it does. The operating system's so slim it turns on in under 10 seconds. Wing Wah Prices! If the puter's in 'sleep' mode, it'll e on alexis definition, in under two.
Apple's new Mac-Books are light sleepers , but Chromebook is fast. Once it's on, a browser opens (Google's slick Chrome, of solidarity, course), and definition, you can access (Google) mail and (Google) documents, as well as apps such as Angry Birds. You can't close the browser - there's no desktop behind it. There's a window full of Chrome apps such as games and a dedicated YouTube page - but as with any of the new 'light' operating systems (such as that used by national essay the iPad), you can't do nuts-and-bolts stuff like tweaking performance or downloading and converting video. Perhaps that plaint just shows I'm behind the times - the alexis de tocqueville, PC equivalent of a dad spending Sundays under the bonnet of his car. For puter-phobes, it's also refreshingly virus-proof, as it won't run non-Google programs.
It's pricey (around ?390, or ?440 with 3G), though, and slow - high-definition YouTube videos splutter, and Angry Birds jerk mid-flight.
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Advances in domestication of indigenous fruit trees in the West African Sahel. De Tocqueville. Fruit trees play an important nutritional role for livelihoods of rural people in the West African Sahel through provision of energy and nutrients such as vitamins, minerals, and proteins. Research on the domestication of local fruit trees has started recently through projects concentrating on some of the most important indigenous species of dry West Africa, i.e. Adansonia digitata , Parkia biglobosa , Tamarindus indica , Vitellaria paradoxa and Ziziphus mauritiana . We present a status of wing wah prices finalised and alexis de tocqueville definition ongoing domestication research with the aim of defining research gaps that would need to be covered by future research activities to obtain higher yields and better quality fruits. Germplasm collection in central West Africa has been intense compared to elsewhere in the species’ distribution areas, but conservation status of the material is poor since it is only planted in Project, few trials. Knowledge of genetic parameters, especially for fruit traits, is alexis de tocqueville almost absent, but characterisation of genotypes is underway for some of the species.
Mating systems and patterns are still unknown for many species. Efficient vegetative propagation based on essay simple techniques was shown to be possible for all species except P. biglobosa . In order to secure immediate as well as long term gains, we recommend combining clonal propagation of de tocqueville definition selected plus individuals with recombination and breeding of wing wah prices selected genotypes. We discuss whether local institutions in the Sahel have the financial capacity to carry out long term breeding programmes, and suggest that efforts should be made to find new ways of de tocqueville disseminating improved germplasm. Domestication is a man-driven process involving selection processes rendering the target species increasingly useful to human beings by genovese effect increasing the yield and/or quality of definition whatever product they produce. The World Agroforestry Centre defines domestication as “the socio-economic and biophysical processes involved in the identification, characterisation, selection, multiplication, and cultivation of high-value tree species in managed systems” (Garrity 2008 ). In this paper, we focus on the intentional changes in genetic constitution of trees associated with domestication.
In the Sahel, one of the most conspicuous examples of a domesticated species is mango ( Mangifera indica L (Anacardiaceae)), with its many cultivars imported from various parts of the world (Rey et al. 2004 ). Wing Wah Prices. Compared to this, local fruit tree species have only alexis de tocqueville undergone intentional selection to a limited degree, and most of them must be characterised as being undomesticated or semi-domesticated in the genetic sense of the word. Selection in chapter 1, favour of de tocqueville definition superior trees by farmers may slowly have improved the productivity of the species as e.g. suggested for Vitellaria paradoxa C.F. Gaertn (Sapotaceae) by Lovett and Haq ( 2000 ), but not to kitty an extent that differences between improved and unimproved trees are easily observed. However, a number of projects dealing with formal domestication of mainly local species have recently been initiated in the West African Sahel. These species include V. paradoxa , Adansonia digitata L. (Malvaceae), Parkia biglobosa (Jacq) Benth (Fabaceae), Tamarindus indica L (Fabaceae), and Ziziphus mauritiana Lam (Rhamnaceae). Research approaches vary between projects, and different germplasm collections now exist. We present here what is known, what is ongoing, and which research objectives still need to be addressed.
We will discuss (i) the potential of domesticating traditional Sahelian West African fruit trees, (ii) strategies for effective management of the genetic resources, (iii) lack of definition knowledge about key processes of domestication, and (iv) the current state of domestication of a number of selected species from the Sahel. We deal with programmes carried out at national and regional levels, and will not discuss local participatory tree breeding programmes. For information about this issue, the reader is referred to e.g. Tchoundjeu et al. National Solidarity. ( 2008 ). Alexis De Tocqueville. Genetic improvement can be defined as a process under which given traits are changed in a favourable direction over generations by alteration of the underlying genes (Namkoong et al. 1988 ). National Essay. The initial steps involve identification and selection of superior populations (provenances) and attractive phenotypes in such populations, followed by recurrent rounds of testing and selection (Eriksson et al. 2006 ). The approach includes four important phases: (1) the screening and mobilisation phase, where populations and individuals with desired phenotypic traits are identified and selected; (2) the testing phase where the individuals are evaluated and selected; (3) the breeding phase where superior genotypes are crossed either by controlled or random mating; followed by (4) the recurrent phase where progenies from these crosses are tested in the field, new selections made, crossed and evaluated over successive generations.
