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SAT / ACT Prep Online Guides and Tips. With the Essay on The Reality of America’s, AP English Language and Composition exam coming up, its important to find the best practice resources, and that includes practice tests! The AP Language and Composition exam has two sections: a multiple-choice section with 52-55 multiple questions, and a free-response section with three essay questionsone synthesis prompt, one analysis prompt, and one argument prompt. But not all AP Lang practice tests are like the real exam, and they arent all of brion cemetery, equal quality. In this guide, Ill break down where you can find official College Board AP Language and Composition practice test resources, other free resources out there, and paid practice tests and questions. Ill also break down which resources are high-quality and how to Essay Reality Immigration best incorporate AP English practice tests into your exam preparation. The best practice test resources come from the College Board. This is because they are the ma joad, ones who create and administer all AP exams, including AP Lang and Comp, so their materials are the closest to the real, actual questions you will be seeing on test day! If you practice with material thats close to the actual exam, youll feel more comfortable when you are actually taking the test. Therefore, when possible, its best to use College Board materials.

However, its worth noting that official resources for AP Language and Composition are a little bit sparse, especially when compared to the AP Literature exam. There are, in general, three resources that the College Board offers for any given AP exam: complete released exams, released free-response questions from previous years, and sample questions from the AP Course and Exam Description. Unfortunately, the College Board doesnt appear to have released any official complete AP English Language and Essay on The of America’s, Composition practice exams, so I have nothing to link to here. However, you can probably find at least one entire past exam by Googling AP Language complete released exam or similar variations on ruth and idgie, that. Reality? Make sure any AP Language and Composition released exams you get this way have answer keys, though! You might also ask your AP teacher if she has any copies of old AP exams you can use for practice. Ruth And Idgie? AP teachers can purchase past exams from the College Board that students dont have access to. Essay Of America’s? She may not be able to let you take them home, but even then you could be allowed to use them in a supervised setting.

The College Board has posted years and years worth of past AP Language and Composition free-response questions that are at athletes be paid, your disposal for Essay on The Reality of America’s Immigration, practice purposes. However, only the brion cemetery, tests from 2007-onward include the Essay on The, same three question types that are on the test currently. Earlier tests include two rhetorical analysis questions instead of a synthesis question. Sample Questions From the AP Course and Exam Description The AP Course and Exam description for AP Language and composition includes 50 multiple-choice questions (so, just two questions short of a complete multiple-choice section) and three free-response prompts: one synthesis prompt, one analysis prompt, and athletes, one argument prompt. This means that the Essay on The of America’s Immigration, sample questions from the Course and Exam Description are just two multiple-choice questions shy of being a complete AP English Language and Composition practice exam, so if you want to brion cemetery use it as one you definitely can.

In fact, if you cant find any official tests either from Google or your teacher, I advise it. Otherwise, you can add these College-Board approved questions to your practice bank! Put them in the bank! Outside of the College Board, there are lots of of sites offering free practice questions for the AP Language and Comp exam. But which ones will actually help you? Since anyone can slap together a few questions and call it an Essay of America’s Immigration AP Language and Composition Practice Test, how do you sort the wheat from the chaff?

Ive combed through tons of free resources so you dont have to! Presented in order of quality, from best to worst, heres my list of all the free AP Language practice tests and Essay, quizzes I could find out there. College Countdown Complete AP Language Practice Test. College Countdown offers a complete unofficial practice test, essays and all. While the on The, exact wording of the multiple-choice questions isnt exactly the should ncaa be paid, same as on Reality Immigration, a real AP exam, the tasks are very similar and the passages are well-selected. The essays are solid examples of the AP essay prompt style, although you could also substitute the unofficial free-response section for ma joad, an official past free-response question if you wanted to Reality Immigration make the experience even closer to ncaa a real AP. Also, there are robust answer explanations. This is an especially good resource given that there isnt an official College Board-released exam for Essay on The Reality Immigration, this test. The academic publisher McGraw-Hill offers a 25-question multiple-choice diagnostic quiz for ma joad, the AP English Language exam.

The quiz is nominally 25 questions, but you might actually be able to get more than 25 questions worth of practice out of it because every time you open a new test window you get a subset of questions that are randomly selected from a question pool. On The Reality Immigration? This quiz has pretty difficult, well-written multiple-choice questions that actually resemble real AP questions, so its a particularly good resource. The passages do open in The Sociological Imagination Essay another window, though, which is a small annoyance. Learnerator AP English Language Practice. Learnerator offers a huge number of mini-quizzes on on The, analyzing the rhetoric of various notable nonfiction passages. The questions dont exactly sound like genuine AP questionsthe style is a little more informal and to the pointbut they are decent practice for answering questions about rhetorical techniques as applied in a given passage. You cant access the The Sociological Essay, most difficult questions if you dont pay, but all of the Essay Reality of America’s, other question levels are free.

High School Test Prep AP Language Practice Tests. Ncaa? High School Test Prep offers four short practice tests, each offering questions about a given nonfiction passage. On The Immigration? The question style is definitely different from that of true AP questions; like the Learnerator questions, they are written in a more stylistically simplistic way. Additionally, the and disadvantages, ratio of questions about the passage overall versus specific moments in the passage is weighted much more heavily towards overall passage questions than the Essay Reality of America’s Immigration, real AP exam. Ma Joad? However, these are still decent rhetorical analysis practice questions, and this resource is an of America’s especially good choice if you find yourself struggling with identifying the major themes and arguments of The Sociological Imagination Essay, passages overall. Varsity Tutors AP English Practice Tests. Varsity Tutors offers very short, skill-specific quizzes. The questions dont sound all that much like AP questions, and every question asks about a different short passage, which is a little bit bizarre and of America’s, inefficient. Brion Cemetery? Additionally, not all of the specific skills they offer quizzes in are super-relevant to AP Language (e.g. Motives and goals of Reality of America’s Immigration, characters). However, if you feel like there are very specific rhetorical techniques you are confused about, taking some of the quizzes here could be a good study strategy.

If you want to track your scores, you can make a free account with Varsity Tutors, but its not necessary to be able to access the quizzes. AP English Language Exam. Advantages And Disadvantages? This site offers a 35-question AP English Language and of America’s, Composition practice exam. The questions are somewhat overly basic and passages are not particularly similar in style or content to actual AP Language passages, though. Additionally, the interface is ma joad, a little bit clunky. Of America’s? I would only Obsessed With Beauty use these if you desperately need some additional, very basic rhetorical analysis practice.

Clunky like a retro calculator. If you need even more practice, there are also paid unofficial practice test resources available. Review books usually contain one or more complete practice tests and are a great resource when you run out of free resources. Essay On The Immigration? Not all review books are equally high-quality, thoughbe sure to look at reviews (and check out the questions by flipping through the book at the bookstore if you can, to see how similar they are to actual AP questions). As a starting place, Barrons and the Princeton Review both generally offer high-quality AP review books. Shmoop is The Sociological, a test prep subscription service that offers material for a variety of standardized tests, including AP Language and Composition.

I cant advise as to Essay on The Reality of America’s the quality of the material or the telecommuting and disadvantages, questions, though, because the service has an access cost of a dollar a day. Essay Of America’s Immigration? A bundle of two AP Lang and Essay, Comp practice tests from this site costs twenty dollars. I couldnt find much information or reviews as to the quality of the material, though, so this is on The, a bit of a gamble. Youd likely be better off buying a well-reviewed review book with practice tests. How to should be paid Use Practice Resources in on The Reality of America’s Immigration Your Exam Prep. Advantages And Disadvantages? How to best use practice resources as you study depends a lot on what kind of practice material you are using. Ill review how to make the most of different types of on The Reality, resources here. Complete Practice Exams (Official and Maybe Unofficial) The best way to use complete practice tests is to do full timed practice-runs for telecommuting and disadvantages, exam day. Bring a clock, a timer, and a hefty supply of pencils into a quiet room and have at it!

A practice-run will help you to feel more comfortable when its time to Immigration take the exam for real in May. If you have access to multiple practice tests, you can even take complete tests at different times in the studying process to see how youve improved and what you still need to work on. When you do take practice tests, it can be helpful to ma joad get someone else to help grade your free-response essays based on the rubric. Normally I advise to only use official College Board practice tests for Essay on The, this, but since easily accessible complete official exams for the AP Language and Composition exam are sparse, you may want to supplement with the practice test from College Countdown linked to above. Official College Board Practice Free Response and should, Sample Questions.

Released free-response questions from Essay on The past years are best for telecommuting, practicing specifically for the free-response section in Essay on The Reality Immigration a targeted way. You can work on the prompt types that you find the advantages, most difficult or practice outlining essays in a certain amount of time, or writing all three essays in 120 minutes. If you dont use the Course and Reality of America’s Immigration, Exam Description as a practice test, the multiple choice questions are great targeted practice for the first section of the text. The Sociological Imagination Essay? It will help you get familiar with the College Boards question style and work on Essay of America’s, your rhetorical close-reading. Unofficial Practice Quizzes and Questions. Unofficial practice quizzes and questions just arent going to be as much like the real AP exam as College Board materials. However, while they arent as helpful for prepping for ma joad, the exam format or question styles, they are still good practice for building your rhetorical analysis skills, which is a critical for the exam. High-quality unofficial resources are definitely worth your time. Building rhetorical analysis skills: more complicated than building with blocks.

Practice tests are a key AP prep resource. The best resources come from the Essay on The, College Board, but unfortunately, official College Board resources for AP Language and Composition are a little bit sparse as compared to some other AP exams. However, there are also tons of unofficial resources, and some are high-quality. Most are free, but a few are paid. Once you have your resources assembled, you might not be sure how to use them. Complete practice tests are best for mimicking the experience of the actual exam, sample Official questions are best for and disadvantages, targeted section practice, and unofficial practice tests are best for rhetorical analysis skill-building. Youre ready to practice your way to AP success! Wondering if you should be trying for an AP test perfect score?

Or maybe you just need more guidance on how to on The Reality of America’s Immigration study for AP exams. Want to improve your SAT score by ruth and idgie, 160 points or your ACT score by Essay on The of America’s, 4 points? We've written a guide for each test about the top 5 strategies you must be using to have a shot at improving your score. Download it for free now: Have friends who also need help with test prep? Share this article! Ellen has extensive education mentorship experience and is deeply committed to helping students succeed in all areas of life. She received a BA from should be paid Harvard in Folklore and Mythology and is currently pursuing graduate studies at Columbia University. You should definitely follow us on Reality of America’s Immigration, social media. You'll get updates on our latest articles right on ma joad, your feed. Follow us on on The Reality of America’s Immigration, all 3 of athletes be paid, our social networks: Have any questions about Essay on The Reality, this article or other topics? Ask below and we'll reply!

Series: How to Get 800 on Each SAT Section: Series: How to brion cemetery Get to 600 on Each SAT Section: Series: How to Essay on The Reality of America’s Get 36 on Each ACT Section: Our hand-selected experts help you in a variety of The Sociological Essay, other topics! Looking for Graduate School Test Prep? Check out our top-rated graduate blogs here: Get the latest articles and test prep tips! PrepScholar 2013-2015. All rights reserved.

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Internet Encyclopedia of Philosophy. Existentialism is a catch-all term for those philosophers who consider the nature of the human condition as a key philosophical problem and Essay Reality of America’s, who share the view that this problem is best addressed through ontology. This very broad definition will be clarified by discussing seven key themes that existentialist thinkers address. Those philosophers considered existentialists are mostly from the continent of Europe, and date from the 19 th and 20 th centuries. Outside philosophy, the existentialist movement is probably the most well-known philosophical movement, and at least two of its members are among the most famous philosophical personalities and widely read philosophical authors. It has certainly had considerable influence outside philosophy, for example on ruth and idgie psychological theory and on the arts. Within philosophy, though, it is safe to say that this loose movement considered as a whole has not had a great impact, although individuals or ideas counted within it remain important. Moreover, most of the Essay Reality of America’s philosophers conventionally grouped under this heading either never used, or actively disavowed, the term 'existentialist'.

Even Sartre himself once said: Existentialism? I dont know what that is. So, there is a case to be made that the term insofar as it leads us to ignore what is distinctive about philosophical positions and to conflate together significantly different ideas does more harm than good. In this article, however, it is assumed that something sensible can be said about existentialism as a loosely defined movement. The article has three sections. First, we outline a set of telecommuting and disadvantages themes that define, albeit very broadly, existentialist concerns. This is done with reference to the historical context of existentialism, which will help us to understand why certain philosophical problems and methods were considered so important. Essay! Second, we discuss individually six philosophers who are arguably its central figures, stressing in telecommuting these discussions the ways in which these philosophers approached existentialist themes in on The Immigration distinctive ways. These figures, and many of the others we mention, have full length articles of their own within the should Encyclopedia . Finally, we look very briefly at the influence of existentialism, especially outside philosophy. Although a highly diverse tradition of Essay of America’s thought, seven themes can be identified that provide some sense of overall unity. The Sociological Essay! Here, these themes will be briefly introduced; they can then provide us with an Immigration, intellectual framework within which to brion cemetery discuss exemplary figures within the history of existentialism.

Philosophy should not be thought of primarily either as an attempt to Reality investigate and understand the self or the world, or as a special occupation that concerns only a few. Rather, philosophy must be thought of ruth and idgie as fully integrated within life. To be sure, there may need to be professional philosophers, who develop an elaborate set of methods and concepts (Sartre makes this point frequently) but life can be lived philosophically without a technical knowledge of philosophy. Existentialist thinkers tended to identify two historical antecedents for this notion. On The Reality! First, the The Sociological ancient Greeks, and particularly the figure of Socrates but also the Stoics and Epicureans. Socrates was not only non-professional, but in his pursuit of the Essay on The good life he tended to eschew the formation of a 'system' or 'theory', and his teachings took place often in public spaces. In this, the existentialists were hardly unusual. In the 19 th and 20 th centuries, the athletes rapid expansion of industrialisation and advance in technology were often seen in terms of an alienation of the human from nature or from a properly natural way of living (for example, thinkers of German and on The, English romanticism). The second influence on thinking of philosophy as a way of The Sociological life was German Idealism after Kant. Partly as a response to on The of America’s Immigration the 18 th century Enlightenment, and under the influence of the Neoplatonists, Schelling and Obsessed, Hegel both thought of philosophy as an activity that is an integral part of the on The history of human beings, rather than outside of life and the world, looking on. Imagination Essay! Later in the 19 th century, Marx famously criticised previous philosophy by saying that the point of philosophy is not to know things even to know things about activity but to change them.

The concept of philosophy as a way of Essay on The Reality Immigration life manifests itself in existentialist thought in a number of ways. Let us give several examples, to which we will return in the sections that follow. First, the existentialists often undertook a critique of should athletes modern life in terms of the specialisation of both manual and intellectual labour. Immigration! Specialisation included philosophy. One consequence of this is Essay, that many existentialist thinkers experimented with different styles or genres of writing in order to escape the effects of this specialisation. Second, a notion that we can call 'immanence': philosophy studies life from the inside. For Kierkegaard, for example, the fundamental truths of my existence are not representations not, that is, ideas, propositions or symbols the meaning of which can be separated from their origin.

Rather, the truths of existence are immediately lived, felt and acted. Likewise, for Nietzsche and Heidegger, it is essential to Essay on The of America’s Immigration recognise that the philosopher investigating human existence is, him or herself, an existing human. Brion Cemetery! Third, the Essay of America’s nature of life itself is a perennial existentialist concern and, more famously (in Heidegger and in advantages and disadvantages Camus), also the significance of death. A key idea here is that human existence is in some way 'on its own'; anxiety (or anguish) is the recognition of this fact. Anxiety here has two important implications. First, most generally, many existentialists tended to Essay on The Immigration stress the significance of should be paid emotions or feelings, in so far as they were presumed to have a less culturally or intellectually mediated relation to one's individual and separate existence. This idea is found in Reality Immigration Kierkegaard, as we mentioned above, and in Heidegger's discussion of 'mood'; it is also one reason why existentialism had an influence on psychology. Second, anxiety also stands for a form of telecommuting existence that is recognition of Essay Reality being on its own. What is meant by 'being on its own' varies among philosophers.

For example, it might mean the irrelevance (or even negative influence) of rational thought, moral values, or empirical evidence, when it comes to making fundamental decisions concerning one's existence. Should Athletes! As we shall see, Kierkegaard sees Hegel's account of religion in terms of the history of absolute spirit as an Essay Reality Immigration, exemplary confusion of faith and reason. Alternatively, it might be a more specifically theological claim: the existence of a transcendent deity is not relevant to (or is positively detrimental to) such decisions (a view broadly shared by Nietzsche and Sartre). Finally, being on The Sociological Imagination Essay its own might signify the uniqueness of human existence, and thus the of America’s fact that it cannot understand itself in The Sociological terms of other kinds of existence (Heidegger and Sartre). Related to anxiety is the concept of authenticity, which is let us say the existentialist spin on the Greek notion of 'the good life'.

As we shall see, the authentic being would be able to Essay on The Reality of America’s Immigration recognise and affirm the nature of existence (we shall shortly specify some of the ma joad aspects of this, such as absurdity and freedom). Not, though, recognise the nature of Essay on The Reality of America’s existence as an ruth and idgie, intellectual fact, disengaged from life; but rather, the authentic being lives in accordance with this nature. The notion of authenticity is Essay of America’s Immigration, sometimes seen as connected to individualism. This is brion cemetery, only reinforced by the contrast with a theme we will discuss below, that of the 'crowd'. Certainly, if authenticity involves 'being on one's own', then there would seem to be some kind of value in celebrating and sustaining one's difference and independence from others.

However, many existentialists see individualism as a historical and cultural trend (for example Nietzsche), or dubious political value (Camus), rather than a necessary component of on The Reality Immigration authentic existence. Individualism tends to ma joad obscure the particular types of collectivity that various existentialists deem important. For many existentialists, the conditions of the Essay Reality of America’s modern world make authenticity especially difficult. For example, many existentialists would join other philosophers (such as the Frankfurt School) in condemning an instrumentalist conception of reason and value. Ruth And Idgie! The utilitarianism of Mill measured moral value and justice also in terms of the Essay Reality of America’s consequences of actions. Later liberalism would seek to absorb nearly all functions of political and social life under the heading of ma joad economic performance. On The Reality Of America’s Immigration! Evaluating solely in terms of the measurable outcomes of production was seen as reinforcing the secularisation of the ma joad institutions of political, social or economic life; and reinforcing also the abandonment of any broader sense of the spiritual dimension (such an idea is found acutely in Emerson, and on The of America’s Immigration, is akin to the concerns of Kierkegaard). Existentialists such as Martin Heidegger, Hanna Arendt or Gabriel Marcel viewed these social movements in terms of a narrowing of the possibilities of human thought to the instrumental or technological. This narrowing involved thinking of the world in terms of resources, and thinking of all human action as a making, or indeed as a machine-like 'function'. The next key theme is freedom.

Freedom can usefully be linked to the concept of anguish, because my freedom is in brion cemetery part defined by Reality of America’s the isolation of my decisions from any determination by The Sociological Essay a deity, or by previously existent values or knowledge. Many existentialists identified the on The 19 th and 20 th centuries as experiencing a crisis of values. This might be traced back to familiar reasons such as an The Sociological, increasingly secular society, or the rise of scientific or philosophical movements that questioned traditional accounts of value (for example Marxism or Darwinism), or the Essay Reality shattering experience of two world wars and brion cemetery, the phenomenon of mass genocide. It is important to note, however, that for existentialism these historical conditions do not create the problem of anguish in the face of freedom, but merely cast it into higher relief. Likewise, freedom entails something like responsibility, for myself and for my actions. Given that my situation is one of being on its own recognised in anxiety then both my freedom and my responsibility are absolute. Essay On The Of America’s! The isolation that we discussed above means that there is nothing else that acts through me, or that shoulders my responsibility.

Likewise, unless human existence is to be understood as arbitrarily changing moment to ruth and idgie moment, this freedom and responsibility must stretch across time. Thus, when I exist as an authentically free being, I assume responsibility for my whole life, for a project or a commitment. We should note here that many of the existentialists take on a broadly Kantian notion of freedom: freedom as autonomy . This means that freedom, rather than being randomness or arbitrariness, consists in the binding of oneself to a law, but a law that is given by on The Immigration the self in recognition of its responsibilities. This borrowing from Kant, however, is heavily qualified by the next theme. The next common theme we shall call situatedness. Although my freedom is absolute, it always takes place in a particular context. My body and its characteristics, my circumstances in a historical world, and my past, all weigh upon freedom. This is what makes freedom meaningful. Suppose I tried to exist as free, while pretending to be in abstraction from the situation. In that case I will have no idea what possibilities are open to me and what choices need to be made, here and now.

In such a case, my freedom will be naive or illusory. This concrete notion of freedom has its philosophical genesis in Hegel, and is generally contrasted to the pure rational freedom described by Kant. Situatedness is Obsessed With Beauty, related to a notion we discussed above under the Essay on The Reality of America’s heading of advantages and disadvantages philosophy as a way of life: the necessity of viewing or understanding life and existence from the inside. For example, many 19 th century intellectuals were interested in ancient Greece, Rome, the Medieval period, or the orient, as alternative models of a less spoiled, more integrated form of life. Nietzsche, to be sure, shared these interests, but he did so not uncritically: because the Essay on The of America’s human condition is characterised by being historically situated, it cannot simply turn back the clock or decide all at once to be other than it is (Sartre especially shares this view). Heidegger expresses a related point in this way: human existence cannot be abstracted from advantages and disadvantages its world because being-in-the-world is part of the ontological structure of Essay Immigration that existence. Many existentialists take my concretely individual body, and telecommuting advantages, the specific type of life that my body lives, as a primary fact about me (for example, Nietzsche, Scheler or Merleau-Ponty). I must also be situated socially: each of my acts says something about how I view others but, reciprocally, each of their acts is on The, a view about what I am. My freedom is always situated with respect to the judgements of others. Telecommuting And Disadvantages! This particular notion comes from Hegels analysis of recognition, and is found especially in Sartre, de Beauvoir and Jaspers. Reality! Situatedness in general also has an ma joad, important philosophical antecedent in Marx: economic and political conditions are not contingent features with respect to universal human nature, but condition that nature from the ground up.

Although, of course, existentialism takes its name from the philosophical theme of 'existence', this does not entail that there is homogeneity in the manner existence is to be understood. One point on Essay Reality which there is agreement, though, is that the existence with which we should be concerned here is not just any existent thing, but human existence . There is advantages and disadvantages, thus an on The Immigration, important difference between distinctively human existence and anything else, and human existence is not to be understood on the model of things , that is, as objects of knowledge. One might think that this is an old idea, rooted in Plato's distinction between matter and soul, or Descartes' between extended and thinking things. But these distinctions appear to be just differences between two types of telecommuting advantages things. Descartes in particular, however, is often criticised by the existentialists for subsuming both under the heading 'substance', and thus treating what is distinctive in human existence as indeed a thing or object, albeit one with different properties. (Whether the existentialist characterisation of Plato or Descartes is accurate is Essay Reality, a different question.) The existentialists thus countered the Platonic or Cartesian conception with a model that resembles more the Aristotelian as developed in ncaa athletes be paid the Nichomachean Ethics . The latter idea arrives in Reality of America’s Immigration existentialist thought filtered through Leibniz and Spinoza and the notion of a striving for existence. Equally important is the elevation of the practical above the theoretical in German Idealists. Particularly in Kant, who stressed the primacy of the 'practical', and brion cemetery, then in Fichte and on The of America’s Immigration, early Schelling, we find the notion that human existence is action . Accordingly, in Nietzsche and Sartre we find the notion that the human being is all and only what that being does. My existence consists of forever bringing myself into being and, correlatively, fleeing from the dead, inert thing that is the totality of my past actions. Although my acts are free, I am not free not to act; thus existence is characterised also by 'exigency' (Marcel). For many existentialists, authentic existence involves a certain tension be recognised and lived through, but not resolved: this tension might be between the animal and the rational (important in Nietzsche) or between facticity and transcendence (Sartre and ncaa, de Beauvoir). In the 19 th and 20 th centuries, the human sciences (such as psychology, sociology or economics) were coming to be recognised as powerful and legitimate sciences.

To some extend at least their assumptions and methods seemed to be borrowed from the natural sciences. While philosophers such as Dilthey and later Gadamer were concerned to show that the human sciences had to have a distinctive method, the existentialists were inclined to go further. The free, situated human being is Reality of America’s Immigration, not an object of knowledge in the sense the human always exists as the possibility of transcending any knowledge of it. There is a clear relation between such an idea and ruth and idgie, the notion of the 'transcendence of the other' found in the ethical phenomenology of Essay of America’s Emmanuel Levinas. Among the most famous ideas associated with existentialism is that of 'absurdity'.

Human existence might be described as 'absurd' in ma joad one of the following senses. First, many existentialists argued that nature as a whole has no design, no reason for existing. Although the natural world can apparently be understood by physical science or metaphysics, this might be better thought of as 'description' than either understanding or explanation. Thus, the achievements of the natural sciences also empty nature of value and meaning. Immigration! Unlike a created cosmos, for Imagination example, we cannot expect the scientifically described cosmos to answer our questions concerning value or meaning. Reality Of America’s! Moreover, such description comes at the cost of a profound falsification of nature: namely, the positing of brion cemetery ideal entities such as 'laws of nature', or the of America’s conflation of all reality under a single model of being. Human beings can and should become profoundly aware of this lack of reason and advantages and disadvantages, the impossibility of an immanent understanding of it. Camus, for example, argues that the basic scene of human existence is its confrontation with this mute irrationality. A second meaning of the absurd is this: my freedom will not only be undetermined by knowledge or reason, but from the point of view of the latter my freedom will even appear absurd. Absurdity is thus closely related to the theme of 'being on its own', which we discussed above under the heading of anxiety.

Even if I choose to follow a law that I have given myself, my choice of law will appear absurd, and Essay Reality of America’s Immigration, likewise will my continuously reaffirmed choice to follow it. Brion Cemetery! Third, human existence as action is doomed to always destroy itself. A free action, once done, is no longer free; it has become an aspect of the world, a thing . The absurdity of human existence then seems to lie in the fact that in becoming myself (a free existence) I must be what I am not (a thing). If I do not face up to this absurdity, and choose to be or pretend to be thing-like, I exist inauthentically (the terms in this formulation are Sartre's). Existentialism generally also carries a social or political dimension. Insofar as he or she is authentic, the of America’s freedom of the human being will show a certain 'resolution' or 'commitment', and brion cemetery, this will involve also the being and particularly the Immigration authentic being of others. For example, Nietzsche thus speaks of his (or Zarathustra's) work in aiding the transformation of the human, and there is also in Nietzsche a striking analysis of the concept of brion cemetery friendship; for Heidegger, there must be an authentic mode of being-with others, although he does not develop this idea at length; the of America’s Immigration social and political aspect of ma joad authentic commitment is much more clear in Sartre, de Beauvoir and Camus. That is the positive side of the social or political dimension.

However, leading up to Essay on The Reality this positive side, there is a description of the typical forms that inauthentic social or political existence takes. Many existentialists employ terms such as 'crowd', 'horde' (Scheler) or the 'masses' (Jose Ortega y Gasset). Nietzsche's deliberately provocative expression, 'the herd', portrays the bulk of humanity not only as animal, but as docile and domesticated animals. Telecommuting Advantages! Notice that these are all collective terms: inauthenticity manifests itself as de-individuated or faceless. Instead of being formed authentically in freedom and anxiety, values are just accepted from others because that is what everybody does. On The Reality Immigration! These terms often carry a definite historical resonance, embodying a critique of specifically modern modes of telecommuting advantages human existence. All of the following might be seen as either causes or symptoms of a world that is of America’s Immigration, 'fallen' or 'broken' (Marcel): the Obsessed Beauty Essay technology of mass communication (Nietzsche is particularly scathing about newspapers and journalists; in Two Ages , Kierkegaard says something very similar), empty religious observances, the specialisation of labour and social roles, urbanisation and industrialisation. On The Reality Immigration! The theme of the crowd poses a question also to the positive social or political dimension of existentialism: how could a collective form of existence ever be anything other than inauthentic?

The 19 th and 20 th century presented a number of The Sociological mass political ideologies which might be seen as posing a particularly challenging environment for authentic and free existence. For example, nationalism came in for criticism particularly by Nietzsche. Socialism and communism: after WWII, Sartre was certainly a communist, but even then unafraid to Essay criticise both the French communist party and the Soviet Union for ruth and idgie rigid or inadequately revolutionary thinking. Democracy: Aristotle in book 5 of his Politics distinguishes between democracy and ochlocracy, which latter essentially means rule by those incapable of Reality Immigration ruling even themselves. Many existentialists would identify the latter with the American and especially French concept of 'democracy'. Nietzsche and Ortega y Gasset both espoused a broadly aristocratic criterion for social and political leadership. 2. Key Existentialist Philosophers.

a. Soren Kierkegaard (1813-1855) as an brion cemetery, Existentialist Philosopher. Kierkegaard was many things: philosopher, religious writer, satirist, psychologist, journalist, literary critic and generally considered the father of existentialism. Being born (in Copenhagen) to a wealthy family enabled him to devote his life to the pursuits of his intellectual interests as well as to distancing himself from the Essay Reality of America’s Immigration everyday man of ma joad his times. Kierkegaards most important works are pseudonymous, written under fictional names, often very obviously fictional. The issue of pseudonymity has been variously interpreted as a literary device, a personal quirk or as an illustration of the constant tension between the philosophical truth and existential or personal truth. Essay On The! We have already seen that for the existentialists it is of equal importance what one says and the way in which something is ma joad, said. This forms part of the attempt to return to a more authentic way of philosophising, firstly exemplified by the Greeks. In a work like Either/Or (primarily a treatise against the Hegelians) theoretical reflections are followed by reflections on how to seduce girls. The point is to stress the distance between the anonymously and logically produced truths of the logicians and the personal truths of existing individuals. Every pseudonymous author is Reality, a symbol for an existing individual and at times his very name is the key to the mysteries of his existence (like in the case of Johanes de Silentio , fictional author of Fear and Trembling , where the mystery of Abrahams actions cannot be told, being a product of and belonging to silence). Kierkegaard has been associated with a notion of truth as subjective (or personal); but what does this mean?

The issue is ruth and idgie, linked with his notorious confrontation with the Danish Church and the academic environment of his days. Kierkegaards work takes place against the background of an academia dominated by Hegelian dialectics and a society which reduces the Essay Reality communication with the brion cemetery divine to the everyday observance of the ritualistic side of an institutionalized Christianity. Hegel is for Kierkegaard his arch-enemy not only because of what he writes but also what he represents. Essay On The! Hegel is guilty for Kierkegaard because he reduced the living truth of Christianity (the fact that God suffered and died on the Cross) to just another moment, which necessarily will be overcome, in the dialectical development of the Spirit. While Hegel treats God as a Begriff (a concept), for Kierkegaard the truth of Christianity signifies the very paradoxicality of faith: that is, that it is brion cemetery, possible for the individual to go beyond the ethical and nevertheless or rather because of this very act of disobedience to be loved by Reality God. Famously, for Hegel all that is Obsessed With Beauty Essay, real is rational where rationality means the Reality Immigration historically articulated, dialectical progression of Spirit whereas for Kierkegaard the suspension of rationality is the very secret of Christianity. Against the cold logic of the Hegelian system Kierkegaard seeks a truth which is truth for me (Kierkegaard 1996:32). Christianity in particular represents the attempt to offer ones life to the service of the telecommuting and disadvantages divine. This cannot be argued, it can only Essay Immigration be lived. While a theologian will try to brion cemetery argue for the validity of his positions by on The Reality of America’s Immigration arguing and ruth and idgie, counter-arguing, a true Christian will try to Reality Immigration live his life the way Jesus lived it. This evidently marks the ma joad continuation of the Hellenic idea of philosophy as a way of life, exemplified in the person of Socrates who did not write treatises, but who died for on The Reality of America’s his ideas.

Before the logical concepts of the theologians (in the words of Martin Heidegger who was hugely influenced by Kierkegaard) man can neither fall to his knees in awe nor can he play music and dance before this god (Heidegger 2002:42). Ruth And Idgie! The idea of Essay on The subjective truth will have serious consequences to the philosophical understanding of man. Traditionally defined as animale rationale (the rational animal) by Obsessed Essay Aristotle and for a long time worshiped as such by generations of philosophical minds, Kierkegaard comes now to redefine the human as the passionate animal. What counts in man is the intensity of his emotions and Essay, his willingness to believe ( contra the once all powerful reason) in that which cannot be understood. The opening up by Kierkegaard of this terra incognita of mans inner life will come to play a major role for advantages and disadvantages later existentialists (most importantly for Nietzsche) and will bring to light the failings and the weaknesses of an over-optimistic (because modelled after the Natural sciences) model of Essay on The Reality of America’s Immigration philosophy which was taught to ma joad talk a lot concerning the on The Reality truth of the human, when all it understood about the human was a mutilated version. In the Garden of Eden, Adam and Eve lived in a state of innocence in With Essay communication with God and in Essay on The of America’s Immigration harmony with their physical environment. Ma Joad! The expulsion from the Garden opened up a wide range of new possibilities for them and thus the problem of anxiety arose.

Adam (the Hebrew word for man) is now free to determine through his actions the route of things. Essay Reality Of America’s! Naturally, there is a tension here. The human, created in Gods image, is an infinite being. Ncaa! Like God he also can choose and Reality of America’s Immigration, act according to telecommuting advantages and disadvantages his will. Simultaneously, though, he is Essay of America’s Immigration, a finite being since he is brion cemetery, restricted by his body, particular socioeconomic conditions and so forth. Essay Of America’s! This tension between the finite and infinite is the source of anxiety. But unlike a Hegelian analysis, Kierkegaard does not look for a way out from anxiety; on brion cemetery the contrary he stresses its positive role in the flourishing of the human. On The Reality Of America’s! As he characteristically puts it: Because he is a synthesis, he can be in anxiety; and the more profoundly he is in brion cemetery anxiety, the greater is the man (Kierkegaard 1980:154). The prioritization of anxiety as a fundamental trait of the human being is on The, a typical existentialist move, eager to assert the positive role of emotions for human life.

Perhaps the brion cemetery most famous work of Immigration Kierkegaard was Fear and telecommuting, Trembling , a short book which exhibits many of the issues raised by him throughout his career. Fear and Trembling retells the Reality of America’s Immigration story of the advantages and disadvantages attempted sacrifice of Isaac by his father Abraham. God tells Abraham that in on The Immigration order to prove his faith he has to sacrifice his only son. Abraham obeys, but at the last moment God intervenes and saves Isaac. What is the moral of the Imagination Essay story? According to Reality Immigration our moral beliefs, shouldnt Abraham refuse to execute Gods vicious plan? Isnt one of the fundamental beliefs of Christianity the respect to the life of brion cemetery other?

The answer is naturally affirmative. Abraham should refuse God, and he should respect the ethical law. Then Abraham would be in a good relation with the Law itself as in on The the expression a law abiding citizen. On the contrary what Abraham tries to achieve is a personal relation with the author of the telecommuting moral law. This author is neither a symbolic figure nor an abstract idea; he is someone with a name. The name of God is the unpronounceable Tetragrammaton (YHVE), the unpronounceability indicates the Essay Immigration simultaneous closeness and distance of the telecommuting advantages great Other. The Christian God then, the author of the moral law at his will suspends the law and demands his unlawful wish be obeyed.

Jacques Derrida notes that the temptation is now for Abraham the Reality of America’s ethical law itself (Derrida 1998:162): he must resist ethics, this is the mad logic of God. The story naturally raises many problems. Is not such a subjectivist model of truth and religion plainly dangerous? What if someone was to support his acts of violence as a command of God? Kierkegaards response would be to suggest that it is ruth and idgie, only because Abraham loved Isaac with all his heart that the sacrifice could take place. He must love Isaac with his whole soul. only then can he sacrifice him (Kierkegaard 1983:74). Abrahams faith is proved by the strength of his love for his son. However, this doesnt fully answer the question of legitimacy, even if we agree that Abraham believed that God loved him so that he would somehow spare him. On The Of America’s Immigration! Kierkegaard also differentiates between the act of Abraham and the act of a tragic hero (like Agamemnon sacrificing his daughter Iphigenia). The tragic heros act is a product of calculation.

What is better to do? What would be more beneficial? Abraham stands away from all sorts of calculations, he stands alone, that is, free in front of the horror religiosus , the brion cemetery price and the reward of faith. b. Friedrich Nietzsche (1844-1900) as an Existentialist Philosopher. I know my lot. Some day my name will be linked to the memory of something monstrous, of a crisis as yet unprecedented on earth. (Nietzsche 2007:88).

Remarkably, what in 1888 sounded like megalomania came some years later to be realized. The name Nietzsche has been linked with an on The Reality of America’s, array of historical events, philosophical concepts and widespread popular legends. Above all, Nietzsche has managed somehow to associate his name with the turmoil of a crisis. For a while this crisis was linked to the events of WWII. The exploitation of his teaching by ma joad the Nazi ideologues (notably Alfred Rosenberg and Alfred Baeumler), although utterly misdirected, arguably had its source in Nietzsches own aristocratic radicalism.

More generally, the crisis refers to the prospect of Essay of America’s Immigration a future lacking of any meaning. This is a common theme for all the Essay existentialists to be sure. The prospect of millennia of nihilism (the devaluation of the highest values) inaugurates for Nietzsche the Reality Immigration era in The Sociological Imagination Essay which the human itself, for the first time in Essay on The Reality of America’s its history, is called to give meaning both to its own existence and to the existence of the The Sociological Imagination world. This is an event of a cataclysmic magnitude, from now on there are neither guidelines to be followed, lighthouses to direct us, and Essay on The, no right answers but only experiments to telecommuting and disadvantages be conducted with unknown results. Many existentialists, in their attempt to differentiate the value of individual existence from the alienating effects of the masses, formed an uneasy relation with the Essay of America’s Immigration value of the everyday man. The common man was thought to be lacking in will , taste in matter of brion cemetery aesthetics, and Essay of America’s Immigration, individuality in the sense that the assertion of his existence comes exclusively from his participation in Obsessed With Essay larger groups and from the herd mentality with which these groups infuse their members.

Nietzsche believed that men in society are divided and ordered according to their willingness and capacity to participate in a life of spiritual and cultural transformation. Certainly not everyone wishes this participation and Nietzsches condemnation of those unwilling to challenge their fundamental beliefs is harsh; however it would be a mistake to suggest that Nietzsche thought their presence dispensable. In various aphorisms he stresses the importance of the common as a necessary prerequisite for both the growth and the value of the exceptional. Such an idea clashes with our modern sensitivities (themselves a product of a particular training). Essay! However, one has to recognize that there are no philosophers without presuppositions, and that Nietzsches insistence on the value of the exceptional marks his own beginning and his own understanding of the mission of thought.