In principle, such recurrent breeding activities can continue over many generations, if the breeding populations are managed for long term improvement (Namkoong et al. 1988 ). Gain in each recurrent breeding cycle (progenies compared to alexis de tocqueville the parent generation) may be large or modest, but the progress of the bystander, breeding programmes will in the long run depend on the gain per year, i.e. the gain per alexis de tocqueville definition, selection cycle divided by its length. A key parameter for the potential of breeding is summary therefore time required for proper testing and/or the age at which seed set starts (generation time). This is important when dealing with relatively slow growing species such as many tree species native to the Sahel. Over several generations, the accumulated gains can be considerable without compromising the genetic diversity even after multiple rounds of selection, if the selection regimes incorporate the concern for maintaining a suitable effective population size (Johnson et al. 2001 ). Even strong selection intensity in a population showing high phenotypic variability will only lead to substantial gains if the heritability is of acceptable size, because the gain depends on the product between selection intensity, heritability and within population variation (Eriksson et al. 2006 ). Knowledge of the heritability and the phenotypic variability for de tocqueville definition different fruit characters is therefore important in order to the jungle chapter 1 determine which traits are worth selecting for. At present, data on heritability ( h 2 ) of fruit traits lack for all major native West African Sahelian fruit trees as will be discussed below. However, results from other fruit trees tested under controlled field conditions suggest that heritability may be large. Silva et al. ( 2007 ) found quite high narrow sense heritability for fruit weight ( h 2 = 0.60) in de tocqueville, the early domestication phase of of the approach Custard Apple ( Annona squamosa L.) in North Eastern Brazil.
Based on selected commercial cultivars of Guava ( Psidium guajava L.), Thaipong and alexis de tocqueville definition Boonprakob ( 2005 ) found similar high broad sense heritability for fruit weight of 0.65 in Thailand. In North-Eastern Australia, Hardner et al. ( 2001 ) estimated similar broad sense heritability in kernel weight (0.64) of Macadamia nuts ( Macadamia integrifolia Maiden and Betche and weaknesses of the approach M. tetraphylla L.A.S. Johnson). Strong genetic components behind the observable phenotypic variation has also been found for several domesticated subtropical and temperate fruit species such as Hazelnut ( Corylus avelana L) where Yao and Mehlenbacher ( 2000 ) found heritability for fruit size above 0.6. Similar high heritabilities have been reported for walnuts (Hansche et al. 1972 ) and almonds (Kester et al. 1977 ; Chandrababu and Sharma 1999 ), while somewhat smaller heritability ( h 2 = 0.35) was reported for pecan nuts (Thompson and Baker 1993 ). Status for domestication of Sahelian fruit trees in West Africa. Alexis. A number of 1 studies have laid the foundations for domestication, by clarifying the role of fruit trees for rural livelihoods (e.g. Leakey and Simons 1998 ; Schreckenberg et al.
2006 ), and setting priorities for domestication (Franzel et al. 2008 ). Also, efforts have been made to develop vegetative propagation for P. biglobosa and V. paradoxa (Teklehaimanot et al. 1996 ; Sanou et al. Definition. 2004 ). The Lesson Summary. However, regarding genetic improvement, the efforts have been concentrated on establishment of provenance trials and studies of germplasm using molecular markers (Bouvet et al. 2004 ; Fontaine et al. 2004 ; Sanou et al. 2005 ; Sina 2006 ; Assogbadjo et al. 2006 ; Diallo et al. 2007 ). As for published results on genetic variation in adaptive traits and fruiting, they are rather difficult to find.
Kalinganire et al. ( 2008 ) reviewed domestication efforts in Sahelian West Africa for the same species that will be discussed here. However, since submission of that paper, new research projects have been initiated including the projects DADOBAT, INNOVKAR, SAFRUIT, NUTREE and the ICRAF/IFAD project ‘Programme for strengthening livelihood strategies in the West African Sahel through improved management and utilization of parkland agroforests’. Here, we present an overview of past and ongoing work in order to identify gaps in our knowledge and define future activities within Sahelian fruit tree breeding. De Tocqueville Definition. The species that will be presented here are those studied by the above-mentioned projects (apart from the ICRAF/IFAD project which includes additional species). All rank high on the species priority lists for the West African Sahel as illustrated by Franzel et al. ( 2008 ). We will discuss the status of domestication considering collection, characterisation, evaluation and conservation of germplasm, knowledge of genetic parameters and chapter mating systems, and development of vegetative propagation. Definition. In human nutrition, A. digitata is used for its leaves (in sauces), fruit pulp and seeds. Thus, in breeding programmes, two very different approaches should be used. If the main interest is leaf production, young plants can be tested and elite material selected and multiplied at this stage. If fruit characters are in focus, mature trees will have to be tested. A thorough review of the importance of the baobab in the Sahel has been presented by Sidibe and Williams ( 2002 ). Food composition and nutritional values of A. digitata have been reviewed by Chadare et al. ( 2009 ). An overview of the nutritional and pharmacological uses of the species is given by De Caluwe et al. ( 2009 ). The food potential of A. digitata appears underutilized.
It is used daily in rural households as well as commercialized (Sidibe and Williams 2002 ). Presently there is an increasing export of fruit pulp from Southern Africa and Senegal to foreign markets ( www.phytotrade.com ; www.baobabfruitco.com ). In 1989, two provenance trials were established in Gonse and Djibo in solidarity essay, Burkina Faso, including accessions from Burkina Faso, Cote-d’Ivoire, Senegal, and Kenya (Diallo, unpublished data). Today, only the test site at Djibo remains operational. The trial has shown remarkable differences in alexis de tocqueville definition, survival between origins, but due to the small sizes of the test plot along with its design, it is wing wah prices difficult to judge whether the observed differences are caused by genetic, environmental, or random variation. In 2006 and de tocqueville definition 2007, a collection of provenances was realised by the partners of the SAFRUIT project in the Sahelian West Africa, with a focus on material from Burkina Faso, Mali and Niger. A total of 12 provenances were thus selected, covering the distribution area from north to south in each of the three countries (Jensen et al. this issue). Seeds from the jungle chapter, different mother trees were kept separately. The collection was supplemented with five additional provenances from West Africa (Benin, Senegal and Togo). Twelve provenances were obtained from alexis, East Africa, including Kenya, Malawi, Mozambique, Tanzania and Sudan. The first collection was used to establish BSO trials (Breeding Seed Orchards, cf. Barnes 1995 ; Dhakal et al. 2005 ) in Burkina Faso, Mali and Niger, whereas the international collection was used for provenance trials in kitty bystander, Mali and Niger.
Central West Africa is thus relatively well covered by these germplasm collections, while peripheral West Africa and the rest of the alexis definition, African continent are less intensively covered. Also, there is a need to add collections from the Research Essay, northern (dry) limits of the de tocqueville, distribution area. When the DADOBAT project made collections in Senegal, only a few trees were sampled in Action Project Essay, the northern parts because of a low fruit set and because local people had collected and used all available fruits and seed. We are not aware of studies documenting tree regeneration and alexis de tocqueville definition population structure in these areas, but since the northern populations may be especially adapted to dry conditions, there may be a need to have a special focus on conservation of these populations. Because of the lack of old genetic field trials, heritability and genetic variability for central parameters are unknown. However, several studies by the DADOBAT, SAFRUIT, and NUTREE projects, characterising provenances and the lesson summary families with respect to adaptation as well as fruit and leaf characters are underway. This includes determination of vitamins, medicinal properties, eco-physiological studies related to drought stress, and occurrence of nematodes. Alexis De Tocqueville. Current trials at IER in Mali, using what is known as “market garden cultivation”, are investigating parameters related to leaf production. Based on genovese bystander these field trials, it will soon be possible to alexis de tocqueville make estimates for chapter 1 genetic parameters related to morphological and adaptive characters. Key nematode species associated with baobabs in de tocqueville definition, Mali have been identified, showing that Pratylenchus spp. is the most abundant genus in baobab grown in national solidarity essay, nutritional banks for leaf production (Liesbet Huybrechts, pers. Alexis De Tocqueville Definition. comm.). Estimation of parameters related to fruit production will be possible when the planted trees become mature, which may take many years.
Frequently, local people define a number of morphotypes, often based on bark colour, and summary associate them with different organoleptic characters such as taste of leaves and fruits (Assogbadjo et al. 2008 ; Sanou et al. 2009 ). Whether there is a correlation between these morphotypes and alexis de tocqueville definition the characters mentioned remains to the jungle 1 be studied, and so does the heritability of these traits. However, a molecular genetic study carried out by Assogbajo et al. ( 2009 ) shows that for eight morphotypes defined by ethnic groups from Benin, Senegal, and Ghana, the AFLP markers applied could not differentiate between these putative types. Currently, baobab fruit characteristics are being studied on a national and regional scale in definition, order to the lesson identify possible fruit-based morphotypes. Provided these ‘formal’ morphotypes are validated, they could be used in strategies for germplasm collection and conservation (SAFRUIT and DADOBAT projects). Baobab is primarily pollinated by fruit bats, whereas a number of mammals are listed as dispersal vectors for the seeds. These include elephants, primates, and ruminants (Wickens and Lowe 2008 ). Assogbadjo et al. ( 2006 ) studied the genetic diversity in six populations of A. digitata from Benin by de tocqueville definition AFLP markers and found relatively high levels of genetic diversity within populations. Results indicated some degree of physical isolation of the populations from Action Essay, different climatic zones and suggested a substantial amount of genetic structuring between the analysed populations. Although variation as revealed by AFLP markers does not necessarily correlate well with adaptive variation, this is still a first guideline for planning germplasm collection.
It remains to alexis de tocqueville definition be determined whether this differentiation between populations is genovese bystander effect due to isolation or heavy selection over the environmental gradients going from northern to southern Benin. Assogbadjo et al. ( 2006 ) suggest that similar studies be carried out throughout the whole baobab distribution area. Microsatellite markers have been developed (Larsen et al. Alexis De Tocqueville Definition. 2009 ), and will be used to national solidarity investigate the breeding system of A. digitata . Work is also underway to definition describe past migration patterns and possibly to wing wah prices infer on the extent to which human influence determined present day distribution of the species. De Tocqueville. Data on the lesson summary baobab flower morphology, phenology and pollination are sparse, but a study on controlled pollination and flower morphology in Benin is forthcoming. Another study will look at the germination success of seeds sown under the definition, crown of the mother tree compared to those sown under other tree species (SA Edon, pers. comm.).
Status for domestication of A. The Jungle. digitata in West African Sahel. Achievements and ongoing research. Identified gaps in the research. West African collection almost complete. Pan-African collection initiated. Few samples from definition, Eastern, Central and Southern Africa.
Parameters for Action Research leaf production in progress. Alexis De Tocqueville. Results for growth and adaptation can be expected soon. Studies of molecular genetic variation are under way. No parameters for fruit production. Relationship between morpho-types and genotypes still to be confirmed. Characterisation and evaluation. Provenances and half-sib families are being established in BSO trials.
Eco-physiological stress trials ongoing (drought) Studies of vitamin and nutritional values ongoing. AFLP and micro-satellite markers developed. Phylogeographic study under way along with local studies of differentiation between populations. Need to repeat trials in other environments, and to establish large international trials. Mating systems and patterns. The Jungle 1. Marker studies on de tocqueville definition provenances from Benin. 1. Study of alexis definition gene flow ongoing. Germination incompatibility under mother trees being investigated. Detailed studies of pollinators.
Test of incompatibility system. Degree of self pollination in populations. Of The. Effective population sizes. Presence of inbreeding depression. Collected germplasm conserved in four trials with some degree of replication. Need to make more trials, to alexis definition establish the humanistic, complete set of de tocqueville definition provenances in at least three sites.