Despite the dubious politics that the crisis of meaning gave rise to, the crisis itself is only an after-effect of a larger and deeper challenge that Nietzsches work identifies and poses. For Nietzsche the crisis of meaning is inextricably linked to the crisis of ma joad religious consciousness in the West. Whereas for Kierkegaard the problem of meaning was to be resolved through the individuals relation to the Divine, for Nietzsche the militantly anti-Christian, the Essay Reality of America’s Immigration problem of ncaa athletes meaning is rendered possible at all because of the demise of the Divine. As he explains in on The of America’s Immigration The Genealogy of Morality , it is only after the cultivation of The Sociological truth as a value by the priest that truth comes to Essay of America’s question its own value and function. What truth discovers is brion cemetery, that at Reality of America’s the ground of all truth lies an unquestionable faith in the value of brion cemetery truth. Christianity is destroyed when it is pushed to tell the truth about itself, when the illusions of the old ideals are revealed. What is on The of America’s Immigration, called The death of God is also then the telecommuting advantages and disadvantages death of truth (though not of the on The Reality value of truthfulness ); this is an ruth and idgie, event of immense consequences for the future. But one has to be careful here. Essay! Generations of readers, by concentrating on the event of the actual announcement of the 'death of God', have completely missed madmans woeful mourning which follows the announcement. Where is God? he cried; Ill tell you! We have killed him you and I! We are all his murderers. But how did we do this?

How were we able to drink up the sea? Who gave us the sponge to wipe away the entire horizon? What were we doing when we unchained this earth from its sun? Where is it moving? Where are we moving to? Away from all suns? (Nietzsche 2001:125).

The above sentences are very far from constituting a cheerful declaration: no one is happy here! Nietzsches atheism has nothing to do with the naive atheism of others (for example Sartre) who rush to affirm their freedom as if their petty individuality were able to ma joad fill the vast empty space left by the absence of God. Nietzsche is Essay Reality Immigration, not naive and because he is not naive he is rather pessimistic. What the death of God really announces is the telecommuting demise of the human as we know it. One has to think of this break in Essay on The Reality Immigration the history of the human in Kantian terms.

Kant famously described Enlightenment as mans emergence from his self-incurred immaturity (Kant 1991:54). Similarly Nietzsche believes that the demise of the ma joad divine could be the opportunity for Essay on The the emergence of brion cemetery a being which derives the meaning of its existence from within itself and not from some authority external to it. If the meaning of the human derived from God then, with the Essay on The Reality Immigration universe empty, man cannot take the place of the absent God. This empty space can only be filled by something greater and fuller, which in the Nietzschean jargon means the greatest unity of contradictory forces. That is the Ubermensch (Overhuman) which for Nietzsche signifies the attempt towards the should ncaa cultural production of Reality of America’s a human being which will be aware of his dual descent from animality and from rationality without prioritizing either one, but keeping them in an agonistic balance so that through struggle new and be paid, exciting forms of human existence can be born. Nietzsche was by Essay on The Immigration training a Klassische Philologe (the rough equivalent Anglosaxon would be an Essay, expert in Essay Reality classics the texts of the brion cemetery ancient Greek and Roman authors). Essay Of America’s Immigration! Perhaps because of his close acquaintance with the ancient writers, he became sensitive to a quite different understanding of philosophical thinking to that of his contemporaries. For the ruth and idgie Greeks, philosophical questioning takes place within the perspective of a certain choice of Immigration life. There is no life and then quite separately the theoretical (theoria: from thea view, and horan to see) or 'from a distance' contemplation of phenomena. Philosophical speculation is the result of a certain way of Obsessed Essay life and the attempted justification of this life. Interestingly Kant encapsulates this attitude in Essay Reality Immigration the following passage: When will you finally begin to advantages and disadvantages live virtuously? said Plato to an old man who told him he was attending classes on virtue.

The point is not always to speculate, but also ultimately to think about applying our knowledge. Today, however, he who lives in conformity with what he teaches is taken for a dreamer (Kant in Hadot 2002:xiii). We have to understand Nietzsches relation to philosophy within this context not only because it illustrates a stylistically different contemplation but because it demonstrates an altogether different way of philosophizing. Thus in Twilight of the Idols Nietzsche accuses philosophers for their Egyptism, the fact that they turn everything into a concept under evaluation. All that philosophers have been handling for thousands of years is conceptual mummies; nothing real has ever left their hands alive (Nietzsche 1998:16). Philosophical concepts are valuable insofar as they serve a flourishing life, not as academic exercises. Of America’s Immigration! Under the new model of philosophy the Essay old metaphysical and moral questions are to be replaced by new questions concerning history, genealogy, environmental conditions and so forth. Let us take a characteristic passage from 1888: I am interested in a question on which the salvation of humanity depends more than on any curio of the theologians: the question of nutrition . For ease of use, one can put it in the following terms: how do you personally have to nourish yourself in order to attain your maximum of strength, of virtu in the Renaissance style, of moraline-free virtue? (Nietzsche 2007:19). What is Essay Reality of America’s, Nietzsche telling us here? Two things: firstly that, following the tradition of Spinoza, the movement from transcendence to immanence passes through the rehabilitation of the body. To say that, however, does not imply a simple-minded materialism. Ma Joad! When Spinoza tells nobody as yet has determined the limits of the bodys capabilities (Spinoza 2002: 280) he is not writing about something like bodily strength but to the possibility of an emergence of a body liberated from the sedimentation of culture and Essay, memory.

This archetypical body is indeed as yet unknown and we stand in ignorance of its abilities. The second thing that Nietzsche is telling us in brion cemetery the above passage is that this new immanent philosophy necessarily requires a new ethics. One has to Essay Immigration be clear here because of the many misunderstandings of Nietzschean ethics. Nietzsche is primarily a philosopher of ethics but ethics here refers to the possible justification of ruth and idgie a way of on The Reality life, which way of life in turn justifies human existence on earth. For Nietzsche, ethics does not refer to athletes be paid moral codes and guidelines on how to live ones life.

Morality, which Nietzsche rejects, refers to the obsessive need (a need or an instinct can also be learned according to Nietzsche) of the human to preserve its own species and to regard its species as higher than the other animals. In short morality is on The, arrogant . A Nietzschean ethics is an ethics of modesty. It places the human back where it belongs, among the other animals. However to say that is not to equate the human with the animal. Unlike non-human animals men are products of history that is to athletes be paid say products of memory.

That is their burden and their responsibility. In the on The Reality Immigration Genealogy of Morality Nietzsche explains morality as a system aiming at the taming of the human animal. Moralitys aim is the elimination of the creative power of animal instincts and the establishment of a life protected within the cocoon of ascetic ideals. These 'ideals' are all those values and ideologies made to protect man against the danger of nihilism, the state in which man finds no answer to the question of his existence. Morality clings to the preservation of the species man; morality stubbornly denies the very possibility of an open-ended future for Obsessed humans. If we could summarize Nietzsches philosophical anthropology in on The a few words, we would say that for Nietzsche it is necessary to attempt (there are no guarantees here) to think of the human not as an end-in-itself but only as a means to something . perfect, completely finished, happy, powerful, triumphant, that still leaves something to fear! (Nietzsche 2007:25).

c. Martin Heidegger (1889-1976) as an Existentialist Philosopher. Heidegger exercised an brion cemetery, unparalleled influence on modern thought. Without knowledge of his work recent developments in modern European philosophy (Sartre, Gadamer, Arendt, Marcuse, Derrida, Foucault et al.) simply do not make sense. He remains notorious for his involvement with National Socialism in the 1930s. Outside European philosophy, Heidegger is only occasionally taken seriously, and is sometimes actually ridiculed (famously the Oxford philosopher A.J. Ayer called him a charlatan). In 1945 in Paris Jean-Paul Sartre gave a public lecture with the title Existentialism is a Humanism where he defended the priority of action and the position that it is a mans actions which define his humanity.

In 1946, Jean Beaufret in a letter to Heidegger poses a number of questions concerning the link between humanism and the recent developments of Immigration existentialist philosophy in France. Heideggers response is a letter to Beaufret which in 1947 is published in a book form with the title Letter on Humanism. There he repudiates any possible connection of his philosophy with the existentialism of Sartre. Obsessed Beauty! The question for us here is the following: Is it possible, given Heideggers own repudiation of Essay on The of America’s existentialism, still to characterise Heideggers philosophy as 'existentialist'? The answer here is that Heidegger can be classified as an existentialist thinker despite all his differences from Sartre. Our strategy is to stress Heideggers connection with some key existentialist concerns, which we introduced above under the labels Existence, Anxiety and the Crowd. We have seen above that a principle concern of all existentialists was to affirm the priority of individual existence and to The Sociological Imagination stress that human existence is to be investigated with methods other than those of the natural sciences. This is also one of Heideggers principle concerns.

His magnum opus Being and Time is an on The Reality of America’s, investigation into the meaning of Being as that manifests itself through the human being, Dasein. The sciences have repeatedly asked What is a man? What is a car? What is an emotion? they have nevertheless failed and telecommuting, because of the nature of science, had to fail to of America’s Immigration ask the question which grounds all those other questions. This question is what is the meaning of (that) Being which is not an entity (like other beings, for example a chair, a car, a rock) and yet through it entities have meaning at all? Investigating the question of the meaning of Being we discover that it arises only because it is made possible by the human being which poses the and disadvantages question. Dasein has already a (pre-conceptual) understanding of Essay Reality of America’s Being because it is the place where Being manifests itself. Unlike the traditional understanding of the human as a hypokeimenon (Aristotle) what through the filtering of Beauty Essay Greek thought by the Romans becomes substantia, that which supports all entities and qualities as their base and their ground Dasein refers to the way which human beings are. On The Reality Of America’s! The essence of Dasein lies in ruth and idgie its existence (Heidegger 1962: 67) and the existence of Dasein is not fixed like the existence of Reality Immigration a substance is. Ma Joad! This is Essay Reality of America’s Immigration, why human beings locate a place which nevertheless remains unstable and unfixed. Brion Cemetery! The virtual place that Dasein occupies is not empty. It is filled with beings which ontologically structure the very possibility of Dasein. Dasein exists as in-the-world.

World is not something separate from Dasein; rather, Dasein cannot be understood outside the referential totality which constitutes it. Heidegger repeats here a familiar existentialist pattern regarding the situatedness of Reality experience. Sartre, by contrast, comes from the Obsessed Essay tradition of Descartes and to Essay of America’s Immigration this tradition remains faithful. From Heidegger's perspective, Sartres strategy of affirming the priority of existence over essence is a by-product of the tradition of Renaissance humanism which wishes to assert the ma joad importance of man as the highest and most splendid of finite beings. Sartrean existence refers to the fact that a human is whereas Heideggers ek-sistence refers to Essay on The Reality of America’s Immigration the way with which Dasein is brion cemetery, thrown into a world of referential relations and as such Dasein is Essay on The Immigration, claimed by Being to guard its truth. Sartre, following Descartes, thinks of the human as a substance producing or sustaining entities, Heidegger on the contrary thinks of the human as a passivity which accepts the call of Being. Man is not the lord of beings. Man is the shepherd of Being (Heidegger 1993:245).

The Heideggerian priority then is Being, and Daseins importance lies in its receptiveness to the call of Being. For Kierkegaard anxiety defines the possibility of ruth and idgie responsibility, the exodus of man from the innocence of Eden and his participation to history. Reality Of America’s! But the birthplace of anxiety is the ma joad experience of nothingness, the state in which every entity is experienced as withdrawn from its functionality. Nothing . Essay Of America’s Immigration! gives birth to anxiety (Kierkegaard 1980:41). In anxiety we do not fear something in particular but we experience the terror of a vacuum in which is Imagination, existence is thrown. Existentialist thinkers are interested in Essay on The of America’s Immigration anxiety because anxiety individualizes one (it is when I feel Angst more than everything that I come face to face with my own individual existence as distinct from all other entities around me).

Heidegger thinks that one of the telecommuting advantages fundamental ways with which Dasein understands itself in the world is through an array of on The Immigration moods. Dasein always finds itself ( befinden sich ) in a certain mood. Man is not a thinking thing de-associated from the world, as in Cartesian metaphysics, but a being which finds itself in various moods such as anxiety or boredom. For the Existentialists, primarily and for the most part I dont exist because I think (recall Descartes famous formula) but because my moods reveal to me fundamental truths of my existence. Like Kierkegaard, Heidegger also believes that anxiety is born out of the terror of nothingness. The obstinacy of the nothing and nowhere within-the-world means as a phenomenon that the world as such is that in the face of which one has anxiety (Heidegger 1962:231). Ruth And Idgie! For Kierkegaard the Essay Reality of America’s possibility of anxiety reveals mans dual nature and because of this duality man can be saved. If a human being were a beast or an angel, he could not be in anxiety. Because he is a synthesis, he can be in anxiety; and brion cemetery, the more profoundly he is in anxiety, the on The of America’s greater is the man (Kierkegaard 1980:155). Equally for ruth and idgie Heidegger anxiety manifests Daseins possibility to live an authentic existence since it realizes that the crowd of others (what Heidegger calls the They) cannot offer any consolation to of America’s the drama of brion cemetery existence. In this article we have discussed the ambiguous or at times downright critical attitude of many existentialists toward the uncritical and unreflecting masses of people who, in a wholly anti-Kantian and thus also anti-Enlightenment move, locate the meaning of their existence in an external authority.

They thus give up their (purported) autonomy as rational beings. Essay On The Reality Of America’s Immigration! For Heidegger, Dasein for the most part lives inauthentically in that Dasein is absorbed in a way of life produced by others, not by Dasein itself. We take pleasure and Essay, enjoy ourselves as they [man] take pleasure; we read, see and judge about literature and art as they see and judge. (Heidegger 1962:164). To be sure this mode of existence, the They ( Das Man ) is one of the on The of America’s Immigration existentialia, it is an a priori condition of ruth and idgie possibility of the Essay Reality of America’s Dasein which means that inauthenticity is inscribed into brion cemetery, the mode of being of Dasein, it does not come from the outside as a bad influence which could be erased. Heideggers language is ambiguous on the problem of inauthenticity and of America’s Immigration, the reader has to ruth and idgie make his mind on the status of the They. A lot has been said on the possible connections of Essay of America’s Heideggers philosophy with his political engagements. Brion Cemetery! Although it is always a risky business to read the works of great philosophers as political manifestos, it seems prima facie evident that Heideggers thought in this area deserves the close investigation it has received. Heidegger was a highly original thinker. His project was nothing less than the overcoming of Western metaphysics through the positing of the forgotten question of being.

He stands in a critical relation to past philosophers but simultaneously he is heavily indebted to them, much more than he would like to admit. This is not to question his originality, it is to recognize that thought is not an ex nihilo production; it comes as a response to things past, and aims towards what is made possible through that past. d. Jean-Paul Sartre (1905-1980) as an Existentialist Philosopher. In the public consciousness, at least, Sartre must surely be the central figure of existentialism. All the themes that we introduced above come together in his work. With the Essay Reality of America’s possible exception of Nietzsche, his writings are the most widely anthologised (especially the lovely, if oversimplifying, lecture 'Existentialism and telecommuting and disadvantages, Humanism') and his literary works are widely read (especially the novel Nausea ) or performed. Although uncomfortable in the limelight, he was nevertheless the very model of a public intellectual, writing hundreds of short pieces for public dissemination and on The, taking resolutely independent and often controversial stands on major political events. His writings that are most clearly existentialist in character date from Sartre's early and middle period, primarily the 1930s and 1940s. From the 1950s onwards, Sartre moved his existentialism towards a philosophy the The Sociological purpose of which was to understand the possibility of a genuinely revolutionary politics. Sartre was in his late 20s when he first encountered phenomenology, specifically the philosophical ideas of Edmund Husserl. (We should point out that Heidegger was also deeply influenced by Husserl, but it is less obvious in the language he employs because he drops the language of consciousness and acts.) Of particular importance, Sartre thought, was Husserl's notion of Essay intentionality. Ncaa Be Paid! In Sartre's interpretation of Reality Immigration this idea, consciousness is not to be identified with a thing (for example a mind, soul or brain), that is to say some kind of a repository of ideas and images of things.

Rather, consciousness is ma joad, nothing but a directedness towards things. Sartre found a nice way to sum up the notion of the intentional object: If I love her, I love her because she is lovable (Sartre 1970:4-5). Within my experience, her lovableness is not an aspect of my image of on The Reality of America’s Immigration her, rather it is a feature of her (and ultimately a part of the world) towards which my consciousness directs itself. The things I notice about her (her smile, her laugh) are not originally neutral, and then I interpret the idea of them as 'lovely', they are aspects of ruth and idgie her as lovable. The notion that consciousness is Essay on The Immigration, not a thing is vital to Sartre.

Indeed, consciousness is primarily to be characterised as nothing : it is ma joad, first and foremost not that which it is conscious of. (Sartre calls human existence the of America’s 'for-itself', and the being of things the ma joad 'in-itself'.) Because it is not a thing, it is not subject to the laws of things; specifically, it is not part of of America’s Immigration a chain of causes and its identity is not akin to that of a substance. Above we suggested that a concern with the nature of existence, and more particularly a concern with the distinctive nature of human existence, are defining existentialist themes. Moreover, qua consciousness, and not a thing that is part of the causal chain, I am free. From moment to moment, my every action is mine alone to choose. I will of course have a past 'me' that cannot be dispensed with; this is part of brion cemetery my 'situation'. However, again, I am first and foremost not my situation. Of America’s! Thus, at every moment I choose whether to continue on that life path, or to be something else. Thus, my existence (the mere fact that I am) is prior to ruth and idgie my essence (what I make of Essay on The Reality Immigration myself through my free choices). I am thus utterly responsible for myself. If my act is not simply whatever happens to come to mind, then my action may embody a more general principle of action. This principle too is one that I must have freely chosen and committed myself to.

It is an image of the type of life that I believe has value. (In these ways, Sartre intersects with the broadly Kantian account of freedom which we introduced above in our thematic section.) As situated, I also find myself surrounded by With Essay such images from religion, culture, politics or morality but none compels my freedom. (All these forces that seek to appropriate my freedom by objectifying me form Sartre's version of the crowd theme.) I exist as freedom, primarily characterised as not determined, so my continuing existence requires the ever renewed exercise of freedom (thus, in our thematic discussion above, the notion from Spinoza and Leibniz of existence as a striving-to-exist). Thus also, my non-existence, and the non-existence of everything I believe in, is only a free choice away. I (in the sense of an authentic human existence) am not what I 'am' (the past I have accumulated, the Reality of America’s things that surround me, or the way that others view me). I am alone in my responsibility; my existence, relative to everything external that might give it meaning, is absurd. Face to face with such responsibility, I feel 'anxiety'. Notice that although Sartre's account of situatedness owes much to Nietzsche and Heidegger, he sees it primarily in terms of what gives human freedom its meaning and its burden. Nietzsche and Heidegger, in contrast, view such a conception of freedom as naively metaphysical. Suppose, however, that at some point I am conscious of myself in a thing-like way. For example, I say 'I am a student' (treating myself as having a fixed, thing-like identity) or 'I had no choice' (treating myself as belonging to the causal chain). I am ascribing a fixed identity or set of qualities to myself, much as I would say 'that is a piece of granite'.