Grafting and other techniques successful. Optimization of Action Research Essay grafting techniques. Micro-propagation techniques (under development) The projects PARKLAND and PARKIA collected seed sources from a broad range of West African origins (Teklehaimanot 1997 ). Three trials were established in the Sahelian West Africa (two in Burkina Faso and one in Nigeria), of which the Burkina Faso trials still exist and represent a unique source of reference material, both for gene conservation and comparative studies. Furthermore, during 2006 and 2007, seeds were collected from plus trees in definition, Burkina Faso and Mali as part of SAFRUIT, and subsequently used in BSO trials in the two countries. It is noteworthy that along the northern limit of the distribution area in Burkina Faso, tree distribution was strongly fragmented, and it was difficult to humanistic find large healthy trees in certain areas. Moreover, there are problems of fruit depletion by birds (e.g. parrots) and by communities collecting fruits for their own consumption, thus making seed collection a limiting factor to alexis de tocqueville improving P. biglobosa . In total, 10 trees were collected at the northern limits (Moussa Ouedraogo, unpublished data). Outside Burkina Faso and wing wah prices Mali, there only seem to alexis de tocqueville be few research activities on the species. If the trend from Burkina Faso is general, it would be very important to sample especially the northern distribution range in order to conserve genetic resources of relatively drought tolerant origins. Project. Estimates of provenance repeatability and alexis definition variation for morphology, adaptive characters and fruits are under way, using the before mentioned field trials in Burkina Faso (NUTREE and SAFRUIT). Preliminary results indicate that there is large variation between the West African provenances in terms of adaptability and morphology. For seed production, data will become available in a few years, as fructification has only recently started in these trials.
Since there are no mature trials with offspring from individual mother trees, family heritability will remain unknown until the solidarity essay, BSO trials mature. The primary pollinators of P. De Tocqueville. biglobosa appear to be bats, but honey bees can act as pollinators too. Kitty Effect. The species is not autogamous, but self-pollination is possible. However, self-pollinated flowers had significantly more aborted seeds, indicating some degree of self-incompatibility (Lassen 2004 ). Alexis. Sina ( 2006 ) found that the species had a high degree of outcrossing, also indicating partial self-incompatibility. In his study, flowering took place over a period of 4 months and national was largely synchronous. There is a clinal variation in de tocqueville definition, flowering and fruiting from south to north with southern populations starting earlier (Ouedraogo 1995 ). By means of iso-enzymatic analysis, Sina ( 2006 ) also investigated the species’ genetic diversity and found a high diversity within populations but only moderate differences between populations. Status for domestication of P. biglobosa in West African Sahel. Achievements and ongoing research.
Identified gaps in the research. Provenance collection by earlier projects. Plus tree selection in Burkina Faso and Mali. Plus tree selection in other countries, especially on the Northern limits of the distribution area. Studies of morphology and growth in progress. Missing for essay all traits related to fruits. Alexis De Tocqueville. Characterisation and evaluation. Phenotypical parameters for natural populations available from 1, Burkina Faso and Mali. Results for adaptive traits and leaf morphology from provenance trials are becoming available.
Ecophysiological stress trials ongoing. No data on family level. No data on fruits in relation to genotypes. Mating systems and patterns. Partly self incompatible. Geneflow for de tocqueville definition populations? Degree of inbreeding. Provenance collections exist in Burkina Faso. Northern populations seem threatened, need to secure the resource as soon as possible. Cuttings of young plants possible.
Grafting possible, but with low rates of success. Action Research Project Essay. Development of efficient macropropagation. The principal product of Tamarindus indica is the alexis de tocqueville, pulp which is used as an genovese effect ingredient in cooking and definition juices. Seeds, leaves, and flowers are also used in human nutrition, and various products of the species have pharmaceutical properties (De Caluwe et al. 2010 ). In several countries in Asia, including Thailand, the Philippines, and India, domestication activities are advanced, and several cultivars have been selected for different properties related to consumption (El-Siddig et al. 2006 ). In Sahelian West Africa, activities have commenced relatively recently.
A provenance trial in Burkina Faso revealed considerable variation in growth and biomass production among Sahelian provenances. Considerable variation in pod production within and the jungle chapter among provenances was also reported from a 15-year old provenance trial in Dinderesso, Burkina Faso (Diallo, unpublished data). No heritability estimates are yet available due to definition the lack of summary trials at alexis, family level. A new collection on separate mother trees was made in Action Research Essay, 2006 and alexis 2007 in Burkina Faso, Mali and Niger by the SAFRUIT project, yielding a total of 9 provenances and approximately 180 mother trees. The Lesson Summary. This collection has been used to establish BSOs in Burkina Faso, Mali and Niger. Furthermore, ICRAF has established a clonal orchard in Mali with 51 plus trees from Senegal and Burkina Faso. This has been supplemented by collections of sweet varieties from outside Africa. Tamarind flowers appear to be principally bee-pollinated, and alexis de tocqueville honeybees are frequent visitors (e.g. Nagarajan et al. 1998 ; Radhamani et al.
1993 ). National Solidarity Essay. Tamarind populations in the Sahelian zone of West Africa are usually small, and often isolated from other populations. Isolated trees also occur in the landscape as a consequence of seed dispersal by humans and domesticated or wild animals (Aubreville 1950 ). While fruit production appears to be higher in de tocqueville definition, trees located near other T. indica trees, even isolated trees sometimes produce fruits. This suggests that trees might be self-compatible. The consequences of self pollination for fruit quality and survival as well as growth and fruit production of the progenies are unknown. However, detailed studies show that T. indica appears to be at least preferentially outcrossing. Flowers are hermaphroditic, but the spatial arrangement of anthers and stigma may tend to limit self-pollination (Diallo et al. 2008 ). Also, female flowers precede male flowers by one day. This poses an additional barrier to self-pollination (Bajpai et al. 1968 ). Studies on phenology and controlled pollination of tamarind have started in Benin and Mali, and wing wah prices first results are expected soon (DADOBAT project).
Little is known about the genetic diversity of tamarind at different geographical scales (El-Siddig et al. Alexis De Tocqueville. 1999 ). Based on RAPD markers, Diallo et al. ( 2007 ) found a high degree of genetic diversity within Asian and the lesson African populations. Three major groups were constituted by populations from West Africa, East Africa, and Cameroon. The highest level of de tocqueville diversity was recorded in a population from Cameroon. The high genetic diversity revealed in West African populations indicates that there is wing wah prices no immediate risk of genetic erosion in this region, as long as ecological conditions continue to permit regeneration.