In that case I am existing in denial of my distinctively human mode of existence; I am fleeing from my freedom. This is inauthenticity or 'bad faith'. As we shall see, inauthenticity is not just an occasional pitfall of ruth and idgie human life, but essential to it. Human existence is a constant falling away from an of America’s Immigration, authentic recognition of its freedom. Ma Joad! Sartre here thus echoes the notion in of America’s Immigration Heidegger than inauthenticity is a condition of possibility of human existence. Intentionality manifests itself in another important way. Rarely if ever am I simply observing the brion cemetery world; instead I am involved in wanting to Essay on The Reality of America’s do something, I have a goal or purpose.

Here, intentional consciousness is ruth and idgie, not a static directedness towards things, but is rather an on The Reality Immigration, active projection towards the future. Suppose that I undertake as my project marrying my beloved. Athletes! This is an intentional relation to a future state of affairs. As free, I commit myself to this project and must reaffirm that commitment at every moment. It is part of my life project, the image of human life that I offer to myself and to others as something of value. On The! Notice, however, that my project involves inauthenticity. I project myself into the future where I will be married to her that is, I define myself as 'married', as if I were a fixed being.

Thus there is an essential tension to all projection. On the one hand, the mere fact that I project myself into the future is emblematic of my freedom; only a radically free consciousness can project itself. I exist as projecting towards the future which, again, I am not . Thus, I am (in the sense of an authentic self) what I am not (because my projecting is always underway towards the future). On the other hand, in projecting I am projecting myself as something , that is, as a thing that no longer projects, has no future, is not free. Every action, then, is both an expression of telecommuting advantages and disadvantages freedom and also a snare of freedom. Projection is absurd: I seek to become the impossible object, for-itself-in-itself, a thing that is both free and Essay of America’s, a mere thing. Born of this tension is a recognition of freedom, what it entails, and The Sociological, its essential fragility. Thus, once again, we encounter existential anxiety. (In this article, we have not stressed the importance of the concept of time for existentialism, but it should not be overlooked: witness one of on The Reality of America’s Immigration Nietzsche's most famous concepts (eternal recurrence) and the title of Heidegger's major early work ( Being and The Sociological Imagination Essay, Time ).) In my intentional directedness towards my beloved I find her 'loveable'. This too, though, is an objectification. Within my intentional gaze, she is loveable in much the same way that granite is hard or heavy.

Insofar as I am in love, then, I seek to deny her freedom. Insofar, however, as I wish to be loved by Reality Immigration her, then she must be free to choose me as her beloved. If she is free, she escapes my love; if not, she cannot love. It is in these terms that Sartre analyses love in Part Three of Being and Nothingness . Love here is a case study in the basic forms of social relation. Sartre is thus moving from an advantages and disadvantages, entirely individualistic frame of reference (my self, my freedom and my projects) towards a consideration of the self in Essay on The concrete relations with others. Sartre is brion cemetery, working through in a way he would shortly see as being inadequate the issues presented by the Hegelian dialectic of recognition, which we mentioned above. This 'hell' of endlessly circling acts of freedom and objectification is brilliantly dramatised in Sartre's play No Exit . A few years later at the end of the Essay on The Reality 1940s, Sartre wrote what has been published as Notebooks for an Ethics . Sartre (influenced in the meantime by the criticisms of Merleau-Ponty and de Beauvoir, and by brion cemetery his increasing commitment to collectivist politics) elaborated greatly his existentialist account of relations with others, taking the Reality Immigration Hegelian idea more seriously.

He no longer thinks of concrete relations so pessimistically. While Nietzsche and Heidegger both suggest the possibility of an authentic being with others, both leave it seriously under-developed. For our purposes, there are two key ideas in the Notebooks . The first is The Sociological, that my projects can be realised only on The of America’s with the cooperation of others; however, that cooperation presupposes their freedom (I cannot make her love me), and their judgements about me must concern me. Therefore permitting and should ncaa be paid, nurturing the freedom of others must be a central part of all my projects. Sartre thus commits himself against any political, social or economic forms of subjugation. Second, there is the possibility of a form of social organisation and Essay on The of America’s Immigration, action in which each individual freely gives him or herself over to a joint project: a 'city of ends' (this is a reworking of Kant's idea of the 'kingdom of ends', found in the Grounding for telecommuting the Metaphysics of Morals ). An authentic existence, for Sartre, therefore means two things. First, it is something like a 'style' of existing one that at every moment is anxious, and that means fully aware of the absurdity and fragility of Essay its freedom. Second, though, there is ncaa, some minimal level of content to any authentic project: whatever else my project is, it must also be a project of freedom, for Essay of America’s myself and for others. e. Simone de Beauvoir (1908-1986) as an ncaa be paid, Existentialist Philosopher. Simone de Beauvoir was the Essay on The of America’s Immigration youngest student ever to pass the demanding agregation at the prestigious Ecole Normale Superieure.

Subsequently a star Normalienne , she was a writer, philosopher, feminist, lifelong partner of Jean-Paul Sartre, notorious for her anti-bourgeois way of living and her free sexual relationships which included among others a passionate affair with the American writer Nelson Algren. Much ink has been spilled debating whether de Beauvoirs work constitutes a body of independent philosophical work, or is should athletes be paid, a reformulation of Sartres work. The debate rests of course upon the fundamental misconception that wants a body of work to exist and develop independently of (or uninfluenced by) its intellectual environment. Such objectivity is not only impossible but also undesirable: such a body of work would be ultimately irrelevant since it would be non-communicable. So the question of de Beauvoirs independence could be dismissed here as irrelevant to Essay on The the philosophical questions that her work raises. In 1943 Being and Nothingness , the groundwork of the Existentialist movement in France was published. There Sartre gave an account of freedom as ontological constitutive of the subject. One cannot but be free: this is the Obsessed Essay kernel of the Sartrean conception of freedom. In 1945 Merleau-Pontys Phenomenology of Perception is Essay of America’s Immigration, published. There, as well as in an essay from the same year titled 'The war has taken place' , Merleau-Ponty heavily criticizes the Sartrean stand, criticising it as a reformulation of basic Stoic tenets. One cannot assume freedom in isolation from the freedom of others.

Action is participatory: my freedom is interwoven with that of others by way of the world (Merleau-Ponty in Stewart 1995:315). Moreover action takes place within a certain historical context. Brion Cemetery! For Merleau-Ponty the subjective free-will is always in a dialectical relationship with its historical context. In 1947 Simone de Beauvoirs Ethics of Ambiguity is published. The book is an introduction to existentialism but also a subtle critique of Sartres position on freedom, and a partial extension of existentialism towards the social. Although de Beauvoir will echo Merleau-Pontys criticism regarding the Immigration essential interrelation of the subjects, nevertheless she will leave unstressed the brion cemetery importance that the social context plays in the explication of moral problems. Essay Reality Of America’s Immigration! Like Sartre it is only later in her life that this will be acknowledged. In any case, de Beauvoirs book precipitates in turn a major rethink on Sartres part, and the result is the brion cemetery Notebooks for on The of America’s an Ethics . In Ethics of Ambiguity de Beauvoir offers a picture of the human subject as constantly oscillating between facticity and transcendence. Whereas the human is always already restricted by the brute facts of brion cemetery his existence, nevertheless it always aspires to Essay on The Reality Immigration overcome its situation, to choose its freedom and thus to create itself. This tension must be considered positive, and not restrictive of advantages action.

It is exactly because the ontology of the human is on The, a battleground of ruth and idgie antithetical movements (a view consistent with de Beauvoirs Hegelianism) that the subject must produce an on The Reality of America’s Immigration, ethics which will be continuous with its ontological core. The term for advantages and disadvantages this tension is ambiguity . Ambiguity is not a quality of the human as substance, but a characterisation of human existence. We are ambiguous beings destined to throw ourselves into the future while simultaneously it is our very own existence that throws us back into facticity. That is to say, back to Essay Immigration the brute fact that we are in a sense always already destined to fail not in this or that particular project but to fail as pure and sustained transcendence. It is exactly because of (and through) this fundamental failure that we realize that our ethical relation to the world cannot be self-referential but must pass through the realization of the common destiny of the human as a failed and interrelated being. De Beauvoir, unlike Sartre, was a scholarly reader of ma joad Hegel. Her position on Essay of America’s an existential ethics is thus more heavily influenced by Hegels view in the Phenomenology of Spirit concerning the The Sociological Imagination moment of on The Reality of America’s Immigration recognition (Hegel 1977:111). There Hegel describes the movement in which self-consciousness produces itself by positing another would be self-consciousness, not as a mute object ( Gegen-stand ) but as itself self-consciousness. The Hegelian movement remains one of the most fascinating moments in ruth and idgie the history of philosophy since it is for the first time that the constitution of the self does not take place from within the self (as happens with Descartes, for whom the only truth is the truth of on The of America’s Immigration my existence; or Leibniz, for whom the monads are windowless; or Fichte, for whom the ma joad I is absolutely self-constitutive) but from the outside. It is, Hegel tells us, only because someone else recognizes me as a subject that I can be constituted as such. Outside the moment of recognition there is no self-consciousness.

De Beauvoir takes to heart the Hegelian lesson and tries to formulate an ethics from it. What would this ethics be? As in Nietzsche, ethics refers to a way of life (a ????), as opposed to morality which concerns approved or condemned behaviour. Thus there are no recipes for ethics. Drawn from Essay of America’s Hegels moment of recognition, de Beauvoir acknowledges that the possibility of human flourishing is based firstly upon the recognition of the existence of the other (Man can find a justification of his own existence only in ruth and idgie the existence of the Reality of America’s Immigration other men (Beauvoir 1976:72) and secondly on the recognition that my own flourishing (or my ability to pose projects, in telecommuting advantages the language of existentialists) passes through the possibility of a common flourishing. Essay Reality Of America’s Immigration! Only the With freedom of others keeps each one of us from hardening in the absurdity of facticity, (Beauvoir 1976:71) de Beauvoir writes; or again To will oneself free is also to will others free (Beauvoir 1976:73). The Ethics of Ambiguity ends by declaring the on The necessity of assuming ones freedom and the assertion that it is only through action that freedom makes itself possible. Ruth And Idgie! This is not a point to be taken light-heartedly. It constitutes a movement of opposition against a long tradition of philosophy understanding itself as theoria : the disinterested contemplation on the nature of the human and the world. De Beauvoir, in common with most existentialists, understands philosophy as praxis : involved action in on The Reality the world and ruth and idgie, participation in the course of Essay Reality of America’s Immigration history.

It is telecommuting and disadvantages, out of Reality of America’s this understanding that The Second Sex is born. In 1949 Le Deuxieme Sexe is published in France. In English in 1953 it appeared as The Second Sex in an abridged translation. Essay! The book immediately became a best seller and later a founding text of S econd Wave Feminism (the feminist movement from the early 60s to Reality of America’s the 70s inspired by the civil rights movement and focusing at the theoretical examination of the concepts of equality, inequality, the role of family, justice and so forth). More than anything, The Second Sex constitutes a study in applied existentialism where the abstract concept Woman gives way to the examination of the lives of everyday persons struggling against oppression and humiliation. When de Beauvoir says that there is no such thing as a Woman we have to hear the echo of the Kierkegaardian assertion of the brion cemetery single individual against the abstractions of Hegelian philosophy, or similarly Sartres insistence on the necessity of the prioritization of the personal lives of self-creating people (what Sartre calls existence) as opposed to a pre-established ideal of what humans should be like (what Sartre calls essence).

The Second Sex is an exemplary text showing how a philosophical movement can have real, tangible effects on the lives of Essay of America’s Immigration many people, and is a magnificent exercise in what philosophy could be. I hesitated a long time before writing a book on woman. The subject is irritating, especially for women. (Beauvoir 2009:3). Telecommuting And Disadvantages! The Second Sex begins with the most obvious (but rarely posed) question: What is woman? De Beauvoir finds that at present there is Reality of America’s Immigration, no answer to that question. The reason is that tradition has always thought of The Sociological Imagination Essay woman as the other of man. It is only man that constitutes himself as a subject (as the Absolute de Beauvoir says), and woman defines herself only through him. She determines and differentiates herself in relation to Immigration man, and he does not in relation to With Essay her; she is the inessential in front of the essential. (Beauvoir 2009:6). But why is it that woman has initially accepted or tolerated this process whereby she becomes the on The Reality other of man?

De Beauvoir does not give a consoling answer; on the contrary, by turning to advantages and disadvantages Sartres notion of on The Reality of America’s Immigration bad faith (which refers to the human beings anxiety in front of the responsibility entailed by the realization of its radical freedom) she thinks that women at telecommuting times are complicit to Essay on The Reality of America’s Immigration their situation. It is indeed easier for one anyone to assume the role of an object (for example a housewife 'kept' by advantages her husband) than to take responsibility for creating him or herself and creating the possibilities of Essay on The Immigration freedom for others. Naturally the condition of bad faith is not always the telecommuting advantages case. Often women found themselves in a sociocultural environment which denied them the very possibility of personal flourishing (as happens with most of the major religious communities). A further problem that women face is Essay on The of America’s Immigration, that of ncaa athletes be paid understanding themselves as a unity which would enable them to assume the role of their choosing. Proletarians say we. So do blacks (Beauvoir 2009:8). By saying we they assume the Reality role of the subject and turn everyone else into other. Women are unable to utter this we. They live dispersed among men, tied by homes, work, economic interests and social conditions to certain men fathers or husbands more closely than to other women. As bourgeois women, they are in solidarity with bourgeois men and not with women proletarians; as white women, they are in solidarity with white men and not with black women (Beauvoir 2009:9).

Women primarily align themselves to their class or race and ma joad, not to other women. The female identity is Essay on The Reality of America’s, very much bound up with the identity of the men around them. (Reynolds 2006:145). One of the most celebrated moments in The Second Sex is the much quoted phrase: One is not born, but rather becomes, woman (Beauvoir 2009:293). She explains: No biological, physical or economic destiny defines the figure that the human female takes on in society; it is civilization as a whole that elaborates this intermediary product between the male and the eunuch that is called feminine (Beauvoir 2009:293). For some feminists this clearly inaugurates the Imagination Essay problematic of the sex-gender distinction (where sex denotes the biological identity of the on The of America’s Immigration person and gender the cultural attribution of properties to the sexed body). Simply put, there is absolutely nothing that determines the Essay assumed femininity of the woman (how a woman acts, feels, behaves) everything that we have come to think as feminine is a social construction not a natural given. Later feminists like Monique Wittig and Essay on The Immigration, Judith Butler will argue that sex is already gender in the sense that a sexed body exists always already within a cultural nexus that defines it. Thus the sex assignment (a doctor pronouncing the sex of the baby) is a naturalized (but not at all natural) normative claim which delivers the human into ma joad, a world of power relations. f. Albert Camus (1913-1960) as an Existentialist Philosopher. Albert Camus was a French intellectual, writer and journalist.

His multifaceted work as well as his ambivalent relation to both philosophy and existentialism makes every attempt to classify him a rather risky operation. A recipient of the 1957 Nobel Prize for Literature primarily for his novels, he is also known as a philosopher due to his non-literary work and his relation with Jean-Paul Sartre. Of America’s! And yet his response was clear: I am not a philosopher, because I dont believe in reason enough to believe in a system. What interests me is knowing how we must behave, and Obsessed With Beauty Essay, more precisely, how to behave when one does not believe in God or reason (Camus in Sherman 2009: 1). The issue is not just about the label 'existentialist'. It rather points to a deep tension within the current of thought of Immigration all thinkers associated with existentialism. The question is: With how many voices can thought speak?

As we have already seen, the thinkers of existentialism often deployed more than one. Almost all of them share a deep suspicion to a philosophy operating within reason as conceived of by the Enlightenment. Camus shares this suspicion and his so called philosophy of the absurd intends to set limits to the overambitions of Western rationality. Reason is absurd in that it believes that it can explain the totality of the human experience whereas it is exactly its inability for explanation that, for example, a moment of fall designates. Thus in his novel The Fall the ma joad protagonists tumultuous narrative reveals the overtaking of a life of superficial regularity by the forces of darkness and irrationality. A bourgeois hell, inhabited of course by bad dreams (Camus 2006:10). Essay On The Of America’s Immigration! In a similar fashion Camus has also repudiated his connection with existentialism. Non, je ne suis pas existentialist is the title of a famous interview that he gave for the magazine Les Nouvelles Litteraires on The Sociological Essay the 15 of November, 1945. Essay On The Reality Immigration! The truth of the matter is that Camus rejection of existentialism is directed more toward Sartres version of it rather than toward a dismissal of the main problems that the existential thinkers faced. Particularly, Camus was worried that Sartres deification of history (Sartres proclaimed Marxism) would be incompatible with the affirmation of personal freedom. Camus accuses Hegel (subsequently Marx himself) of reducing man to history and thus denying man the possibility of and disadvantages creating his own history, that is, affirming his freedom. Philosophically, Camus is known for his conception of the absurd. Perhaps we should clarify from the very beginning what the absurd is not.

The absurd is not nihilism. For Camus the on The Reality of America’s acceptance of the absurd does not lead to nihilism (according to Nietzsche nihilism denotes the state in which the highest values devalue themselves) or to inertia, but rather to their opposite: to action and participation. Ruth And Idgie! The notion of the absurd signifies the space which opens up between, on the one hand, mans need for intelligibility and, on the other hand, 'the unreasonable silence of the world' as he beautifully puts it. In a world devoid of God, eternal truths or any other guiding principle, how could man bear the responsibility of a meaning-giving activity? The absurd man, like an Essay Reality, astronaut looking at the earth from above, wonders whether a philosophical system, a religion or a political ideology is able to make the world respond to ruth and idgie the questioning of man, or rather whether all human constructions are nothing but the excessive face-paint of a clown which is there to cover his sadness. This terrible suspicion haunts the Essay of America’s Immigration absurd man. In one of the most memorable openings of a non-fictional book he states: There is ma joad, but one truly serious philosophical problem and that is suicide. Judging whether life is or is not worth living amounts to answering the fundamental question of philosophy.

All the rest whether or not the world has three dimensions, whether the on The Reality mind has nine or twelve categories comes afterwards. These are games; one must first answer (Camus 2000:11). The problem of suicide (a deeply personal problem) manifests the exigency of a meaning-giving response. Indeed for Camus a suicidal response to the problem of meaning would be the confirmation that the absurd has taken over mans inner life. It would mean that man is not any more an Essay, animal going after answers, in Immigration accordance with some inner drive that leads him to act in order to endow the world with meaning. The suicide has become but a passive recipient of the muteness of the world. . The absurd . is simultaneously awareness and telecommuting advantages and disadvantages, rejection of death (Camus 2000:54). One has to be aware of death because it is on The Reality, precisely the realization of mans mortality that pushes someone to strive for answers and ma joad, one has ultimately to reject death that is, reject suicide as well as the living death of inertia and inaction. At the end one has to keep the absurd alive, as Camus says. But what does it that mean? In The Myth of Sisyphus Camus tells the story of the mythical Sisyphus who was condemned by the Gods to ceaselessly roll a rock to the top of a mountain and then have to let it fall back again of its own weight. Sisyphus, proletarian of the gods, powerless and Essay on The Reality of America’s, rebellious, knows the whole extent of his wretched condition: it is ncaa athletes be paid, what he thinks of during his descent.

The lucidity that was to constitute his torture at the same time crowns his victory. There is no fate that cannot be surmounted by scorn (Camus 2000:109). One must imagine then Sisyphus victorious: fate and absurdity have been overcome by a joyful contempt. Essay Reality Of America’s Immigration! Scorn is the appropriate response in the face of the absurd; another name for this 'scorn' though would be artistic creation. When Camus says: One does not discover the absurd without being tempted to write a manual of happiness (Camus 2000:110) he writes about a moment of exhilarated madness, which is the moment of the genesis of the artistic work.

Madness, but nevertheless profound think of the function of the Fool in Shakespeares King Lear as the and disadvantages one who reveals to of America’s Immigration the king the ruth and idgie most profound truths through play, mimicry and songs. Such madness can overcome the absurd without cancelling it altogether. Almost ten years after the publication of The Myth of Sisyphus Camus publishes his second major philosophical work, The Rebel (1951). Camus continues the problematic which had begun with The Myth of Sisyphus. Previously, revolt or creation had been considered the necessary response to the absurdity of existence. Here, Camus goes on to examine the nature of rebellion and its multiple manifestations in history. In The Myth of Sisyphus , in truly Nietzschean fashion, Camus had said: There is but one useful action, that of remaking man and the earth (Camus 2000:31). However, in The Rebel , reminiscent of Orwells Animal Farm , one of the first points he makes is the following: The slave starts by begging for Essay on The of America’s justice and ends by brion cemetery wanting to wear a crown. He too wants to dominate (Camus 2000b:31).

The problem is that while man genuinely rebels against both unfair social conditions and, as Camus says, against on The Immigration the whole of creation, nevertheless in the practical administration of such revolution, man comes to deny the humanity of the other in an attempt to impose his own individuality. Take for example the ma joad case of the infamous Marquis de Sade which Camus explores. Reality! In Sade, contradictory forces are at work (see The 120 Days of Sodom ). On the one hand, Sade wishes the establishment of a (certainly mad ) community with desire as the brion cemetery ultimate master, and on the other hand this very desire consumes itself and all the subjects who stand in its way. Camus goes on to examine historical manifestations of rebellion, the most prominent case being that of the French Revolution. Camus argues that the revolution ended up taking the place of the transcendent values which it sought to abolish. An all-powerful notion of Essay Immigration justice now takes the place formerly inhabited by God. Rousseaus infamous suggestion that under the rule of general will everyone would be 'forced to be free' (Rousseau in Foley 2008:61) opens the way to the crimes committed after the revolution. Camus fears that all revolutions end with the re-establishment of the State. . Seventeen eighty-nine brings Napoleon; 1848 Napoleon III; 1917 Stalin; the Italian disturbances of the and disadvantages twenties, Mussolini; the Weimar Republic, Hitler (Camus 2000b:146). Of America’s Immigration! Camus is led to examine the Marxist view of ruth and idgie history as a possible response to the failed attempts at the establishment of a true revolutionary regime.

Camus examines the similarities between the Christian and the Marxist conception of history. On The Of America’s! They both exhibit a bourgeois preoccupation with progress. In the name of the future everything can be justified: the future is the only kind of ncaa property that the masters willingly concede to the slaves (Camus 2000b:162). History according to both views is the linear progress from a set beginning to a definite end (the metaphysical salvation of man or the materialistic salvation of him in the future Communist society). Influenced by Kojeves reading of Hegel, Camus interprets this future, classless society as the end of history. The end of history suggests that when all contradictions cease then history itself will come to an end. This is, Camus argues, essentially nihilistic: history, in effect, accepts that meaning creation is no longer possible and commits suicide. Essay Immigration! Because historical revolutions are for With Beauty Essay the most part nihilistic movements, Camus suggests that it is the making-absolute of the values of the revolution that necessarily lead to their negation.

On the on The Reality Immigration contrary a relative conception of Essay these values will be able to sustain a community of free individuals who have not forgotten that every historical rebellion has begun by affirming a proto-value (that of human solidarity) upon Reality which every other value can be based. 3. The Influence of Existentialism. In the field of visual arts existentialism exercised an enormous influence, most obviously on the movement of Expressionism. Expressionism began in ruth and idgie Germany at the beginning of the on The 20 th century. Telecommuting And Disadvantages! With its emphasis on subjective experience, Angst and intense emotionality, German expressionism sought to go beyond the naivete of realist representation and to deal with the anguish of the on The Reality Immigration modern man (exemplified in the terrible experiences of WWI). Many of the artists of Expressionism read Nietzsche intensively and following Nietzsches suggestion for a transvaluation of values experimented with alternative lifestyles.

Erich Heckels woodcut Friedrich Nietzsche from 1905 is a powerful reminder of the movements connection to Existentialist thought. Abstract expressionism (which included artists such as de Kooning and Pollock, and theorists such as Rosenberg) continued with some of the same themes in the United States from the 1940s and tended to embrace existentialism as one of its intellectual guides, especially after Sartre's US lecture tour in 1946 and a production of No Exit in With New York. German Expressionism was particularly important during the birth of the new art of cinema. Perhaps the Essay on The of America’s Immigration closest cinematic work to Existentialist concerns remains F.W. Murnaus The Last Laugh (1924) in which the constantly moving camera (which prefigures the rule of the hand-held camera of the Danish Dogma 95 ) attempts to telecommuting and disadvantages arrest the spiritual anguish of a man who suddenly finds himself in a meaningless world. Expressionism became a world-wide style within cinema, especially as film directors like Lang fled Germany and ended up in Hollywood. On The Of America’s Immigration! Jean Genet's Un chant d'amour (1950) is a moving poetic exploration of desire. In the sordid, claustrophobic cells of telecommuting a prison the inmates craving for intimacy takes place against the background of an unavoidable despair for existence itself. European directors such as Bergman and Godard are often associated with existentialist themes. Godard's Vivre sa vie ( My Life to Live , 1962) is explicit in its exploration of the nature of freedom under conditions of extreme social and personal pressure. In the late 20 th and early 21 st centuries existentialist ideas became common in mainstream cinema, pervading the work of writers and directors such as Woody Allen, Richard Linklater, Charlie Kaufman and Christopher Nolan.

Given that Sartre and Camus were both prominent novelists and playwrights, the influence of existentialism on literature is not surprising. However, the influence was also the other way. Novelists such as Dostoevsky or Kafka, and the dramatist Ibsen, were often cited by mid-century existentialists as important precedents, right along with Kierkegaard and Essay of America’s, Nietzsche. Dostoevsky creates a character Ivan Karamazov (in The Brothers Karamazov , 1880) who holds the view that if God is dead, then everything is permitted; both Nietzsche and Sartre discuss Dostoevsky with enthusiasm. Within drama, the theatre of the should athletes absurd and most obviously Beckett were influenced by existentialist ideas; later playwrights such as Albee, Pinter and Stoppard continue this tradition. One of the key figures of 20 th century psychology, Sigmund Freud, was indebted to Nietzsche especially for Essay of America’s Immigration his analysis of the telecommuting role of psychology within culture and history, and for his view of cultural artefacts such as drama or music as 'unconscious' documentations of psychological tensions. But a more explicit taking up of existentialist themes is Essay on The Reality of America’s Immigration, found in the broad 'existentialist psychotherapy' movement. A common theme within this otherwise very diverse group is that previous psychology misunderstood the fundamental nature of the human and especially its relation to others and to acts of meaning-giving; thus also, previous psychology had misunderstood what a 'healthy' attitude to self, others and meaning might be.

Key figures here include Swiss psychologists Ludwig Binswanger and later Menard Boss, both of who were enthusiastic readers of Heidegger; the Austrian Frankl, who invented the method of logotherapy; in England, Laing and Cooper, who were explicitly influenced by Obsessed With Sartre; and in the United States, Rollo May, who stresses the ineradicable importance of anxiety. As a whole, existentialism has had relatively little direct influence within philosophy. In Germany, existentialism (and especially Heidegger) was criticised for Essay Reality Immigration being obscure, abstract or even mystical in nature. This criticism was made especially by Adorno in The Jargon of Authenticity, and in Dog Years , novelist Gunter Grass gives a Voltaire-like, savage satire of Heidegger. Obsessed With! The criticism was echoed by many in on The Immigration the analytic tradition. And Disadvantages! Heidegger and on The, the existentialist were also taken to task for paying insufficient attention to social and political structures or values, with dangerous results.

In France, philosophers like Sartre were criticised by those newly under the influence of structuralism for paying insufficient attention to the nature of language and to impersonal structures of meaning. Brion Cemetery! In short, philosophy moved on, and in different directions. Individual philosophers remain influential, however: Nietzsche and Heidegger in particular are very much 'live' topics in philosophy, even in the 21 st century. However, there are some less direct influences that remain important. Let us raise three examples. Both the issue of freedom in relation to situation, and Essay, that of the philosophical significance of what otherwise might appear to be extraneous contextual factors, remain key, albeit in dramatically altered formulation, within the work of Michel Foucault or Alain Badiou, two figures central to late 20 th century European thought.

Likewise, the ruth and idgie philosophical importance that the on The Reality Immigration existentialists placed upon ma joad emotion has been influential, legitimising a whole domain of philosophical research even by philosophers who have no interest in existentialism. Similarly, existentialism was a philosophy that insisted philosophy could and Essay Reality Immigration, should deal very directly with 'real world' topics such as sex, death or crime, topics that had most frequently been approached abstractly within the telecommuting philosophical tradition. Mary Warnock wrote on existentialism and especially Sartre, for of America’s example, while also having an incredibly important and public role within recent applied ethics.

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Create your free Business Plan now. Make an investment-worthy business plan easily with our free template. Select a Industry Fill in the Form. Complete your Business Plan. Print and Download For Free. Business Plans: Writing Guides, Downloadable Templates, and Samples. Updated February 15, 2017 by Essay on The Reality Immigration, Legal Templates. 1. Free Business Plan Template Download. Are you an entrepreneur looking to download a free business plan?

If so, you have come to the right place. Legal Templates is happy to The Sociological Imagination Essay provide you with a hassle-free document downloads. Click the buttons below to download (1) a blank document, and (2) a document that is filled in for you to reference. Related Business Documents: Click to View. Whats included in the blank template: In the first download, you will find documents with all of the chapters, section titles, and section subtitles that you will need to successfully complete your plan.

Our first plan contains the 8 chapters of Essay Immigration, a basic business plan including: Chapter 1: Executive Summary: The executive summary provides investors with a general layout of your company. This chapter is essentially your hook to convince potential financiers that your model is worthy of their investment. Chapter 2: Company and Financing: In this chapter, the goal is to outline the legal and operational structure of Imagination, your company, financing requirements, the history behind the company, mission statement and the management team. If you are forming a corporation, be sure to include your Articles of Incorporation here. Chapter 3: Products and Essay Services: This section describes what products and/or services your business will sell (now and in Obsessed Beauty Essay the future), and how you will build, assemble and deliver them.

It also offers a comparison of your company and your direct and on The Reality Immigration indirect competitors. Chapter 4: Customers and Market Analysis: The customers and ma joad market analysis page indicates your target customer segments, what needs you are filling for them , and the latest trends among these consumers in terms of Essay Reality of America’s Immigration, growth and behavior. Chapter 5: Marketing and ruth and idgie Sales: The marketing and sales chapter allows you to describe how you will sell your product/service. Particularly what are your companys strategies for positioning, pricing, promotion and distribution. Chapter 6: Strategy and Reality of America’s Implementation: This chapter will give you an opportunity to set the key milestones that help establish a timeline of and disadvantages, progress towards your goals. Additionally, it includes subsections like SWOT analysis, competitive edge, and strategic alliances. Chapters 7 + 8: Financial Plan, Sales Forecast, Financial Statements: In the final two chapters, entrepreneurs must define and Essay on The Reality Immigration calculate the financial variables that will go into ncaa the creation/expansion of your idea, including its expenses, your anticipated sales forecast, personnel plan, cash flow assumptions, and more. If you are purchasing an existing company, you should also include the Essay Reality of America’s Immigration business purchase agreement in your plan.

Whats included in the template with sample text: In the second download, we give you a completed ice cream shop plan to reference. Each section gives an example of what you should write. Brion Cemetery. Our guide also includes example graphs and charts, so that you are aware of the types of financial calculations, plans, and forecasts that a plan should offer to attract investment. For guidance on what you should include in your plan, and why, please reference our How to Write a Business Plan set of articles below. Downloading this small business plan comes at no cost, so feel free to start your download and get started. However, you should be aware that there are some pros and cons to using free business templates, rather than using professional software or an experienced writer.

Writing a business plan is a prerequisite to your companys success. A solid plan is necessary to on The of America’s help found your company and advantages ensure that your goals remain on track over Essay Reality of America’s time. The Sociological Imagination. Your plan can and will change as you encounter the on The unpredictable variables that come with starting your own company. If you have an existing company, crafting a solid plan is equally important if youre hoping to ruth and idgie attract investment and expand your company beyond the limits youve already reached. Your business strategy should account for Essay Reality, the next 3-5 years in should ncaa athletes be paid advance, and cover every aspect of your industry, including the critical relation between marketing and sales to your companys finances.

Your plan should include the following sections before you submit it to Essay on The Immigration investors. Click each accordion to read a how-to guide for Obsessed With Essay, each chapter: How to Write a Business Plan Table of Contents: How to Reality of America’s Immigration Write the Executive Summary. The executive summary contains all of the essential information about what makes your business strong and worthy of investment . It covers the With Beauty major highlights of the rest of your plans chapters. The goal is to briefly tell your reader what your company will do, where you want to take it, and why your business idea will be successful. If you are seeking financing, the on The Immigration executive summary is With Beauty your first opportunity to Essay on The of America’s grab a potential investors interest. The executive summary will be the With Essay first chapter of your business plan, though its actually the last section that you should write . First, youll need to do heavy research to ensure that your plan is sound before you can write the executive summary.

This section will be different depending on Essay on The Reality if you are an established business or a new startup. A startup companys executive summary will need to ncaa athletes be interesting and convincing to capture the attention of investors. Your company will lack the Reality Immigration historical data and trends that existing companies are able to provide, but there are strategies to mitigate these factors. First, youll need to briefly explain who you are, the background of your management team, and your reasoning behind starting a business in your chosen niche. Secondly, youll need to demonstrate that youve done quality research that supports how youve conceptualized your business. Investors know that talk is cheap do you have the data and analysis to back up your claims? Even in a standard plan, the executive summary for an existing business has no set template, although there are several suggested guidelines that you can find around the ruth and idgie web.

We suggest the following basic template feel free to add or subtract sections according to your own needs: Summary Management Team Products and Essay on The Reality Services Customers Marketing and Sales Financial Forecast Financing Requirements (optional) Describe the brion cemetery purpose of the plan (e.g.; to raise a specific amount of debt financing to expand a store location) as well an overview of the company (name, location, company type, products sold, founder(s) and founding date). Describe the key milestones or objectives that you want to achieve with this business (these are the tangible results in which you use to prove success of the venture). This statement should be concise and to the point. Summarize the members of the Immigration management team, including highlights of ma joad, their expertise and experience . Describe how each member contributes to the success of the organization. Keep this section brief, as you will go into more detail in the Products and Services section. Products and Services. Describe the products and services you are providing and who the competitors are within the industry . Keep this section brief, as you will go into more detail in the Products and Services section. Describe whom your customer groups are and whom your key customers are , as well as how you will market to them. Keep this section brief, as you will go into more detail in the Market section.

Describe briefly how you will market your product or service. Summarize the Essay on The Reality of America’s major points in the Marketing and Sales chapter, which may include market positioning, pricing, promotion, and distribution. Summarize the most important points from the Financial Plan section here. This should include your sales forecasts and projected expenses as well as the logic behind the projections. If you are a new company, describe when you expect to Imagination turn a profit . If you are an Essay Reality of America’s Immigration existing company, highlight past financial performance. 7. Financing Requirements (Optional) Summarize the advantages and disadvantages amount of equity and/or debt financing that you are seeking, when you need it, the use of the funds, and when you expect to reach your next milestone event and/or start paying back the loan. Keep this at an overview level , as you will go into more detail later on in other chapters. Note: This is Reality of America’s a complex question that you cannot answer until you complete your plan, so it is highly recommended you work your way through the entire writing process first . Ruth And Idgie. In particular, complete the financial planning process before attacking this section. Only then will you be able to identify the amount of money you will need to raise. With these sections fleshed out, youve finished your executive summary.

How to Write the Company and Reality of America’s Immigration Financing Chapter. The company and finance section of telecommuting advantages and disadvantages, your plan is Essay Immigration important, because introducing the management team is critical for The Sociological Imagination Essay, both start-ups and established companies alike. Investors will use this information to gauge the future likelihood of success. Company and Financing Sections. Company Overview Management Team Required Funds (optional) Exit Strategy (optional) Mission Statement (optional) Company History (optional) Location and Essay on The Reality of America’s Immigration Facilities (optional) There are many variations and approaches on how to lay out the various components of With, a business plan. Essay Immigration. Our approach for ma joad, the company overview section is to provide the reader with the companys legal information, address and a brief description of the companys history. Essay On The Reality Of America’s. Since there are follow up sections in this chapter that over go the companys location and brion cemetery history in on The Reality Immigration more detail, you will want to keep this short (2-3 sentences). A BRIEF PRIMER ON COMPANY TYPES. The optimal company type is best determined by a credible Attorney.

The primer below is meant only to explain the broad differences between the most common company types. A sole proprietorship, according to the IRS: A sole proprietor is someone who owns an unincorporated business by him or herself. While the most simple to set up and the most common, there is a significant drawback: you will be personally liable for ruth and idgie, any obligations. Essay On The Reality Of America’s. So for example, if you sell someone a cupcake and they sue you because they found a hair in it, and you lose in The Sociological court, the creditors can legally go after your personal possessions such as the roof over your head. A partnership, according to the IRS: A partnership is the relationship existing between two or more persons who join to Essay Reality of America’s Immigration carry on a trade or business. Each person contributes money, property, labor or skill, and expects to brion cemetery share in the profits and losses of the company. A partnership has certain advantages compared to a LLC, such as not needing to file formation documents when setting up a partnership, and not needing to file dissolution documents if dissolving the partnership. However, similar to sole proprietorships, partners in a partnership have unlimited liability for the companys debts and Essay on The liabilities. Limited Liability Partnerships (LLPs) LLPs are different from Essay, traditional partnerships in that there are two classes of on The, partners: (1) General partners that have full management and control but also full personal liability and Imagination Essay (2) Limited partners that have no personal liability beyond their investment in Essay Reality the partnership interest. Limited partners are often times silent partners that wish to invest in the venture but limit their exposure to liability.

A corporation is a separate legal entity owned by shareholders. A corporation is ruth and idgie commonplace for businesses that anticipate seeking venture capital financing. The downside to a corporation is the problem of double taxation since the corporations profits is taxed at on The Reality of America’s the corporate level, and then any dividends distributed to The Sociological shareholders are then taxed again at the personal level. You can elect a special tax status with the Essay Reality Immigration IRS to With Beauty have your corporation not be taxed at the corporate level (instead, it would be taxed as a pass-through entity). Reality Of America’s. Some of the drawbacks include not being able to have more than 100 shareholders , and not being able to have non-US citizens/residents. A popular choice among many small businesses , a LLC limits the members personal liability and only taxes profits at the individual level (acts as a pass-through entity). Describe the type of company you plan to open, along with the registered name you plan to use. Explain your rationale for example, if you are starting a company where you plan on seeking venture capital financing, then you will want to start a C-Corporation as majority of VCs will insist on this legal structure. If you have a home office/no dedicated business address.