Displacement of seed by humans is believed to have played a major role in shaping the distribution of the species and the observed pattern of diversity. Though the de tocqueville definition, species is believed by many to have its origin in Africa (references in El-Siddig et al. 2006 ), Diallo et al. ( op. cit. ) found no conclusive evidence for this. In Senegal, eco-physiological behaviour of T. indica is presently being studied: a few individual trees are characterised in situ and essay seedlings from several agro-ecological zones are characterised under greenhouse conditions subjected to drought stress. Similar experiments are underway with T. indica accessions from Mali (DADOBAT). Status for domestication of T. indica in West African Sahel. Achievements and ongoing research. Identified gaps in the research.
Existing provenance trials. Collection of half-sib families in Burkina Faso, Mali and Niger. Provenance and half-sib collections from the rest of the distribution area. Lack of alexis de tocqueville information on phenotypic variability and heritability. Action Research Essay. Characterisation and evaluation. Adaptive and fruit traits from provenance trials. Ecophysiological stress trials. No information at family level. Mating systems and patterns. Alexis De Tocqueville Definition. Studies of pollination in Burkina Faso. Degree of inbreeding.
Effective population sizes. Provenance trials and new BSO trials. Need to include the rest of the the lesson, distribution area (see germplasm collection) Vitellaria paradoxa is used for firewood and alexis de tocqueville definition charcoal, whereas fruit flesh is consumed fresh. Nuts are an important product as the latter can be transformed into butter used for cooking, in cosmetics and as a cocoa butter substitute. Natural V. paradoxa stands are in many places ageing and especially in the northern parts of the distribution area degrading. Reasons are probably complex with both intensive land use and frequent occurrence of drought periods playing an important role. The EU-funded INNOVKAR project attempts to kitty genovese effect improve management recommendations for V. Alexis Definition. paradoxa parklands based on wing wah prices their ability to face drought and by prediction of the distribution of shea tree under future climatic scenarios. Alexis De Tocqueville. The work follows three approaches, including (1) characterisation of abiotic variables, tree phenology and 13 C discrimination of V. paradoxa populations across their natural range; (2) analysis of tree structure, morphological and wing wah prices eco-physiological traits in nursery experiments with three water regimes, combined with carbon budget estimation of trees in natural parkland systems; and (3) modelling of changes in the distribution of alexis de tocqueville definition shea tree under different climate change scenarios (Bayala et al. 2008 ). The species appears to kitty bystander effect perform best in agricultural settings.
Lamien et al. ( 2004 ) conducted a study aimed at comparing fruit production of shea nut trees located in agroforestry parklands to those present in natural habitats. Alexis Definition. Results revealed that 94% of solidarity essay trees located in agroforestry parklands produced fruits against only 56% of trees located in natural habitats. Average kernel yield of definition trees located in agroforestry parklands was 167% higher than that of trees located in natural stands. Fruits (length, width, weight) were also larger in parklands compared to those taken outside parkland populations. The same was found in a study from Mali (Kalinganire, unpublished data). Insect infestation of shoots and fruits was shown to wing wah prices be more serious in a site close to a natural forest than in alexis definition, a site further away, and is likely to have an impact on national solidarity fruit production (Lamien et al. 2008 ). Resistance to insects could thus be a trait considered in domestication programmes. Mistletoe ( Loranthaceae ) infestation which is present on alexis de tocqueville most V. paradoxa trees however did not appear to affect fruit production (Lamien et al.
2006 ). Studying nuts from different populations across the distribution area, Maranz et al. ( 2004 ) found large variation in the seed’s fatty acid composition, with fats from Uganda being liquid at humanistic, room temperature. Alexis De Tocqueville. In West Africa, the composition is variable both between and within populations, with the hardest butter obtained in central Burkina Faso. A trial with five provenances from approach, Burkina Faso, Mali and Senegal is located in definition, Burkina Faso. The aim was to address issues such as the long juvenile phase and large variability in annual fruit yields. Seeds for these provenances were harvested on genovese trees selected by farmers for their desirable characteristics including, among others, precocity, taste, and oil content (Bayala et al. 2009 ). Analysis after 6 years revealed significant differences among provenances for tree height, collar diameter, transpiration rates, and definition number of leaves.
The local provenance was performing poorly, whereas another provenance from Burkina Faso and a provenance from humanistic, Mali showed good performance in terms of growth. ICRAF in Mali has a collection of alexis definition 110 plus trees (clones) from Burkina Faso, Benin, Nigeria, Ghana, Cameroun, Niger, and the lesson Mali. The INNOVKAR project made a new collection of germplasm, including material from alexis de tocqueville definition, Burkina Faso, Ghana, Mali, Senegal and Uganda, which has been used for a new provenance trial in Burkina Faso. If successful this trial will make it possible to kitty bystander effect compare fruit and oil properties of alexis definition West and approach East African origins when grown at the same site. The INNOVKAR collection will be established in orchards serving future breeding purposes. Eco-physiological stress trials to characterise the germplasm with respect to drought tolerance are ongoing. A small clonal trial in farmers’ fields in Burkina Faso with grafting of de tocqueville 10 local plus trees has been established by CNSF in Burkina Faso. The trial has shown that flowering is initiated earlier in grafted plants and studies of Project Essay variation in the fruit set and quality are ongoing. Once completed, calculations of alexis de tocqueville definition clonal performance will be available. These data will show to what degree fruit characters are transferred when material is grafted on wild rootstocks, and thus give an idea of the gains that can be obtained by selecting plus trees. Fontaine et al. ( 2004 ) studied populations from across the distribution area with RAPD markers and found segregation between eastern and western populations.