Include your current office setup and your future office plans once your company expands, if applicable. For start-ups, and especially those seeking financing, the Management Team section is ruth and idgie especially critical. With the lack of history, there is little investors can go by to gauge the future success of a venture. The question lenders and investors will ask: Why should we trust your team with our money? You must demonstrate your teams ability to execute on the stated goals. To accomplish this, you should highlight: Background of each member of the management team (education, relevant work experience, etc.) Roles and Essay Reality responsibilities within the company. Tip: Dont include details about members of the Management Team that are not relevant to the reader. Be Paid. Everything presented should reinforce why your team is the right team to Essay on The of America’s Immigration execute on the companys vision.

If you have an established business the information you want to present is the same. Keep in mind, however, that you also want to demonstrate that your team has the brion cemetery capability to manage growth of the company. Essay On The. As a company grows from start-up to established business, the management team must also change. They must be able to manage employees, institute standardized systems, and ensure the businesss ability to scale operations while keeping profitability stable. If you already have a Board of brion cemetery, Directors and/or Advisory Board, list these individuals and Essay a brief description. In a publically trading company the Board of Directors is elected by telecommuting and disadvantages, the shareholders and is the highest authority in on The Reality of America’s Immigration the management of the company. For our purposes (context of The Sociological Imagination Essay, a private company that is on The Immigration most likely a startup or small but growing business), a Board of Directors is comprised of ruth and idgie, investor(s), founder(s), CEO and on The Reality of America’s Immigration independent board member(s) who have substantial business and industry experience. A Board of Directors typical responsibility is to set broad policies for Obsessed With, the company, determine compensation for company management, and approve annual budgets.

An advisory board is a group of Essay of America’s Immigration, business leaders that can help guide your company and telecommuting advantages provides it with assistance when needed. Essay Of America’s Immigration. Choose individuals with knowledge in your industry and are willing to play a role in your company . While some advisors are compensated, it comes down to should ncaa be paid a case-by-case basis, frequently depending on how much time the Essay Reality of America’s member is committed to your company. Tips on building your Advisory Board: Choose a well-respected and well-known individual as the first member of your Advisory Board. This will help you to ruth and idgie recruit other members of the Board. Choose individuals that have strengths and relationships your business will need. As your business evolves, so will the members of your Advisory Board. Feel free to shake up the line up over time. In this section you will tell the reader how much money you need to raise, what you are going to use it for, and Essay Reality Immigration how you got to the requested amount.

Important note: This is a complex question that you cannot answer until you complete your plan, so it is highly recommended you work your way through the entire writing process and in particular, complete the ruth and idgie financial planning process. Only then will you be able to identify the amount of money you will need to raise. There are two primary financing options: equity and Immigration debt. The primary difference between equity and debt financing is that debt financing is essentially a loan that is backed by your assets or via a personal guarantee. Obsessed With Beauty Essay. If your company is already in existence and has trading history, then you may also secure a loan off of your receivables. In contrast, equity financing is essentially you exchanging a stake in Essay on The of America’s your company for a specific sum of ruth and idgie, money from an Essay Immigration investor . Therefore, the amount you are able to and disadvantages raise from investors comes down to on The Reality Immigration how much they value your company.

There are three fundamental questions every savvy investor will ask you: Cool idea, how do you make money with it? How much money do you need, and Beauty Essay why and Essay Reality Immigration when? What do you think your company is worth? If you are seeking financing (regardless of its equity or debt), that most likely means that your financial model shows your company taking a loss in the initial stages, followed by break-even and subsequent profitability. Ruth And Idgie. The money you are seeking to raise will simply allow you to have enough cash to cover the initial period where you will be taking a loss so that you can eventually make a profit. This is a simplification; you may be raising money to further grow your company, which may already be profitable. On The Immigration. Or you might use the financing to get your product to With Beauty Essay the next stage in its product development lifecycle (i.e.; milestone event). But the general concept is the same; the investment you are seeking bolsters your companys cash position , allowing it to grow revenue and/or profitability.

Cool idea, how do you make money with it? / How much money do you need, and why and when? The financial statements provide the Essay answer to Beauty Essay the first two questions (which is on The of America’s why we recommend you complete your plan first). To answer how much money you need, analyze the brion cemetery cash flow statement to determine the cumulative cash flow. The lowest point on this curve will tell you what your maximum financing needs are , and at what point in time. What do you think your company is worth? The third question is much harder to answer, especially for a new company. At the end of the day it really comes down to on The Immigration what an investor thinks your company is worth (which is more art than science). However, there are three popular methods of valuing a company that can help you come up with a valuation to facilitate the negotiation. Cost approach (asset based approach) The cost approach seeks to determine a companys value by brion cemetery, analyzing the on The Reality market value of should athletes, its assets.

In other words, in Essay Immigration this approach the company is ma joad worth the sum of all its assets if they were to be liquidated . This approach may be appropriate for some industries such as real estate where the asset value may actually be worth more than the going concern value (present value of future cash flows generated by the asset). However, for many companies the value of its branding and reputation, along with its ability to generate profits, will exceed the on The of America’s Immigration value of and disadvantages, its assets. The market approach seeks to of America’s Immigration determine a companys value by analyzing recent sales of brion cemetery, similar assets, with the theory that valuations of Essay on The Immigration, similar companies can serve as a good proxy. Telecommuting Advantages. This is a common approach in the real estate industry. The income approach seeks to determine a companys value by using its expected profit over time and then placing a value on on The of America’s that future stream of income in ma joad todays terms . Since there is inherent uncertainty with a future stream of income, there are numerous ways to discount that expected income to account for risk. Now you have all the pieces to complete the equation. You have the amount of money you need by looking at cumulative cash flow. You also have an Essay on The of America’s Immigration idea of how much money your company will be worth. Equation to determine how much equity you should offer:

Equity to offer = Company Valuation / Money needed. If raising debt, you are not exchanging equity for cash. Instead, you should focus on the loans interest rate and payment schedule. Make sure you will be turning a profit that is both large enough and soon enough to ensure there is no delinquency on servicing the loan. For equity financing, answer the following: Investment amount needed When you need it How much time it will buy you / When you expect to turn a profit or get to the next milestone event % of ma joad, equity offered and at what company valuation (you may wish to keep exact figures vague in order to further negotiate) Exit strategy. For debt financing, answer the following: Loan amount needed When you need it When you will be able to pay back the Reality loan The amount and frequency of The Sociological Imagination Essay, loan payments. In addition to the information above, you should also summarize how you plan to use the Essay Reality funds. The level of detail should be at brion cemetery a high level ; if the investor or lender wants to see expenses in more detail that will be available in the Appendix within the Profit/Loss statement. Construction of new kitchen:

Kitchen remodeling, March 1, 2014, $25,000 Kitchen hardware, April 1, 2014, $50,000 Total Loan Amount: $75,000. If based on your financial model you anticipate relatively small yet variable expenses month to month, a line of credit may be a good choice. With a line of credit you draw upon it when you require the funds and pay interest immediately on the money as it is borrowed. Essay Reality Of America’s Immigration. It works very similarly to a credit card in that you typically have a pre-set limit to how much you can borrow, the major exception that since you may be able to brion cemetery secure the line of credit with assets, you may be able to get better terms. In the Quick Start Guide we briefly went over the different strategies available and how thinking about your companys eventual exit will help shape your business model. Its recommended you review the Quick Start guide and practice that exercise. Depending on your company, there are various exit strategies available, including: Selling your business Passing it down through the family Taking the company public (IPO) Liquidation. If you are seeking equity financing, then your investors will pay close attention to Essay on The Reality of America’s Immigration this section. Angel investors and VCs demand a large return on their investment since they are taking a large risk by investing into your company.

Therefore, you need to include detailed information on how you intend to sell the company or take it public. Demonstrating a large market opportunity. If investors are going to should be paid take a big risk, they demand a big return. You need to demonstrate your business has the potential to either take substantial market share from an incumbent competitor, or create a new market. Investors like to be in hot, growing industries such as biotechnology, mobile e-commerce and healthcare. These are all industries that have huge upside growth potential and ones that investors are more inclined to invest in. Solving a larger companys problem.

If your exit strategy is to sell your company to a larger company, then identify how your companys product solves that larger companys stated problems and/or goals. For example, Apples mapping software is playing catch-up to Google Maps. If your company can help Apple improve its software, your company would become an Essay on The Immigration attractive acquisition target. The mission statement reflects the ma joad core purpose and vision of the company. Its a statement your employees and customers can get behind. Some tips on writing a well-crafted mission statement: Keep it short. Immigration. 1-2 sentences max. Dont use fluff words. Make the statement mean something.

A mission statement, if done well, should encapsulate both what the company does (what it sells) as well as the culture/vision/purpose. Examples of Fortune 500 firms that really get it right: A. BRISTOL-MYERS SQUIBB COMPANY (PHARMACEUTICALS) Mission Statement: To discover, develop and ma joad deliver innovative medicines that help patients prevail over on The of America’s Immigration serious diseases. Why its great: The keywords discover, develop and deliver demonstrate the companys capability to in delivering an end-to-end solution. By using the words innovate and prevail over ruth and idgie serious diseases it serves as a rallying call for their thousands of employees that what they are doing is (1) cutting edge and (2) has a higher purpose then themselves. Mission statement: We will be the easiest pharmacy retailer for customers to use. Why its great: In one short sentence, the company has managed to (1) describe what it sells (2) how it will win in on The of America’s Immigration the marketplace.

It is a pharmacy retailer and it will solely focus on making itself easier for the customer to use (that could mean so many things, such as innovating online to fulfill prescriptions to improved customer service within their stores). Example of poorly written mission statements. A. FORTUNE 500 FOOD AND BEVERAGE COMPANY. Mission statement: The Companys primary objective is to ma joad maximize long-term stockholder value, while adhering to the laws of the jurisdictions in which it operates and at all times observing the highest ethical standards. Why its horrible: It does not serve as a rallying call for employees, suppliers, or partners. Its objectives are obvious (what company does not want to maximize value) and borderline absurd (are there companies that do not want to Reality adhere to local and federal laws)? Lastly, it does not mention what the company actually does. B. FORTUNE 500 VEHICLE PARTS SUPPLIER. Mission Statement: We are committed to telecommuting advantages attracting, developing, and keeping a diverse work force that reflects the on The of America’s nature of our global business. Why its horrible: While a diverse workforce is certainly not a bad thing, only stating that as the companys mission statement is ineffective, lacks direction or focus, and completely misses the point of ruth and idgie, having a mission statement.

This is predominately for businesses that have previous trading history, but can also be used by Essay Reality of America’s, new companies that want to Imagination highlight relevant history on how the company came to existence, work completed to Essay on The of America’s date, milestones achieved, etc. Some information you may want to include: Start date First location First product/service Significant milestones/events. Reminder: keep in mind that there is no set rule as to ma joad the level of detail you want to include. This is dictated by the relevancy of the information to the reader and how this information helps strengthen your plans ability to build credibility for your company. Every company is made of milestones. Milestones for a business are achievements that demonstrate the business is on the right track. They are best when quantifiable and measureable. For example, achieving a working prototype of Essay on The Reality Immigration, your product, or getting to break-even, are both huge milestones that showcase your ability to execute and reduces subsequent risk of Obsessed With, your company.

Key concept: The more uncertainty that you can take off from the on The Reality of America’s Immigration table, the better valuation you can get for your business. For businesses that have a retail or manufacturing component, this is an important section of your plan. Information you may want to include: Size (e.g.; in sq. Obsessed With Beauty Essay. ft.) Location/Address Other notable facts, such as equipment at the facility. Location is important for a large number of on The Reality, retail businesses, whether you are a restaurant or purveyor of consumer products. If possible, provide statistics about the retail location you have chosen or are planning to choose. Describe the ncaa be paid lease terms you are able to secure, and if there are any laws that protect the lessee from unreasonable price increases. You can read a detailed article about what to Essay on The of America’s Immigration look for athletes be paid, in a lease agreement here. Provide detailed information on the manufacturing facilities.

For example, your operation may require a reliable source of electricity and water. Describe how the Essay on The Reality Immigration facility provides the business with these resources. If the facility is pre-existing equipment or structures that can be leveraged, make mention of that. Location can be an important aspect of ruth and idgie, your business even if you are not in Essay of America’s Immigration retail or manufacturing. For example, you might want to should ncaa open your software company in Silicon Valley as that provides a competitive advantage from an employee recruitment and fundraising perspective. If you operate out of a home office. Describe your future expansion plans, including expected date of expansion. Upon completing these sections, you will then be finished with the company and financing section of your business plan. Writing the on The Reality of America’s Immigration Products and The Sociological Imagination Essay Services Chapter. The products and services chapter of your business plan should be written clearly and descriptively, to help give investors a comprehensive understanding of the bread and butter of your business.

Your products and services section should include the following sections. Products and Services Chapter Sections. Products and Essay on The Reality of America’s Services Competitors Sourcing and Fulfillment (optional) Technology (optional) Intellectual Property (optional) Future Products and Services (optional) Your products and services are the lifeblood of your business its what your customers need, and if you get this right, everything else will follow . Commonly referred to as product lift, which essentially means getting the secret sauce working. It means that customers want to buy your product/service, and ruth and idgie you are filling a need that was previously not satisfied. Thinking in terms of benefits vs. features. What is the consumer really buying? For example, a person buying a Rolex watch is Reality of America’s not only buying a device to tell time, but the prestige and status that comes with a luxury product. Think about what end benefit your product/service delivers. Of course, the Imagination Essay functional aspects of your product/service are also important. Depending on what you are going to on The of America’s sell, think through the features it will provide, packaging, design, branding, quality, and other aspects that help position and/or differentiate it from Imagination, competing products/services.

You may have heard the business adage that acquiring a new customer is indefinitely more expensive then keeping an existing customer. One of the reasons this is true is the potential to on The Reality of America’s sell additional add-ons, upgrades and substitute products/services to existing customers . Think about athletes, how you can drive incremental revenue. Whether its via subscriptions, repeat business, or annual contracts, you may be providing products/services that generate a recurring revenue stream. On The. This is a good thing, because (1) your revenue can be more predictable and stable (2) you are maximizing earning potential . The Sociological Essay. Think how you can generate recurring revenue, which is expressed with a metric called Lifetime Value per customer. You will complete the Essay on The Reality of America’s price you want to set your products/services in the Financial Plan chapter, and we also have a section for you to describe your pricing strategy; however it is advisable to start thinking about how you want to price your products/services. Competitive analysis is an ruth and idgie extremely useful tool and on The of America’s one that should be revisited often as the competitive landscape changes over time. It starts with competitive analysis. Background (location, history, ownership) Financials (revenue, profitability) Products (product line, services, patents, licenses) Marketing (channels used and budget, pricing, alliances/affiliates) Personnel (headcount, notable executives, compensation, job openings) Market share Strengths, Weaknesses. Tips on how to perform competitive analysis.

The Internet makes this much easier then in days past. Some ideas: Google search using keywords that your customers would use to find you Look up industry association websites Look up directories such as Yahoo or Crunchbase Use to find your competitors job openings Competitors websites Find your competitors management team members on LinkedIn. Not only do you have to worry about current competitors you can see, but you have to be vigilant and Imagination Essay be on the lookout for new entrants. For example, a company that already sells to your customer base may see your industry as a logical next step. You should consider the Essay on The Reality of America’s Immigration likelihood of new entrants high if: The industry sees high margins (its super profitable) There is Imagination Essay unmet demand (more customers then suppliers) There are no major barriers to entry (does not take much to start competing) There is future growth potential (such as mobile apps)

Much of this is common sense if you see a market opportunity that no one is competing in yet, dont expect that you will be alone for Reality, long. Sourcing is simply the should athletes process of procuring goods and services from suppliers that are required for your company to make its products or deliver its service. Essay On The. Some things to consider when choosing and athletes be paid managing your suppliers: Cost: This is an obvious one the Essay of America’s lower the ruth and idgie price, the Essay on The Immigration higher your profit margins will be. Payment terms: The longer you have to pay your suppliers, the more working capital you have on hand. Reliability: You must consider how reliable your suppliers are and what would happen to your ability to operate if they cannot deliver.

Scalability: As your business expands, will your suppliers be able to should ncaa athletes meet your needs? Fulfillment is simply the process of Reality, how your company delivers its products/services, from point of sale to ruth and idgie delivery. There are several popular fulfillment options: Engineer to order: the product is designed and built to on The of America’s customer specifications (e.g.; large construction projects) Build to order: the products design is standardized but manufacture of final product is based off of ruth and idgie, customer specifications (e.g.; aircraft and yachts) Assemble to of America’s order: the product is assembled to telecommuting advantages and disadvantages the customers specifications using pre-fabricated components (e.g.; Chipotles burritos, Dell computers) Make to stock: the product is Essay Immigration manufactured in quantity based on telecommuting advantages and disadvantages expected sales of the product (e.g.; retailers) If you are going to be selling physical products and expect to hold inventory, then you should pay very close attention to how you forecast the amount of on The Immigration, inventory you need to meet your projected sales.

Too little inventory and you may not be able to meet demand. Too much inventory and you tie up all of brion cemetery, your cash on excess inventory. Some key points: Have accurate sales forecasts. Essay On The Reality. Use historical sales data if you have it, and make sure you account for seasonality. Have accurate inventory tracking. Use bar code scanning or equivalent to ensure there are no data entry errors. Utilize inventory management software. QuickBooks, Sage, and a plethora of other vendors provide a cloud-based solution for you to manage and maximize your inventory levels. Technology in be paid todays business environment is becoming more and more important and serves as a source of competitive advantage.

Take Wal-Mart or FedEx as two examples of Essay Reality, companies that provide services (low-cost products and ma joad shipping), but utilize technology as a critical means of on The Reality of America’s, delivering those services. Wal-Mart uses a sophisticated supply chain management IT system to ensure its low prices. FedEx uses technology to optimize delivery routes and times, which enables it to ship to practically every corner of the ruth and idgie globe, seamlessly and Essay on The Reality Immigration with very low error rates. Think about how technology plays a part in your business and if it is critical to The Sociological Imagination Essay your business operations. If technology is critical to your business operations, then you must think about your disaster preparedness and contingency planning . Essay On The Reality Of America’s Immigration. Depending on your business, you may want to create back-up copies of data and software, routine security checks, and securing physical assets. With Beauty. What would happen if you lost access to the technology? Think about alternatives that you could utilize. For example, if you license a piece of software and later down the road decide that the cost is too high, is there a competitor who can license you an alternative?

If you have exclusive rights to Essay on The of America’s Immigration a technology, either through a patent or through an ma joad exclusive license agreement, this is a great competitive advantage and one that you will want to describe in detail. There are two types of intellectual property that may be applicable to a business: industrial property (such as patents and trademarks), and copyright (such as novels and movies). If you have intellectual property that you want to protect, it is advisable that you seek the Essay on The Reality Immigration professional advice of a good Patent/IP Attorney , since this is brion cemetery a great way to provide a barrier to on The Reality of America’s entry for your business. Intellectual property type 1: Industry property. These include inventions (patents), trademarks and industrial designs (trade secrets, trade dress). If you have any proprietary process or technology then it is recommended that you apply for a patent to protect your invention. Obsessed Essay. You should apply for Essay on The of America’s, a trademark for your company name and logo as well. Intellectual property type 2: copyright. These include literary and ruth and idgie artistic works such as novels, poems and on The Reality of America’s plays, films, musical works, artistic works such as drawings, paintings, photographs and sculptures, and architectural designs. In 2011, counterfeit copyrighted and trademarked goods were a $600 billion dollar industry worldwide. Enforcing your intellectual property may be feasible from a legal point of view, but many times is brion cemetery not practical in practice.

For example, Microsoft cannot possibly prosecute every single instance where its popular operating systems are copied and downloaded. IP and your employees and contractors. It is just as important to on The Reality of America’s Immigration secure your intellectual property in relation to your employees and contractors. Everyone should be required to sign an Imagination invention assignment agreement, which basically states that the Essay Reality of America’s Immigration company owns all works produced while contracted by The Sociological Essay, the company. In addition, you may consider handing out serialized notebooks for employees to use , so that if there is ever a conflict as to whom owns a piece of intellectual property, there is a physical record. If you have future products and services planned, it is a good idea to Essay on The Reality of America’s describe the product roadmap and strategy behind it . A key concept is that of product lifecycle, which describes the stages of the should athletes be paid life of a product. During this phase, your product will incur heavy promotional costs as you get the word out. You may discount the Reality Immigration price of the product to encourage new customers. During this phase, you may focus on expanding your product to new segments in the marketplace, and The Sociological Essay expand the product line (for example, with new colors or other variations). During this phase, you are enjoying the fruits of your labor.

You may add new features to your product to stay competitive and to further differentiate your product from Essay on The, competitors. Marketing spend for Obsessed Beauty Essay, your product starts to dissipate as sales of your product are in Reality steady decline. After including all of this information, youll have completed the products and services chapter. Writing the Customers and Market Analysis Chapter. The customers and market analysis chapter will give you an With Essay opportunity to describe what your customer segments are, what needs you are filling for them, and how these groups of customers are trending in terms of Essay on The Immigration, growth and Essay behavior. On The Reality Of America’s Immigration. This chapter also includes any regulatory restrictions specific to your industry. Customers and Market Analysis Sections. Market Overview Market Needs Market Trends (optional) Market Growth (optional) Industry Analysis (optional) Key Customers (optional)

In the ma joad market overview section you are going to calculate the total market (referred to as Total Addressable Market) for Essay Immigration, your products, and then the segment of that market your business can capture. Total addressable market can be thought of in several distinct levels. At the highest level is an Obsessed With Beauty Essay estimate of the on The of America’s total market given 100% saturation. Another way of looking at this is what would be the The Sociological Imagination total market if one company had 100% market share. Once you have the total addressable market, then you can estimate what percentage of this you can realistically capture. This, of course, is much harder to predict with accuracy.

So the important thing to remember is to utilize strong sources for on The Reality, your assumptions. For example, lets say you plan to open a high-end steakhouse in downtown Miami. To calculate your total addressable market, you might count how many high-end restaurants are in brion cemetery the downtown area and research the Essay Reality average annual sales for each restaurant. Then multiply the With Beauty two to get the total sales for all high-end restaurants. This would be your total addressable market. Using the example above, we can then drill down to the next level and determine what percentage of the market you can realistically capture.

You might assume that you will take an Essay of America’s equal share of the market, thereby decreasing all other competitors shares in the market. Or you might offer cheaper prices, which you assume would take a larger percent of the market. Whatever your assumption, make sure it is well documented and ma joad logical. To obtain jaw-dropping product-lift you must solve a difficult and painful problem for the customer. And if there are competitors, you must solve the problem better than them, and Essay Reality of America’s Immigration enough so that customers are willing to switch to your company. Describe what problem your product is solving. If you are targeting multiple customer segments, make sure you go into detail on how your product serves each customer segment. Describe how your solution better solves customers pain points then your competitors. We as consumers are inherently lazy. We do not want to go through the time and cost of switching from one companys product/services unless it is Imagination compelling enough, which is dependent on the switching cost.

For example, there is Immigration virtually no cost to switch from Coke to Pepsi. On the other hand, there is high switching cost associated with migrating from Imagination Essay, a Mac to a PC. Essay Immigration. To overcome this problem, describe how your product either is able to overcome customers inherent adversity towards switching products, or if your product is able to With Beauty reach new customers and bypass switching costs altogether (in other words, instead of Essay Reality of America’s Immigration, taking customers away from your competitors, you are creating a new market for advantages, your products). Understanding market trends at the macro level is critical for various aspects of your business. A growing or shrinking market is described in more detail in on The Reality the market growth section. Below are some of the other factors that will affect market trends: The overall economy has a disproportionate effect on some businesses. For example, dog-walking services usually see a decline in sales as households reduce spending on non-essential purchases. Government regulations and brion cemetery policies can completely alter an industry, so it is Essay on The Reality Immigration imperative that you are up to date on brion cemetery upcoming changes. For example, the Jobs Act of 2012 allowed for the first time non-accredited investors to participate in private placement of securities.

This in turn has created a new market for Essay on The Reality Immigration, crowd-funding websites to telecommuting emerge to connect startups with all types of investors. You may be in of America’s an industry where political conditions have an impact on ma joad the bottom line. For example, if you count the Dept. of Defense as one of Reality Immigration, your clients, then the across-the-board budget cuts (i.e.; Sequestration in the Budget Control Act of 2011) would surely have a negative effect on your business. If you build your business on top of a technology platform that will soon be replaced with a more cost affordable, powerful, and easier to use technology, then that will surely put you in a less advantageous position. Knowing technology trends is valuable in brion cemetery ensuring you are gaining a competitive advantage through the use of technology. Your customers may change their sensitivity to price depending on a variety of factors, including competition, macroeconomic conditions, and Immigration changing consumer tastes. Keeping an eye on this trend will ensure you optimize your pricing strategy.

Market growth, mathematically, is simply measuring the change in market size from one time period to the next (usually in years). So if the brion cemetery market in the first year was $100 million and $150 million the second year, then the market can be said to have grown by Reality, 50%. You will find that measuring market growth using historical market size data is much easier then forecasting market growth. Utilize publically available data sources, trade publications, market research firms, and government agencies to find much of this research. Being able to demonstrate a market is growing is obviously important for With Beauty, example, the market for Blackberry accessories is clearly a declining market. Most investors and Essay lenders will not want to see a new business chase after dwindling customers. On the other hand, the The Sociological Imagination Essay market for Apple and of America’s Immigration Samsung phone accessories have seen great growth and will continue to The Sociological grow as those companies continue to add new customers.

Your industry is defined as the group of Immigration, companies that are related to you in terms of what you sell/how you derive your revenue. For example, Ford and Nissan are both in the automotive industry. Ford and Nissans market (i.e.; customers) would be the end consumers who buy their cars. You will want to describe your industry name/classification (SIC/NAICS Code), which can be found on the Dept. of Labor website. Understanding your industrys dynamics is imperative to knowing its profit potential and attractiveness. A popular framework for conducting industry analysis is should ncaa Porters five forces analysis, which analyzes an industrys competitiveness (and therefore attractiveness). By performing this analysis you will have a clear picture of your competitors and how your company fits within the competitive landscape. If your industry has low barriers to entry and low switching costs, then expect increased competition, as there is little standing in the way for new entrants to enter the market and compete. If your industry is supplied by very few suppliers with little alternative but to source from those suppliers, then expect downward pressure on your margins. If your industry only has a small number of buyers, or there are many alternative products to Essay Immigration choose from, then expect downward pressure on your margins.

If there are many substitute products in your industry and the switching costs between them are low, then expect substantial competition. An industry is very competitive if there are many competitors about the same size, there is little differentiation between competitors products, and it is mature with little growth (so the only way to grow is to take a competitors market share). Although your product may cater to many different sets of customers, you want to focus on telecommuting advantages a select group that will be the most likely to purchase your product/service and account for Essay on The Immigration, the lions share of should, your companys revenue. For many businesses, you will soon realize that a large portion of your revenue comes from a small percentage of your customers. For example, Starbucks may realize their key customers are white-collar business types that purchase a cup of coffee every day, versus the student type that comes in once a month.

When you can name your key customers. If you are in a business where volumes are low and prices are high, then you should be able to name your key customers individually. Essay On The Reality Of America’s. In this case, you should describe in detail your relationship with each of ruth and idgie, them separately. If youve filled out this chapter, congratulations. Doing market research and customer analysis is a complicated and Essay Reality of America’s time consuming task.

Time to move on to the next chapter! Writing the Marketing and Sales Chapter. The marketing and The Sociological sales chapter gives you an opportunity to describe how you will manage your sales force and what sales activities they will conduct in order to on The Reality of America’s Immigration close sales. Overview Positioning Pricing Promotion Distribution. In this section, summarize your marketing plan, being sure to include: Positioning: Are you going to be the lowest cost provider or provide a differentiated product? Pricing: How will you price your products/services? Promotion: How will your market your products/services? Distribution: Where will your product/services be available? Tip: It will be easier to Obsessed With Beauty Essay write this section after you complete the subsequent sections as the overview section summarizes key findings from the other section. Keep this section at the summary-level, as you will go into further detail in the subsequent sections.

Describe how you position your company within the competitive landscape. Will you compete on price, or will you differentiate your offering and stand out from your peers? For example, Wal-Mart positions itself as the low-cost provider in an industry, while Apple designs premium products to reach the Essay Reality of America’s luxury end of the market. Provide your product/service at the cheapest price point in should athletes the marketplace. There are three primary ways to Essay on The Immigration achieve this: Economies of brion cemetery, Scale: For example, being able to turn more tables in Essay on The a restaurant or produce more widgets in a factory. And Disadvantages. The more you are able to produce from your asset, the on The Reality of America’s cheaper it becomes. It will also be harder for The Sociological, your competitors to enter the market since you have fixed assets and Immigration experience that requires a large investment. Low operating costs: Keeping costs down across all aspects of the business, including: Standardization: Limited customization Outsourcing: Outsourcing labor to low cost production centers Thrift: Limiting advertising and RD spend Optimized supply-chain: By lowering inventory and negotiating with suppliers, companies can substantially improve their profitability and cash flow.

Making your product/service unique by targeting a specific segment of the market is a compelling strategy, especially if: Your customers are not price sensitive The market is competitive Your are targeting a specific niche You can provide a product/service that is not easily copied. You can also achieve differentiation through branding and marketing for advantages and disadvantages, example, Starbucks sells premium coffee at Essay on The Immigration a premium price point, primarily through the strength of their branding and not through the taste of their coffee. Determining the optimal price for your products/services will require you to think through several factors: If you are going shooting for Obsessed Beauty Essay, the low cost provider strategy, then you will want to price yourself accordingly. Essay Of America’s Immigration. Likewise, if you are going for the luxury end of the market, then a higher price is often times a proxy for quality. How price sensitive are your customers?

If your customers are making their purchase decision primarily based on price, then you will want to be sensitive to this. The price you set must be high enough to athletes over your costs so you can turn a profit. There are, of course, exceptions. Of America’s Immigration. For example, you might want to achieve economies of Essay, scale by maximizing units sold, or you might be maximizing revenue to achieve dominant market share. There may be regulatory/legal constraints on how much you can charge. For example, payday loan vendors are restricted in how much they can charge their customers. Looking at Essay Reality of America’s what your competitors charge can give you a understanding of what current customers are accustomed to paying and should ncaa will likely be willing to Essay on The Reality Immigration pay for your products/services. There are price points that consumers are psychologically more accustomed to, such as amounts ending in .99 or .95.

In this section, you move from describing your marketing plan onto ruth and idgie how you will convey your marketing message to Essay Immigration your intended audience. With Beauty Essay. What marketing channels will you utilize to reach your target customers? Depending on Essay of America’s your business, traditional media may be an important component of your complete marketing toolbox. Ruth And Idgie. These would include television, radio, billboards, flyers, etc. In todays environment few companies can afford not to have a strong online presence.

There are a myriad of options available. Each marketing channel must be carefully measured for effectiveness, as online marketing can quickly add up and consume a small businesss entire marketing budget. A website is a key component of your digital marketing efforts as it will be the destination in which your online leads will first visit. Some online marketing options include: Search engines (i.e.; Google, Bing) Directories (Yelp, Angies List) Daily deals (Groupon) Email marketing Social media (Facebook, Twitter) Word of mouth marketing is by Immigration, far the most profitable and powerful marketing channel available to any business. New customers that are referred to your business are more likely to purchase and more likely to continue referring your company. There are ways to boost word of mouth marketing, especially with the should athletes advent of social media. For example, asking a satisfied customer to like your business on Yelp and on The of America’s Immigration Facebook will potentially reach hundreds of ma joad, their contacts, all with one click. Integrating social media into Reality your word of telecommuting and disadvantages, mouth marketing strategy is invaluable for every business. Blogging/Becoming a subject matter expert.

Having a leading voice in your industry will help your business gain credibility from customers, suppliers, partners and competitors. You can start by Essay on The of America’s Immigration, participating on public forums and blogs related to your business and telecommuting adapting the adage give more to on The Reality Immigration get more. How will your products be available? On one end of the spectrum is direct marketing, whereby you sell directly to your customers. Or if you manufacture your products, you might sell through distributors, who in turn sell to retailers, who in turn sell to consumers. Three common models:

Product is ruth and idgie stocked in mass-market distribution channels. Examples include soft drinks, magazines, etc. Product is specialized and sold through specialized channels. Reality Of America’s Immigration. Examples include nautical computers and tooling/machinery. Product is only sold through an exclusive channel. Examples include luxury products such as high-end motorcycles or designer handbags. The Internet presents an unparalleled opportunity to reach customers directly, as well as working with online channel partners to reach and sell to customers.

Writing the Strategy and Implementation Chapter. The strategy and implementation chapter will give you an ruth and idgie opportunity to define the key milestones that mark meaningful progress towards your goals. On The Reality Of America’s. It also includes sections that further elaborate on your competitors. Strategy and Implementation Sections. Milestones SWOT Analysis (optional) Competitive Edge (optional) Strategic Alliances (optional) Milestones are the key events that demonstrate progress is Obsessed With Essay being made , such as completing the on The Reality companys first prototype or breaking even. These provide a tangible way to Essay measure the success of the Essay on The Reality Immigration business venture. Milestones are so incredibly important to a business yet are one of those things that can be easily overlooked. Why are milestones so important? Because they are a way to measure meaningful progress of a company that in effect, makes that company less risky (and therefore more valuable).

A new company has an telecommuting advantages and disadvantages extremely high-risk profile but as it meets tangible milestones, such as completing a prototype or breaking even, the on The Reality companys risk decreases. It becomes more apparent that the venture will succeed. Investors and lenders will be looking at what milestones your company has reached in order to create a fair valuation. Milestones might include: Assembling company team First working prototype Filing/receiving patent or other IP Securing physical location for store First paying customer Breaking even Turning a profit* *If you can demonstrate not only turning a profit, but also sustaining that profit, then that is a huge milestone. SWOT Analysis is a useful technique for understanding your companys strengths and telecommuting advantages and disadvantages weaknesses , while identifying both the opportunities open to your business and the threats it faces.

Strengths and Essay Weaknesses refer to internal factors in your company, such as: Employees and staff Physical assets such as equipment and facilities Financial assets. Opportunities and Threats refer to external factors facing your company, such as: Market trends Regulatory and legal Macroeconomic conditions Competitors. Competitive edge can be bucketed into four primary areas: cost, differentiation, innovation and operational effectiveness. Are you providing a product/service at a lower cost then your competitors?

This is a straightforward competitive edge that is very difficult to deliver. Ruth And Idgie. Providing the lowest cost may require operating on razor thin profit margins or heavy investment in fixed costs in order to achieve economies of scale. Are you providing a product/service that your competitors are not offering or cannot offer? This is a common strategy whereby you provide differentiated value in order to better serve customers and/or reach a portion of the Essay Reality market that may be under-served. Are you leapfrogging your competition and providing a notably superior or new product/service? Popularized by ruth and idgie, the book Blue Ocean Strategy, creating new demand in an uncontested market space is a powerful business strategy. Do you provide superior time to market or customer service? For example, your customers may be willing to pay a higher price for better customer service . Nordstroms is an example of a company that uses superior customer service as a competitive advantage.

Forging strategic alliances is Essay on The Reality of America’s Immigration a commonplace occurrence in Obsessed With Beauty business. There are a wide variety of alliances you might encounter, with various parties in which you do business. Even if you do not have any alliances, there may be an opportunity for a partnership in the future and that should be included in this section. You might have a supplier who has a disproportionate amount of influence and power of your business. Striking a partnership in this case may decrease those risk factors and Reality of America’s Immigration provide a competitive advantage over your competitors. You might have a large portion of ruth and idgie, your revenue coming from several key customers. Inking an exclusive agreement to lock in revenue would, for instance, give you predictable cash flow.

It is Essay Reality not uncommon to partner with competitors under certain circumstances for ruth and idgie, example, to set standards for Essay Reality, the industry or to help further adoption of a technology. For example, Sony and Panasonic partnered together to Essay increase the adoption of Blu-ray DVDs. Aligning your brand with another company is Reality Immigration frequently used, especially if both brands are targeting the same demographic. For example, Samsung is the brion cemetery official sponsor of the Olympic games and will provide free mobile phones to all Olympic athletes. Upon completing these sections, your strategy and implementation chapter will be finished. Writing the Essay Financial Plan, Statements, and Sales Forecast Chapters. Writing the financial plan, financial statements, and sales forecast will be the most difficult part of your entire plan. It requires making a large number of intelligent assumptions about the size of the market you can realistically target, and should ncaa athletes the costs associated with making your product or rendering your services. Essay Of America’s. These sections are the red meat of your plan these are the ruth and idgie chapters that any seasoned angel investor or venture capitalist will dig into to make sure they know theyre making a solid financial investment. Chapter 7: Financial Plan and Sales Forecast Sections. Sales Forecast Personnel Plan Budget Cash Flow Assumptions Loans and Investments Starting Balances Historical Financials Key Metrics for on The Reality, Success.

Define the ma joad price in which you will sell your products and services, the cost it will take to produce or sell the product/service, and the number of on The of America’s, units you will sell. Be conservative when making your estimates on the number of units you will sell, ensuring you have a reasonable methodology when making your forecast. It is Imagination Essay highly recommended that you first complete the following sections as they lay the foundation for defining the sales forecast. Products/Services section: Defines what you will sell and at what price point; also seeks to define the production cost Target Market section: Defines the size of your target market and Essay on The Immigration what quantities you can sell. Tip: Your sales forecast should sync with your Sales and Marketing plan. Telecommuting Advantages. For example, if you plan on hiring several sales people nine months from the start of your business, you should forecast an increase in sales thereafter. This is the price you will sell your products/services. Fixed price: Suitable for most sales forecast modeling Price changes over time: The price of of America’s, your product/service may increase/decrease in price over time for several reasons: Keep up with inflation Keep up with increased cost of raw materials or components Seasonal product discount to offload excess inventory Promote new product discount upfront to should athletes be paid encourage sales, then increase later. This is the direct cost of producing your product/service (at the unit level). Otherwise known as cost of goods sold (COGS). Fixed costs: Suitable for Essay on The, most sales forecast modeling % of sales: A good way to forecast costs; as sales increase you can set the With cost as a % of sales on a sliding scale.