Three chloroplast microsatelite markers, used by the same authors, gave a less clear picture. Sanou et al. ( 2005 ), using microsatellite markers, found low levels of heterozygosity and low differentiation between populations from Mali and northern Ivory Coast. However, morphological leaf characters showed a strong and significant differentiation between families as well as populations. These differences were not associated with clinal variation in rainfall. In Mali, spatial genetic structure has been assessed (Sanou et al. 2006 ), whereas studies on seed dispersal (Burkina Faso) and pollen flow (Mali) are in progress as part of the INNOVKAR project. These studies will shed light on the genetic dynamics and structures at the landscape level. Status for domestication of V. paradoxa in kitty, West African Sahel. Achievements and ongoing research. Identified gaps in definition, the research.
ICRAF clone collection from West Africa. Provenance trial in Burkina Faso. Farmer based selection of solidarity essay superior clones is taking place. Collection of alexis definition provenances from Uganda to Senegal ongoing. Relatively good collection on a regional scale, but there may be a need to sample more intensively for locally adapted material. Local studies of genetic variation in molecular genetic markers as well as fruit and leaf characters underway. Study of clonal variation ongoing. No information about heritability of fruit characters. Characterisation and evaluation.
SSR based studies of genetic differentiation available. Eco-physiological stress trials ongoing. Few genotypes in existing clonal trials. Mating systems and patterns. Molecular based studies of seed and pollen dispersal in progress.
Degree of inbreeding not established. Provenance trial + clone collection. Summary. Farmer selected clones will be conserved in replicated trials. Need to duplicate clone selections. Grafting and definition layering techniques developed. Other vegetative propagation techniques are missing. Genovese Bystander Effect. It is believed that Z. mauritiana originates in Asia but has spread through cultivation to Africa, where it became naturalised. The species is alexis definition preserved in farmlands because of its nourishing fruits and is also increasingly planted as a live fence to protect crops grown during the dry season. A survey in Burkina Faso, Mali, Niger, and kitty genovese bystander effect Senegal revealed that this species is among the farmers’ 10 most preferred species (Bonkoungou et al. 1998 ). However, the small size of the alexis, fruit of the local cultivar (1–2 g per fruit) and kitty genovese its sensitivity to pests and diseases limit the adoption of de tocqueville definition agroforestry techniques based on Essay this species (Ouedraogo 1998 ; Diallo et al. Alexis De Tocqueville. 2000 ). In Asia, domestication of the species has been ongoing for centuries, and more than 300 cultivars have been recorded.
Asian cultivars typically have large juicy fruits up to 3 ? 5 cm, whereas fruits of the African naturalised origins are much smaller, 1–2 cm in diameter (Azam-Ali et al. 2006 ). Chapter. Cultivars are mainly consumed fresh, but in the Sahel, the alexis de tocqueville definition, local “wild” fruits are also consumed dry, or pounded and transformed into flour for different uses. Fruit yield during the national, first two growing seasons of three Asian varieties was shown to be several times higher than the yield of a local variety in Burkina Faso (Ouedraogo et al. De Tocqueville Definition. 2006 ). Research on the species has been synthesised by Azam-Ali et al. ( 2006 ), showing that there are numerous domestication efforts going on in Asia. Domestication activities of the species in the Sahelian West Africa are recent, and two strategies have been applied: import of cultivars from Asia, and test and selection of local landraces. Twelve of the Asian varieties have been transferred to West Africa by ICRAF, and five of them are currently being promoted by different institutions in the region (e.g. Ganaba et al. 2007 ). Ouedraogo et al. Summary. ( 2006 ) studied responses of three imported and one local cultivar to irrigation and fertilization and found clear responses to both treatments.
The SAFRUIT project is currently studying adaptability and yield of five varieties in three agroclimatic zones in Burkina Faso, Mali and de tocqueville Niger. Six provenance and half-sib family trials of Z. mauritiana were established in Senegal, Burkina Faso and Mali from 2000 to 2002. Action. Preliminary results from Mali and de tocqueville definition Senegal showed significant differences in growth and biomass production among provenances, whereas there were indications that fruit production also varied between provenances (Kalinganire et al. 2008 ). Because Z. Wing Wah Prices. mauritiana will fructify after only 2–3 years, the provenance trials mentioned earlier can already be analysed with respect to fruit yield and quality. Studies are ongoing in Mali and will give valuable information about family heritability, provenance, and family variation. The first evaluations reveal some variation in morphological traits (Sanou, unpublished data).
In Asia, studies of cultivars have shown high heritability for a number of fruit traits (Azam-Ali et al. 2006 ). It remains to be confirmed whether this is also true for genotypes from West Africa. ICRAF has collected more than 70 plus trees from Mali, Niger, Burkina Faso and Senegal that were established in a clonal orchard at Bamako. Moreover, the introduced cultivars and varieties from Thailand, India and Vietnam make the collection more diverse. The germplasm collections from the Sahelian West Africa are estimated to be sufficient to establish a breeding population. However, it may be reasonable to enlarge the collection especially with genotypes from the extremes of the distribution area in definition, order to ensure adaptability in a time with changing climates.
Many of the Asian cultivars appear to be polyploid, whereas the ploidy of African origins seems to humanistic approach be unknown (references in Azam-Ali et al. 2006 ). Polyploidy may lead to incompatibility and failure of controlled crosses, but can also be exploited in alexis de tocqueville, breeding. Weaknesses Of The Humanistic Approach. There was a very low fruit set and some incompatibilities when crossing between various accessions from alexis, India and Thailand with Sahelian provenances (Kalinganire et al. The Lesson Summary. this issue). Alexis. The level and causes of such failures need to be further investigated. Many of the Asian cultivars are self-incompatible, but the situation is national not clear for definition Sahelian sources (Azam-Ali et al. 2006 ). Status for humanistic approach domestication of Z . mauritiana in West African Sahel. Achievements and ongoing research. Identified gaps in the research.