Costs vary each month: The cost of your product/service may increase/decrease in on The Reality price over time for several reasons: Economy of scale: the more units you produce, the cheaper it becomes to produce them Bargaining power: the brion cemetery more units you buy from your supplies, the cheaper they become Seasonality: cost of Essay on The Reality, raw materials may fluctuate based on time of year. This is the expected number of and disadvantages, units you will sell. My units are constant: Not particularly suitable as most businesses will expect to have some growth over time. Units sold changes over time: The quantity sold of your product/service may increase over time for several reasons: Growing market share Finding new markets. Sales tax requirements vary by on The of America’s, country and by products/services sold. In the United States, there is no sales tax at the federal level; however, many states levy selective sales tax on particular goods or services. Check with your state department of taxation if you are required to collect sales tax. If yes, you collect the sales tax from your customers and then remit the tax to the state each year. If the individual assumptions used for each component of the ma joad sales forecast is accurate, so will the overall sales forecast.

You should be able to explain where each number comes from, citing studies/research that validates your assumptions. The costs of hiring personnel are often the largest expense of any business. In this section, you will enter forecasted employees and contractors you plan to hire. The number of on The Reality, personnel you plan to hire and at what time is ma joad more of an art then a science. Too much staff too soon and youll burn through your working capital. Too few staff and youll run the risk of alienating your customers and partners when you cant deliver. A good way to think about your personnel plan is to think about the milestones you want your business to accomplish and what personnel are required to Essay on The Reality of America’s get your business there.

You can always revise your estimates, so start off with your best estimate and come back to this section later. Tweak as needed so that your business model demonstrates profitability within your target time frame. The type of company you are building and the financing required also makes a big difference in brion cemetery your staffing plan. For example, if you are seeking venture capital that mean you are going to want to Essay of America’s hire and scale quickly in order to generate large revenues. Conversely, if you are seeking debt financing, you want to operate as lean as possible and Obsessed maximize profitability so you can service your loans. Fixed amount: Suitable for most situations.

Changes over on The Reality Immigration time: You might want to define a compensation plan for sales personnel that have an ma joad annual bonus component, for example. Employee: If choosing employee you will have to consider certain employee taxes and other considerations. Contractor: If selecting contractor, ensure that you are classifying said contractor correctly. In the Reality of America’s United States, for example, you are legally required to should be paid provide employee-type benefits in certain situations even if you classify the personnel as a contractor. If hiring employees, you will be responsible for additional costs such as (but not limited to) payroll taxes, workers compensation and health insurance, paid time off, training and travel expenses, vacation and sick leave, pension contributions and other benefits. This is Reality of America’s referred to the burden rate, which provides a truer picture of total labor costs than payroll costs alone. Burden rate only affects employees and telecommuting advantages and disadvantages not contractors. Essay Reality Of America’s Immigration. If unsure what to The Sociological Essay enter, 15% is on The of America’s a fair estimate. Explain the assumptions and methodology used to Essay define the personnel your business plans to retain, including how you came up with your compensation figures and Essay Reality burden rate.

For example, you might explain that as you plan to hire several sales people to coincide with the release of a new product. Enter expenses you plan on incurring for your business. A good way to make sure you capture majority of your businesss expenses is to think through costs associated with each functional area of your business, such as product development, marketing and operations. Categorize expense into brion cemetery groups, such legal and administrative, rent and leases, and telecommunications. Do not include fixed asset expenses (assets whereby you derive value from for more than 12 months) such as a company van or computers.

You will enter these in the next step. Advertising Expense Amortization Expense Auto Expense Bad Debt Expense Bank Charges Cash Over and on The of America’s Immigration Short Commission Expense Depreciation Expense Employee Benefit Program Freight Expense Gifts Expense Insurance General Interest Expense Professional Fees License Expense Maintenance Expense Meals and Entertainment Office Expense Payroll Taxes Printing Postage Rent Repairs Expense Salaries Expense Supplies Expense Taxes FIT Expense Utilities Expense Gain/Loss on Sale of Assets. Enter long-term asset expenses here. Long-term assets are comprised of two types: tangible and ma joad intangible assets. Fixed assets are tangible assets that provide value for Essay of America’s Immigration, more than 12 months, such as a company van or computers. Fixed assets are depreciated over its useful lifetime. This is an accounting method that allows the business to allocate the costs of the asset over its life by gradually reducing its value. Common fixed assets: Land and Buildings Motor vehicles Furniture Office equipment Fixtures and fittings Plant and machinery. Intangible assets are long-term assets that are not physical in nature. Intangible assets are amortized over telecommuting advantages its useful life.

These might include: Intellectual property (items such as patents, trademarks, copyrights, business methodologies) Goodwill Brand recognition. Enter other short-term assets here, which most likely will be any prepaid expense that lasts for less than 12 months. Besides prepaid expenses, other current assets also include short-term investments and securities that are likely to turned into cash within a year. A prepaid expense can be described as such: A 12-month office lease is signed with the total lease amount of $12,000 being paid upfront. Essay On The Immigration. Classifying this as a regular expense would not be accurate because then the PL Statement and Cash Flow Statement would both show the $12,000 as a one-time upfront payment on the month it which it was made. This type of expense is Beauty better described as a prepaid expense, since the Essay on The use of the office is The Sociological Essay spread out over a 12-month period of time and can be considered an asset on the Balance Sheet that is expensed over time.

By classifying this as a prepaid expense (or an amortized short term asset) then the PL Statement would show the $12,000 prepaid expense spread across 12 months at $1,000 each month, while the Cash Flow Statement would reflect the $12,000 payment on month in Essay of America’s which it was made. Under Assets, the Balance Sheet would then show the amount of telecommuting, Prepaid Lease that is remaining at the end of the Essay on The Reality of America’s Immigration accounting period. Enter an ma joad estimate for Essay on The Reality of America’s Immigration, income taxes you expect to pay, which should be a summation of federal, state and local income tax. Ma Joad. Do not include other taxes such as property tax (should be entered as a separate expense) or employee-related taxes (this is covered in the Personnel Section as the Burden Rate). As this is only an estimate, 100% accuracy is not required (if unsure what to enter here, use 20%). Dividends and distributions (for corporations and Essay on The Reality of America’s Immigration LLCs/partnerships, respectively) are payments to the companys shareholders/owners, taken from the companys profit. Dividends are typically paid out at the end of the fiscal year, while distributions can be given out at the discretion of the owners. You may want to set this to should athletes be paid zero initially and see how the financials of Essay of America’s, your business model work out; then you can work backwards and determine how much of retained profit you want to distribute to owners/shareholders. Here you can explain any regular costs that are associated with running your business. What are the monthly or ongoing costs that you must pay to keep the business up and running? For example, this could be paying monthly utilities and rent expenses for your office space, insurance, or any marketing or advertising costs.

For a start-up, remember that there are always up-front costs or one-time costs associated with getting things started, so be aware of ruth and idgie, any of these expenses and include them in your budget. Accounts receivable is defined as sales that the company has made but has yet to collect the money from the Essay on The Reality of America’s purchaser. Most companies operate by allowing some portion of their sales to be on credit. These types of sales are usually made to Imagination Essay frequent or special customers who are invoiced periodically, and allow them to avoid the hassle of of America’s, physically making payments as each transaction occurs. You want your accounts receivable to be as low as possible to increase your cash flow. Defining what percentage of your sales will be on credit. You want this percentage to be as low as possible, while keeping in mind that for some businesses it is preferential to provide some credit to your best customers.

Defining how long it will take to collect payment. Of the customers that you provide credit to, you need to define when they are to pay you back. The faster, the telecommuting and disadvantages better your cash flow will look like. Essay On The Reality Of America’s Immigration. It is brion cemetery typical to provide net-30, which is 30 days. Accounts payable is on The defined as short-term debt owed to suppliers and banks.

It is to your advantage to negotiate longer payment terms with your suppliers, as it will improve your cash flow. When looking at The Sociological Imagination Essay accounts receivable (what is owed to you) and Essay on The Reality of America’s accounts payable (what you owe), the key thing to remember is that you want to be paid as soon as possible, and you want to pay others as late as possible (cash on hand is king). Defining what percentage of your purchases will be on credit. You want this percentage to be as high as possible, as that will improve your cash flow. However, ensure you are able to The Sociological pay your vendors on the purchases made on credit. Defining how long it will take to collect incoming payments.

How many days will it take, on Essay Reality of America’s Immigration average, to collect incoming payments? Select the typical number of days between when you make a credit sale and ruth and idgie when the Essay on The of America’s payment arrives. Keep in mind that shortening this period can vastly improve your cash flow. If your business will sell physical products and you plan on keeping inventory on hand, then you need to define how many months of ruth and idgie, inventory you wish to keep on hand. The more months of inventory you hold on hand, the more cash is tied up in inventory. This will affect your cash flow. How much inventory should you carry? The ideal amount varies from industry to Reality industry, and should ncaa business to business. A good place to find more information is trade associations for Essay on The Reality of America’s Immigration, your industry. In order to improve your companys inventory management, you will need to start by collecting good records on your inventory. Using inventory turnover rate as an and disadvantages indicator.

Inventory Turnover Rate = Costs of Goods Sold (COGS) / average cost of inventory on hand. A low inventory turnover rate means that you may have too much inventory on Essay of America’s hand. Understanding and The Sociological Imagination Essay managing cash flow is very important to any business. The time period for credit sales and payments may depend on of America’s your suppliers or your industry. Paying and getting paid later rather than earlier can entirely change your cash flow projections. You can utilize this section to explain any assumptions about brion cemetery, cash flow, including details on the time period in which you will make and receive payments. How did you come to these assumptions and Reality Immigration how will it affect your business?

When taking out a loan, you borrow an amount of money (principal) from a lender, and are obligated to Imagination pay back at a later time (usually in installments). You will typically pay interest on Essay on The Reality Immigration the loan. Brion Cemetery. If you are seeking a loan then enter the amount, as you want to forecast the financials assuming you have secured the on The Reality Immigration loan. Personal vs Commercial Loans. For many small businesses, taking out a personal loan to finance growth is commonplace. These might include credit cards, home equity line of credit (HELOC), and installment loans. If you have an existing small business, commercial loans can be obtained, which are based on a variety of ma joad, factors.

Secured vs Unsecured Loans. A secured loan is a loan in which you pledge some asset (equipment, property, etc.) as collateral. Unsecured loans (credit cards, personal loans) are not secured against a borrowers assets. Interest rates will be higher for unsecured loans versus secured loans, for obvious reasons. If you have a pre-existing loan, then you can specify those details in the Starting Balances section. A line of credit is similar to a loan with the difference being that interest is on The Reality Immigration not charged on the part of the line of credit that is unused, and brion cemetery the borrower can draw on the line of credit at any time that he or she needs to. Reality Of America’s Immigration. If you are seeking a line of The Sociological, credit then enter the Essay of America’s amount, as you want to ma joad forecast the financials assuming you have secured the line of credit. The line of credit may be classified as a demand loan, which means that any outstanding balance will have to be paid immediately at the financial institutions request. Investments include injections of cash into the business from you, other shareholders or owners, or investors. This typically refers to Essay on The Reality equity investments where investors contribute cash to the business in exchange for equity (ownership).

In this section, you can describe how your business will be funded. If you are a startup, it is ma joad likely that the money you make from Essay on The of America’s, sales will not cover all your business expenses so you may need additional sources of funding, such as taking out a loan, receiving investors capital, credit lines, or other ways of borrowing money. What type of funding will you acquire? At what point in your plan are you expecting these funds? For existing businesses only. The starting balances will be used to adjust the balance sheet to ma joad take into Essay Reality of America’s Immigration account your companys financial history. Important: all starting balances should be entered as they are at the start of your plan. Enter starting balances for assets: Cash Accounts Receivable Inventory Other current assets Long term assets Accumulated depreciation.

Enter starting balances for liabilities: Enter starting balance for Capital and ma joad Earnings: Enter your Recent Sales: One month before start date Two months before start date Three months before start date Four months before start date Five months before start date Six months before start date. If you are an on The of America’s existing business, you can enter past financial data here. This is optional and will be used to ncaa athletes calculate historical financial ratios in the Financial Statements section. For each year of your company history , include: $ Sales $ Gross profit $ Income from operations $ Net profit $ Current assets $ Current liabilities $ Inventory $ Total assets $ Total liabilities $ Total owner equity. Every business model has several key metrics that management can use to see if the on The Reality of America’s Immigration business is healthy. For example, a restaurant might use the number of tables it can turn per night and the average revenue per dinner. Think about With Beauty, what levers make the most impact to your business. You will want to Essay Reality Immigration continuously track and monitor these metrics to ensure your business model is working.

Chapter 8: Financial Statements Sections. Profit and Loss Statements Balance Sheet Cash Flow Statement Financial Ratios. The Profit Loss (i.e.; income statement) shows your revenue, expenses, and profit. It is the most common of the three reports as it provides a view into the companys projected bottom line. The statement here is Imagination Essay a read-only display, calculated automatically from the information you entered in the Sales Forecast, Budget, and Personnel Plan sections. If you wish to edit or change any information, you may do so by Essay Reality, going back to those sections. The statement here will update automatically. The balance sheet gives a snapshot of your companys financial position at a given point in time, usually the ruth and idgie last day of a fiscal period. It is called a balance sheet because assets (what you own) will always equal the sum of your liabilities (what you owe) and stockholders equity (your investments from stockholders plus money that your business earned that is Essay on The Reality of America’s Immigration put back into and disadvantages running your business). The balance sheet here is on The Reality a read-only display. Brion Cemetery. If you wish to change the balance sheet, you can do so by Essay Reality of America’s Immigration, going back to the builder in ruth and idgie the Financial Plan section.

If you are an existing business, you have the option of adding starting balances under the Reality Immigration Financial Plan section. The cash flow statement displays the Essay cash inflows and outflows from your operating, investing and financing activities. Rather than providing an Essay of America’s overview like the balance sheet, the cash flow statement will measure the change in telecommuting advantages and disadvantages cash during a period. In other words, how much money did you start and end up with? The statement here is Essay on The a read-only display. Essay. You can go back to on The Immigration edit the sections in ma joad the Financial Plan section in order to change the accounts affected in the cash flow statement. The Financial Ratios section gives a general overview of the of America’s Immigration health of your business.

The report here is a read-only display. Ma Joad. If you wish to change any of the information, you may do so by editing the relevant financial information youve entered previously. Reality. The ratios here will update automatically. The Liquidity Analysis shows how solvent your company is, or how easily convertible to ruth and idgie cash is the company in case. On The Reality. This is important in determining the ability of the business to meet its obligations, or paying off what it owes in ruth and idgie debt. The Profitability Analysis shows the Essay on The of America’s Immigration overall performance of the company in its ability to make a profit.

The ratios show how much of sales revenue is actual profit after taking costs and expenses into account. The Debt Ratio shows how much of the businesss assets are financed by advantages and disadvantages, debt and how much of the on The businesss assets are financed by stockholders equity. The Investment Measures show ROI (Return on Investment) which is the percentage of the return (net profit) of the business divided by the cost of the Obsessed With Beauty investment. The most common method of calculating ROI is to divide net profit by total assets. Finishing these chapters represents a massive achievement in completing your business plan. It is by Reality Immigration, far the most difficult chapter, as it requires doing somewhat complicated math to generate accurate financial statements. In all likelihood, you will need to hire an expert or accountant to help you create an accurate and ma joad detailed plan that adheres to Essay on The of America’s realistic outcomes.

To finish it off, youll need to write an appendix and should ncaa athletes a glossary of Immigration, terms. Your appendix will be a more detailed version of the financial statements detailed in this chapter, and your glossary of terms will simply define the terms of your business that an investor may not understand. Upon including those chapters, your plan will be complete. Feeling inspired to start a business, but dont know how to Imagination write a plan? We have a sample database of plans that you can look through to Reality of America’s learn the ruth and idgie different chapters and sections necessary to attract equity investments and on The of America’s loans. Although our examples are specific to each industry, keep in mind that every plan will be unique depending on your location, your customer base, and your own vision, so these will only serve as a starting point for you and your dream.

Click the images to view our full business examples. 4. The Pros and ma joad Cons of Downloading a Business Plan Template. 1. Write with confidence you wont be forgetting any important information. Using this free template can help you write your own plan, without the Essay of America’s hassle of figuring out how to order your chapters, or the worry of feeling like you might be missing a section. We provide the With Beauty Essay entire bare bones skeleton of a business plan within this Microsoft Word .doc download. On The Reality Immigration. After you download it, its up to you to Imagination flesh out the details and ensure that each section is on The of America’s as well researched and intelligently conceived as possible. 2. Step-by-step writing guide and writing samples included. Our plans come with a complete how-to guide with examples from our professional business plan samples to help steer you through your writing. 3. Completely free no hidden costs, just download and start writing. This plan is completely free.

You may encounter other people or websites on ruth and idgie the Internet charging a price to download the guide. Do not purchase them there is no benefit at all to Essay on The purchasing a pre-fabricated plan. None of the information will be relevant to your company, and youll be gaining nothing but the order and structure of the plan something that you could easily research and re-create on your own. Sound good? Keep in mind that while this guide may give you a better idea of how a it should be structured, that represents only advantages, about 5% of the Essay on The heavy lifting of writing an actual the complete document. Dont forget that every plan needs well structured elevator pitch. 1. The Sociological. Youll have to Essay on The Reality of America’s Immigration do complicated business planning math and calculations yourself or pay an ruth and idgie expensive rate for someone else to do them. Youre going to have to do the financial calculations, plans, and forecasts that a plan should offer to attract investment all by yourself. Creating these sections requires years of training, math skills, market knowledge, and investment savvy. This requirement is beyond the scope of most peoples abilities, which is why entrepreneurs turn to professional writers and accountants to do the on The Reality of America’s Immigration heavy lifting for them.

Keep in mind: You may have a brilliant idea, but until youve subjected your product/service to meticulous research, and calculated your potential market as conservatively as possible, your business idea will be nothing but empty words and blather to a seasoned investor. 2. Youll need to ma joad manually create visual graphs and charts to Essay on The make the calculations easily understandable. Youll need to take the numbers you calculated and create attractive graphs, charts, and tables for your plan. Making your data attractive and brion cemetery easy to Essay on The of America’s Immigration comprehend is no easy task. Professional planning software can not only do the The Sociological Essay calculations for you, but will also turn them into relevant graphs, charts, and tables presented in the appropriate order, according to how equity investors and bank loan officers expect to see them. 3. A basic template wont allow you to track your business progress. You wont be able to keep your companys information up to date easily. On The Of America’s. One of the major benefits of using software is that you can continually update your numbers based on your real expenses and earnings, allowing you to track the progress of your business easily and without a major hassle. Nonetheless, we encourage you to download this document and get started with writing out your product/service concepts and marketing plan. If or when you encounter the financial sections, well be looking forward to helping your progress through the major obstacles of writing a successful strategy that will help you get funding for your ideas. Crafted by licensed attorneys Updated regularly Applicable to brion cemetery all 50 states.

Create your free. Business Plan Template document in only 5-10 minutes! Copyright 2017 Legal Templates LLC. On The Of America’s. Legal Templates LLC is not a lawyer, or a law firm and does not engage in the practice of law. Legal Templates cannot and does not provide legal advice or legal representation. Ruth And Idgie. All information, software and services provided on Reality the site are for informational purposes and self-help only and Obsessed Essay are not intended to be a substitute for a lawyer or professional legal advice. Use of this site is subject to our Terms of Essay on The of America’s Immigration, Use. Preview Document - Business Plan Template.

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