Collection of plus trees from West Africa. Provenance trials in Senegal, Mali and Burkina Faso. Expand collections in the extremes of the alexis definition, distribution area. Estimated for some Asian varieties. Genovese Bystander Effect. Not available for African sources. Characterisation and evaluation. Ongoing research on provenance trials and half-sib progeny trials in Mali. Need to repeat trials in other countries and definition conditions.
Mating systems and patterns. Incompatibility between African and Asian varieties. Degree of inbreeding. Effective population sizes. Hybridization (between improved and wild varieties) Phylogeny and the lesson summary relation between Asian and definition African origins. Gene flow studies. Plus tree collection at summary, ICRAF and several provenance trials in alexis, West Africa. Plus tree collection should be established at other sites.
Grafting and wing wah prices different micropropagation techniques developed. Domestication of fruit trees in the western Sahel has just started, and there is still a long way to go for alexis de tocqueville definition tree breeders. For all of the five species discussed above, germplasm collections have been made, either on plus tree candidates or on randomly selected trees. The collections seem to be relatively broad and cover large parts of the distribution areas, especially in Burkina Faso, Mali and Niger. For P. biglobosa , however, collections are limited to Burkina Faso and Action Research Essay Mali.
Despite the broad collections, there may be reason to make additional collections at de tocqueville definition, the extreme limits of the distribution areas, in bystander effect, particular in the dry zones of the north and alexis de tocqueville definition the relatively humid areas in the south. In this way, germplasm that is supposedly adapted to climatic extremes could be secured (e.g. Weber et al. 2008 ). Unfortunately, much of the collected germplasm is Action Research Project only planted in the field in definition, one or a few sites, making the collections vulnerable to stochastic and catastrophic events. Ideally, the collections should be established in at least two copies in each agroclimatic zone where the the lesson, species occur. In particular, the valuable plus tree collections at ICRAF in Mali should be replicated in other countries in West Africa. Even more important is that there are no regional or even national plans for conservation of the alexis de tocqueville, genetic resources of the different species. Conservation efforts are not coordinated between countries, and are fragmented and depending on externally-funded projects.
It is thus difficult to wing wah prices get an overview of the conservation status. Breeding efforts are only just starting, and it will take some years before the first cycles of recurrent selection are completed. With respect to knowledge of the genetic parameters, there is some information about phenotypic variability, especially with regards to characters related to adaptation. However, information about the heritability of those characters and heritability of definition fruit characters is almost completely lacking. This information will not become available before BSO orchards mature. Probably the first information will come from wing wah prices, studies of Z. mauritiana , where trials are fructifying and controlled crossings have already been made. Fortunately, efficient vegetative propagation methods have been developed for all the species presented here except for P. biglobosa , so that increasing yields and quality of fruits is possible by selection and propagation of superior genotypes. Current activities of de tocqueville definition e.g. the SAFRUIT project aim at developing techniques at wing wah prices, the village level, enabling farmers to propagate their own selected material. Molecular marker studies have served to better understand issues of diversity and to some degree the phylogeography of the species. For all of the species discussed, effective population size, degree of inbreeding, and minimum isolation distance are unknown. Additional research is needed on pollination biology for most species, and in general the mating systems and patterns are poorly understood.
The reports of high genetic variability and heritability from other fruit trees (as discussed above) indicate that substantial gains may be obtained during the selection and testing phases if performed carefully. However, the gain during the initial mobilisation phase (plus tree selection) may be modest for West African Sahelian fruit trees, because the heterogeneous landscape within which the initial selection is de tocqueville performed, different ages, and year-to-tear variation between trees may lead to low heritability. On the wing wah prices, other hand, since selection at this stage can be very intensive (1:100 or higher), gains may be substantial for traits of medium or high heritability. Additional gains may be obtained in alexis, the mobilisation phase by release of heterosis. Weaknesses. Inbreeding can be due to fragmentation or genetic bottlenecks as result of the species’ distribution history, if it grows in a heterogeneous and dynamic landscape (Dhakal et al. 2005 ). In such cases, selection, seed orchard establishment and alexis subsequent cross breeding between trees with different origins may reverse effects from inbreeding depression and release vigour and reproductive fitness.
Reproductive energy and success, which may be especially sensitive to inbreeding depression (Wiens et al. 1987 ), is a key component of productivity in terms of fruit yield. Clarifying the potential of release of inbreeding by crossing geographically distant trees is therefore important. The Breeding Seed Orchard (BSO) concept has the interesting feature of integrating testing, breeding, seed procurement and conservation efforts in a relatively low input approach (Barnes 1995 ; Dhakal et al. 1. 2005 ) and selection can be quite efficient, providing substantial gains (Jha et al. 2006 ). BSOs established with a relatively large number of provenances and families can provide the alexis definition, necessary infrastructure for testing, selection, estimation of genetic parameters, breeding (controlled or open pollination), genetic management and seed procurement (Barnes 1995 ). National Essay. The approach can be combined with clonal deployment of superior genotypes identified at de tocqueville definition, any stage in the improvement cycles, and kitty genovese is currently a part of the domestication strategy of P. biglobosa in Burkina Faso. The potentials in recurrent selection programmes for breeding of Sahelian fruit trees are limited by alexis the relatively long expected time until first fruiting for many of the species.
Gains from selection of superior phenotypes in the field may be harvested sooner if these selected individuals are vegetatively propagated and deployed directly as clones without any additional breeding. In this way the full genetic variation (additive and non-additive) is transferred from the selected trees to the grafted plants, allowing utilisation of any genetic variation that is Action Research Essay due to a unique combination of genes at different loci. This is important where specific combinations of taste, fruit size and appearance are desired, and there is alexis de tocqueville a number of potential advantages by using the clonal material directly for African fruit trees (Leakey and Action Project Akinnifesi 2008 ). In the initial stages of definition domestication (the mobilisation phase) clonal deployment seems especially attractive when outstanding individuals can be identified in wild populations, and the characteristics of such trees easily duplicated. If so, clonal deployment can allow fairly rapid multiplication of superior trees through use of multiplication gardens or similar approaches. Over the last few decades, a number of Action Research valuable gene pools have been mobilised and testing initiated as described above. However, follow up in terms of continued breeding activities will require additional funding, because most of the previous work described above has been supported by external funding. Definition. It is therefore fair to assume that National agricultural research institutions only have sufficient funding to exploit the wing wah prices, results of the established trials and germplasm collections, if they are enrolled in larger projects. Alexis Definition. This leads to great losses, because trials and activities are discontinued or not carried through. There are numerous trials for which data were never analysed or published, and unfortunately there are also many examples of data or trials being wasted because documentation disappeared. It requires long term commitment and continuity to carry out domestication, and a stable financial situation appears to be one of the of the, prerequisites for efficient breeding programmes. Alexis De Tocqueville. Advanced breeding in temperate fruit tree species has involved testing of thousands of solidarity individuals, descending from controlled crosses.
It is important to build capacity at alexis de tocqueville definition, national institutions in the Sahelian West Africa to carry out long term activities on this scale. Sustainability has been an important argument for starting village based participatory domestication programmes, which put farmers in of the approach, charge of the domestication process (e.g. Alexis De Tocqueville. Tchoundjeu et al. 2010 ). The countries in the Sahel share the same climate and the same agro-ecological zones. Therefore, there is reason to believe that knowledge and genetically improved material developed in one country can be adapted to corresponding zones in other Sahelian countries. Today, collaboration on domestication across borders is mediated by ICRAF Sahel, whereas collaboration also takes place within the context of the different projects. However, coordination could be strengthened and would prevent duplication of research efforts. Summary. Closer collaboration and sharing of results and germplasm would be an easy way to increase the impact of the breeding programmes. One of the priorities thus must be to enhance networking and collaboration between national institutions and researchers when it comes to fruit tree research. In this respect, the roles of fora such as FARA (Forum for Agricultural Research in alexis definition, Africa), PROKARITE, the Sub-Sahara Africa Challenge Programme (SSA-CP), and the SAFORGEN networks should be analysed. Reaching out to farmers with improved material is another problem.
CNSF, the National Seed Centre in Burkina Faso, is diffusing large amounts of weaknesses seed and plants to state services, NGOs and projects, and also to some degree to individuals. Yet, surveys show that in alexis, rural areas, farmers predominantly use seed and plants collected in their own fields or in solidarity essay, nearby villages (R?bild et al. 2005 ). Few of the farmers interviewed had received seed from CNSF, and it appears that improved seed and varieties are only slowly diffusing out in the country. In neighbouring countries where tree seed centres are smaller or non-existent, the situation can only be expected to be more difficult. There is a need to alexis develop pathways for efficient distribution of seeds and plants to kitty bystander farmers in order for domestication efforts to have any effect whatsoever.
Such strategies could build on de tocqueville definition the commonly adopted farmer-to-farmer exchange of germplasm, but it seems that a variety of dissemination channels will have to wing wah prices be used to efficiently diffuse seeds and plants. In this respect, diversifying the approaches is likely to give a better result. Alexis De Tocqueville. The research underlying this paper originates in several projects, supported by kitty bystander effect various sources: The Sahelian Fruit Tree project (SAFRUIT, supported by the European Union’s Sixth Framework Programme, contract no. INCO-CT-2005-015465), the alexis definition, NUTREE project (supported by the Danish Council for Development Research), the Action Research Project, DADOBAT project (Domestication And Development Of Baobab And Tamarind, supported by the European Union’s Sixth Framework Programme, INCO contract no. 032217), and de tocqueville the ICRAF/IFAD project “Programme for strengthening livelihood strategies in the West African Sahel through improved management and utilization of parkland agroforests”. We gratefully acknowledge their support. Genovese Bystander Effect. This article is distributed under the de tocqueville, terms of the Creative Commons Attribution Noncommercial License which permits any noncommercial use, distribution, and reproduction in summary, any medium, provided the alexis definition, original author(s) and source are credited.
Anders R?bild 1 Email author Anders Sondergard Larsen 1 Jan Svejgaard Jensen 1 Moussa Ouedraogo 1 2 Sitske De Groote 3 Patrick Van Damme 3 Jules Bayala 4 Boukary Ousmane Diallo 5 Haby Sanou 6 Antoine Kalinganire 4 Erik Dahl Kjaer 1 1. Centre for Forest, Landscape and Planning University of Copenhagen Frederiksberg C Denmark 2. Centre National de Semences Forestieres Ouagadougou Burkina Faso 3. Laboratory for Tropical and Subtropical Agronomy and Ethnobotany, Department of Plant Production Ghent University Ghent Belgium 4. ICRAF SAHEL c/o ICRISAT Bamako Mali 5. Essay. Institut National de l’Environnement et de la Recherche Agronomique Ouagadougou Burkina Faso 6. Institut d’Economie Rurale Bamako Mali. .RIS Papers Reference Manager RefWorks Zotero. .BIB BibTeX JabRef Mendeley. .RIS Papers Reference Manager RefWorks Zotero. .BIB BibTeX JabRef Mendeley. Over 10 million scientific documents at your fingertips. 2017 Springer International Publishing AG. Part of Springer Nature.
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Magic Hours by Tom Bissell (Dec. 12, paper, $16.95, ISBN 978-0-525-43394-1) collects essays that explore the nature of definition creative genius, taking readers to the set of The Big Bang Theory , from the first novel of Ernest Hemingway to the final work of David Foster Wallace; from the films of Werner Herzog to the film of Tommy Wiseau. The Curious World of Samuel Pepys and John Evelyn by Margaret Willes (Sept. The Lesson Summary. 19, hardcover, $27.50, ISBN 978-0-300-22139-8) gives an intimate portrait of two pivotal Restoration figures, two of the most celebrated English diarists, as well as close friends. Parts of this site are only available to paying PW subscribers. De Tocqueville Definition. Subscribers: to essay, set up your digital access click here.
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